The Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC was a decisive victory for the Parthian Spahbod Surena over the Roman general Crassus near the town of Carrhae (now the present-day ruins of Harran, Turkey). Year 19 BC was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Year 53 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Marcus Valerius Messalla and Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran Marcus Licinius Crassus ( Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS (ca Publius Crassus, the short form of the name of various Romans all related from the gens Licinius Surena may refer to either a noble family of Parthia also known as the House of Suren, or to a renowned 1st century BCE General Surena who was Year 53 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Consuls Marcus Valerius Messalla and Parthia ( Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was an Iranian civilization situated in the northeastern part of modern Iran Spahbod or Spahbed ( Persian: سپهبد in Modern Persian Sepahbod, is derived from the words Spah سپه army bod Surena may refer to either a noble family of Parthia also known as the House of Suren, or to a renowned 1st century BCE General Surena who was The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a Republican form of government a period which began with the overthrow of the Marcus Licinius Crassus ( Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS (ca Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
At the beginning of 54 BC, Marcus Licinius Crassus had just finished serving his joint-consul year with Pompey. Marcus Licinius Crassus ( Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS (ca Consul (abbrev cos; Latin plural consules) was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /'pɑmpi/ Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir ( Classical Latin abbreviation In late 60 BC, Crassus, Pompey, and newly elected consul Julius Caesar had formed a powerful triumvirate that all but controlled Rome. Year 60 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar. Events By place Rome Gaius Julius Caesar suppressed an uprising and See also the First Triumvirate (Argentina which came to power in 1811 As a part of this elite group, Crassus felt a great desire to add new glory to his name. He had seen no action since his defeat of Spartacus nearly 20 years earlier, and almost none before that with the exception of the battle of the Colline Gate. Spartacus (c 109 BC-71 BC according to Roman historians was a Slave who became the leader (or possibly one of several leaders in the unsuccessful slave The battle of the Colline Gate, fought in November of 82 BC, was the final battle by which Sulla secured control of Rome following the civil war against his rivals  Crassus had been given control of the province of Syria, and felt overshadowed by the conquests of Pompey and Caesar. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Caesar reportedly wrote letters to Crassus urging him to go to war. Many members of the Roman Senate tried to dissuade him from this course of action, but Caesar and Pompey stood firmly behind him and the senate relented.
Crassus arrived in Syria in late 55 BC and immediately set about using his immense wealth to raise an army. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية With the aid of Hellenic settlements in Syria and support from Artavasdes, the Armenian king, Crassus marched on Parthia. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية King Artavasdes II (Արտավազդ Երկրորդ ruled Armenia from 53 to 34 BC Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Artavasdes advised him to take a route through Armenia to avoid the desert, but Crassus refused. In response, the Parthian king Orodes II divided his army and he took most of the soldiers, mainly foot archers with a small amount of cavalry, to punish the Armenians and sent the other half, which were entirely cavalry units, to scout out, delay, and, if possible, destroy Crassus. Orodes II of Parthia (also called Hyrodes) ruled the Parthian Empire from 57 to 38 BC The Cavalry (from French cavalerie) is the second oldest of the Combat Arms, and as Soldiers or Warriors who fought mounted on This Parthian army was under the command of general Surena. Surena may refer to either a noble family of Parthia also known as the House of Suren, or to a renowned 1st century BCE General Surena who was The two armies clashed near the town of Carrhae. Though demoralised by the hot climate, Crassus troops heavily outnumbered the parthians.
|“||Eager to match the military achievements of his two illustrious rivals, Marcus Licinius Crassus led an army into Parthia. Instead of glory, all he found was death. ||”|
A Parthian force of 1,000 cataphracts and 9,000 horse archers under general Surena met the Romans at Carrhae. A cataphract was a form of Heavy cavalry used by nomadic eastern Iranian tribes and dynasties and later Ancient Greeks and Romans. This was not Parthia's main army, which was campaigning in Armenia under Orodes II, but an advance force sent to scout out and delay the Romans, and only defeat them if they were weak enough. Orodes II of Parthia (also called Hyrodes) ruled the Parthian Empire from 57 to 38 BC Crassus immediately formed his legionnaires into a large, hollow square to prevent from being outflanked by the more mobile Parthian forces. Surena covered his cataphracts' armor with cloth, marched his army to in front of the Romans. At a prearranged signal, the cataphracts revealed their shining armor. Surena was impressed by what little effect this had on the Roman army, and judged that the cataphract charge would not be enough to break them at this point. Thus, he sent his horse archers to bombard the Roman legionaries with arrows. However, the legionnaire's large shield, the scutum, protected him well from arrows. Scutum ('skjuːtəm in English pl scuta) is the Latin word for " Shield " although it has in modern times come to be specifically Most of the shots were non-fatal shots on the arm and leg. However, considering the sheer number of arrows fired, the rapid rate of fire of the horse archers, and finally the fact that the arrows were fired from a composite bow, and thus capable of piercing the legionaries armor, the lorica hamata, the barrage must have worn down the Roman lines. A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together usually applied under tension The lorica hamata is a type of mail armour used by the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. To stop the barrage, Crassus sent his 4,000 cavalry, under the leadership of his son Publius, to drive off the horse archers. However, they were engaged by the cataphracts, and the weapons his cavalry employed were not capable of piercing the cataphracts armor. His cavalry was soon surrounded and routed, and his son Publius was killed. Crassus had no idea what had happened as this occurred far away from the legionaries.
The horse archers continued their barrage. When the legionaries attempted to engage the horse archers, they simply retreated, while firing Parthian shots. The Parthian shot was a military tactic employed by the Parthians, an ancient Iranian people. Surena judged the Roman legionaries to be worn down enough and charged with his cataphracts. However, he miscalculated and his cataphracts were driven off. The horse archers resumed their barrage, and their arrow supply was replenished by thousands of arrows brought on camels. This was a crucial factor in the battle, as the horse archer's rapid rate of fire meant they ate up ammunition quickly. Crassus's plan- to have his legionaries endure the archer fire until the horse archers ran out of arrows- was now impossible. After several hours, the legionaries began to collapse from heat exhaustion and thirst as well as to the constant stream of missiles. The Romans were completely surrounded. The cataphracts' charge split the Roman army, and the Roman soldiers began to rout. Crassus was able to withdraw, but he had to leave behind thousands of wounded, who were executed by the Parthians. Surena then offered to have peace negotiations with Crassus. Crassus's men heard of this and threatened to mutiny if Crassus did not accept. Crassus was forced to attend, and he was killed. Molten gold was poured down his throat, and his skull would later be used as a prop in a play. It was one of the greatest defeats Rome would ever suffer, with about 20,000 soldiers dead, and half again as many captured. The Parthians suffered light casualties. 
Rome was humiliated by this defeat, and this was made even worse by the fact that the Parthians had captured several Legionary Eagles. The signa militaria were the Roman military Ensigns or standards The most ancient standard employed by the Romans is said to have been a handful ( maniple  It is also mentioned by Plutarch that the Parthians found the Roman prisoner of war that resembled Crassus the most, dressed him as a woman and paraded him through Parthia for all to see. This, however, could easily be Roman propaganda. Orodes II, with the rest of the Parthian Army defeated the Armenians and captured their country. Orodes II of Parthia (also called Hyrodes) ruled the Parthian Empire from 57 to 38 BC However, Surena's victory envoked the jealousy of the Parthian king, and he ordered Surena's execution. Following Surena's death, Orodes II himself took command of the Parthian army and led an unsuccessful military campaign into Syria. The Battle of Carrhae was one of the first battles between the Romans and Parthians, and essentially destroyed the possibility of the two empires ever having good relations. This battle also created the myth- both in Rome, Parthia, and today- that Rome's legions could not combat the Parthian army. This myth was not dispelled even when the Parthian capital was sacked twice. It was this belief that led Parthia to invade Syria and Armenia several times, usually unsuccessfully.
Gaius Cassius Longinus, a legatus under Crassus, led approximately 10,000 surviving soldiers from the battlefield back to Syria, where he governed as a proquaestor for two years, defending Syria from Orodes II's further attacks. For the Roman consul see Gaius Cassius Longinus (consul 171 BC. A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was a general in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern general officer A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office He would eventually defeat the Parthians and receive praise from Cicero for his victory. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Cassius later played a key role in the conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar in 44 B. C.
The capture of the golden Aquilae (legionary battle standards) by the Parthians was considered a grave moral defeat and evil omen for the Romans. The signa militaria were the Roman military Ensigns or standards The most ancient standard employed by the Romans is said to have been a handful ( maniple It required a generation of diplomacy before the Parthians returned them. Their return was considered a great triumph by Augustus, and celebrated like a military victory.
An important and unexpected implication of this battle was that it opened up the European continent to a new and beautiful material: silk. Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons The Romans who managed to survive the battle reported seeing brilliant, shimmering banners (apparently made of silk) used by the Parthians as they slaughtered the fleeing legions.  Subsequently, interest in Europe grew for this material and trade routes were extended from China to Western Europe. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National This effectively marked the beginnings of the Silk Road, one of the greatest and richest trade routes in history. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the 
The battle is also believed to have eventually led to the first Sino-Roman relations. Sino-Roman relations started first on an indirect basis during the 2nd century BC. According to Pliny, in 53 BC, after losing at the battle of Carrhae, 10,000 Roman prisoners were sent by the Parthians to Margiana to help guard the eastern frontier of the Parthian Empire. Margu (Greek Margiana) was a Satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire mentioned in the Behistun inscriptions of ca The Han Chinese later captured this area and the Roman prisoners were likely among the first Europeans to meet the Chinese directly. The Han Dynasty ( 206 BC–220 AD followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. 
However, the most immediate effect of the battle was that Carrhae was an indirect cause for the fall of the Republic, and the rise of the Empire. At this point it is also worth noting that the Republic as an institution had really ceased functioning with Sulla's first march on Rome in 88 BC, though the loss of Crassus and his legions at Carrhae certainly sped the final collapse of the Republic. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix ( Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX (c  Along with the death of Pompey's wife and Caesar's daughter Julia, Crassus' death left the relationship between Caesar and Pompey as distant and unstable; the first Triumvirate no longer existed. Julia Caesaris ( Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS 83 or 82 BC-54 BC was the daughter of Gaius '''Julius Caesar''' the dictator, by his The triumvirate's balanced structure had helped to prevent a power struggle; but with only two of the generals still alive, conflict was now inevitable. As a result, civil war broke out, Caesar won, and the Republic was permanently tainted, quickly and uncontrollably becoming an autocratic dictatorship.
Lastly, when the Roman empire divided into eastern and western, the eastern half adopted the cataphracts into their legions. Later, when the Eastern Roman Empire became the Byzantine empire, the cataphracts that were used later found their way into middle and western Europe. After years of evolution they eventually became the famous Medieval knights.
The only two ancient records of the battle:
An in-depth description:Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus ( Greek: Μέστριος Πλούταρχος c Plutarch 's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus ( Greek:) (c 155 or 163/164 to after 229 known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio was This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire.