Various batteries (clockwise from bottom left): two 9-volt, two AA, triple AAA, one D, a handheld ham radio battery, a cordless phone battery, a camcorder battery, and one C.

In electronics, a battery is two or more electrochemical cells[1] which store chemical energy and make it available as electrical energy. An electrochemical cell is a device used for generating an Electromotive force ( Voltage) and current from chemical reactions. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός Common usage has evolved to include a single electrical cell in the definition. [2] There are many types of electrochemical cells, including galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles. The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two different metals connected by a Salt bridge or a porous disk between the individual half-cells An electrolytic cell decomposes chemical compounds by means of electrical energy in a process called Electrolysis; the Greek word Lysis means to break up A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device It produces electricity from Fuel (on the Anode side and an oxidant (on the A flow battery is a form of Rechargeable battery in which Electrolyte containing one or more dissolved electroactive species flows through a power cell / reactor A voltaic pile is a set of individual Voltaic cells placed in series [3] A battery's characteristics may vary due to many factors including internal chemistry, current drain and temperature. Electric current is the flow (movement of Electric charge. The SI unit of electric current is the Ampere.

One common division of batteries distinguishes two types: primary (disposable) and secondary (rechargeable). A primary cell is any kind of Electrochemical cell in which the electrochemical reaction of interest is not reversible so used in Disposable See also Rechargeable electricity storage system A rechargeable battery, also known as a storage battery, is a group of two or more secondary Primary batteries are designed to be used once only because they use up their chemicals in an effectively irreversible reaction. Secondary batteries can be recharged because the chemical reactions they use are reversible; they are recharged by running a charging current through the battery, but in an opposite direction to the discharge current. A reversible reaction is a Chemical reaction that results in an equilibrium mixture of Reactants and products. [4] Secondary, also called rechargeable batteries can be charged and discharged many times before wearing out. See also Rechargeable electricity storage system A rechargeable battery, also known as a storage battery, is a group of two or more secondary After wearing out some batteries can be recycled. Battery recycling is a Recycling activity that aims to reduce the number of batteries being disposed as Municipal solid waste. [5]

Although an early form of battery may have been used in antiquity, the modern development of batteries started with the Voltaic pile, invented by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in 1800. The Baghdad Battery is the common name for a number of artifacts created in Mesopotamia, possibly during the Parthian or Sassanid period (the early A voltaic pile is a set of individual Voltaic cells placed in series Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta was a Lombard physicist known especially for the development of the first electric cell in Since then, batteries have gained popularity as they became portable and useful for many purposes. [6] The widespread use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution. Electronic waste, " e-waste " or " Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment " (" WEEE " is a Waste type consisting [7] Many reclamation companies recycle batteries to reduce the number of batteries going into landfills. Battery recycling is a Recycling activity that aims to reduce the number of batteries being disposed as Municipal solid waste. [8]

## History

The modern story of the battery begins in the 1780s with the discovery of "animal electricity" by Luigi Galvani, which he published in 1791. Luigi Galvani was an Italian Physician and Physicist who lived and died in Bologna. [9] He created an electric circuit consisting of two different metals, with one touching a frog's leg and the other touching both the leg and the first metal, thus closing the circuit. In modern terms, the frog's leg served as both electrolyte and detector, and the metals served as electrodes. He noticed that even though the frog was dead, its legs would twitch when he touched them with the metals.

Volta realized that the frog's moist tissues could be replaced by cardboard soaked in salt water, and the frog's muscular response could be replaced by another form of electrical detection. He already had studied the electrostatic phenomenon of capacitance, which required measurements of electric charge and of electrical potential. Capacitance is a measure of the amount of Electric charge stored (or separated for a given Electric potential. Building on this experience Volta was able to detect electric current flow through his system, now called a voltaic cell, or cell for short. The terminal voltage of a cell that is not discharging is called its electromotive force (emf), and has the same unit as electrical potential, named (voltage) and measured in volts, in honor of Volta. Electromotive force ( emf, \mathcal{E} is a term used to characterize electrical devices such as Voltaic cells thermoelectric devices electrical Electrical tension (or voltage after its SI unit, the Volt) is the difference of electrical potential between two points of an electrical The volt (symbol V) is the SI derived unit of electric Potential difference or Electromotive force. In 1799, Volta invented the battery by placing many voltaic cells in series, literally piling them one above the other. Year 1799 ( MDCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a If two or more circuit components are connected end to end like a daisy chain it is said they are connected in series. This Voltaic Pile gave a greatly enhanced net emf for the combination,[10] with a voltage of about 50 volts for a 32-cell pile. A voltaic pile is a set of individual Voltaic cells placed in series [11] In many parts of Europe batteries continue to be called piles.

Unfortunately, Volta did not appreciate that the voltage was due to chemical reactions. He thought that his cells were an inexhaustible source of energy, and that the associated chemical effects (e. g. corrosion) were a mere nuisance, rather than, as Michael Faraday showed around 1830, an unavoidable consequence of their operation. Michael Faraday, FRS ( September 22 1791 – August 25 1867) was an English

While early batteries were of great value for experimental purposes, their limitations made them impractical for a large current drain. Later, starting with the Daniell cell in 1836, batteries provided more reliable currents and were adopted by industry for use in stationary devices, particularly in telegraph networks where they were the only practical source of electricity, since electrical distribution networks did not exist then. The Daniell cell (var sp Daniel cell, also called the gravity cell or crowfoot cell was invented in 1836 by John Frederic Daniell, who was Year 1836 ( MDCCCXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap [12] These wet cells used liquid electrolytes, which were prone to leakage and spillage if not handled correctly. Many used glass jars to hold their components, which made them fragile. These characteristics made wet cells unsuitable for portable appliances. Near the end of the 19th century, the invention of Dry cell batteries, which replaced liquid electrolyte with a paste, made portable electrical devices practical. A dry cell is a galvanic Electrochemical cell with a pasty low-moisture Electrolyte.

The battery has since become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales annually. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States dollar ( sign:$; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been [13]

## How batteries work

Main article: Electrochemical cell
A voltaic cell for demonstration purposes. An electrochemical cell is a device used for generating an Electromotive force ( Voltage) and current from chemical reactions. In this example the two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge separator that permits the transfer of ions, but not water molecules.

A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy. [14] It consists of one or more voltaic cells. Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte. A half cell is a structure that contains a conductive Electrode and a surrounding conductive Electrolyte separated by a naturally-occurring Helmholtz double One half-cell is the positive electrode and the other is the negative electrode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte, which can be either solid or liquid. [15] In many cells, the materials are enclosed in a container, and a separator, which is porous to the electrolyte, which prevents the electrodes from coming into contact.

Each half cell has an electromotive force (or emf), determined by its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior of the cell. The net emf of the battery is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells, as first recognized by Volta. [16] Thus, if the electrodes have emfs $\mathcal{E}_1$ and $\mathcal{E}_2$, then the net emf is $\mathcal{E}_{2}-\mathcal{E}_{1}$. (Hence, two identical electrodes and a common electrolyte give a zero net emf. )

The electrical potential difference, or $\displaystyle{\Delta V_{bat}}$ across the terminals of a battery is known as terminal voltage and is measured in volts. The volt (symbol V) is the SI derived unit of electric Potential difference or Electromotive force. [17] The terminal voltage of a battery that is neither charging nor discharging is called the open-circuit voltage and equals the emf of the battery. Open-circuit voltage or OCV is the difference of electrical potential between two terminals of a device when there is no external load connected i Because of internal resistance[18], the terminal voltage of a battery that is discharging is smaller in magnitude than the open-circuit voltage and the terminal voltage of a battery that is charging exceeds the open-circuit voltage. [19] An ideal battery has negligible internal resistance, so it would always have a terminal voltage of $\mathcal{E}$. This means that to produce a potential difference of 1. 5 V, chemical reactions inside would perform 1. 5 J of work for a charge of 1 C. The joule (written in lower case ˈdʒuːl or /ˈdʒaʊl/ (symbol J) is the SI unit of Energy measuring heat, Electricity The coulomb (symbol C) is the SI unit of Electric charge. It is named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. [17]

The voltage developed across a cell's terminals depends on the chemicals used in it and their respective concentrations. For example, alkaline and carbon-zinc cells both measure approximately 1. 5 volts, due to the energy release of the associated chemical reactions. [20] Because of the high electrochemical potential changes in the reactions of lithium compounds, lithium cells can provide as much as 3 volts or more. Lithium (ˈlɪθiəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Li and Atomic number 3 [21]

## Classification of batteries

### Disposable and rechargeable

From top to bottom: Two button cells, a 9-volt PP3 battery, an AAA battery, an AA battery, a C battery, a D battery, a large 3R12. A watch battery, button cell, silver button cell, or coin cell is a small form-factor battery designed for use in wrist watches pocket A PP3 battery, commonly referred to simply as a "nine-volt battery" is shaped as a rounded rectangular prism and has a nominal output of nine Volts A AAA battery (pronounced "triple A" is a dry cell-type battery commonly used in portable electronic devices A AA battery (double a or /ˈdʌbəl eɪ/ is a dry cell-type battery commonly used in portable Electronic devices C size batteries typically are used in medium-drain applications like toys and musical instruments D batteries are a electrochemical cell typically used in high current drain applications in products with motors radio receivers and transmitters portable entertainment systems

Batteries are usually divided into two broad classes:

• Primary batteries irreversibly (within limits of practicality) transform chemical energy to electrical energy. When the initial supply of reactants is exhausted, energy cannot be readily restored to the battery by electrical means. [22]
• Secondary batteries can be recharged; that is, they can have their chemical reactions reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cell, restoring their original composition. [23]

Historically, some types of primary batteries used, for example, for telegraph circuits, were restored to operation by replacing the components of the battery consumed by the chemical reaction. Secondary batteries are not indefinitely rechargeable due to dissipation of the active materials, loss of electrolyte and internal corrosion.

From a user's viewpoint, at least, batteries can be generally divided into two main types: non-rechargeable (disposable) and rechargeable. A* Disposable Table cloth Cans, Bottles jars Cartons Wrappers and other Food packaging are largely Recyclable See also Rechargeable electricity storage system A rechargeable battery, also known as a storage battery, is a group of two or more secondary Each type is in wide usage, as each has its own advantages and disadvantages. [24]

Disposable batteries, also called primary cells, are intended to be used once and discarded. A primary cell is any kind of Electrochemical cell in which the electrochemical reaction of interest is not reversible so used in Disposable These are most commonly used in portable devices with either low current drain, are only used intermittently, or are used well away from an alternative power source. Primary cells were also commonly used for alarm and communication circuits where other electric power was only intermittently available. Primary cells cannot be reliably recharged, since the chemical reactions are not easily reversible and active materials may not return to their original forms. Battery manufacturers recommend against attempting to recharge primary cells, although some electronics enthusiasts claim it is possible to do so using special types of chargers. [25]

By contrast, rechargeable batteries or secondary cells can be recharged by applying electrical current, which reverses the chemical reactions that occur during its use. See also Rechargeable electricity storage system A rechargeable battery, also known as a storage battery, is a group of two or more secondary A chemical reaction is a process that always results in the interconversion of Chemical substances The substance or substances initially involved in a chemical reaction are called Devices to supply the appropriate current are called chargers or rechargers.

The oldest form of rechargeable battery still in modern usage is the "wet cell" lead-acid battery. A wet cell is a galvanic Electrochemical cell with a liquid Electrolyte. Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French Physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of Rechargeable battery. [26] This battery is notable in that it contains a liquid in an unsealed container, requiring that the battery be kept upright and the area be well ventilated to ensure safe dispersal of the hydrogen gas produced by these batteries during overcharging. Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 The lead-acid battery is also very heavy for the amount of electrical energy it can supply. Despite this, its low manufacturing cost and its high surge current levels make its use common where a large capacity (over approximately 10Ah) is required or where the weight and ease of handling are not concerns.

A common form of lead-acid battery is the modern wet-cell car battery. A car battery is a type of Rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an Automobile. This can deliver approximately 10,000 watts of power over a short period and has a peak current output that varies from 450 to 1100 amperes. The watt (symbol W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one Joule of energy per Second. The ampere, in practice often shortened to amp, (symbol A is a unit of Electric current, or amount of Electric charge per second An improved type of liquid electrolyte battery is the sealed valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery, popular in the automotive industry as a replacement for the lead-acid wet cell, as well as in many lower capacity roles including smaller vehicles and stationary applications such as emergency lighting and alarm systems. VRLA stands for valve regulated lead acid and is the designation for low maintenance lead-acid batteries, also called recombinant batteries An emergency light is a battery-backed lighting device that comes on automatically when a building experiences a Power outage or in the event of fire "Silent alarm" redirects here For the album see Silent Alarm (album. The one-way pressure activated valve eliminates electrolyte evaporation while allowing out-gassing to prevent rupture. This greatly improves resistance to damage from vibration and heat. VRLA batteries have the electrolyte immobilized, usually by one of two means:

• Gel batteries (or "gel cell") contain a semi-solid electrolyte to prevent spillage.
• Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) batteries absorb the electrolyte in a special fiberglass matting

Other portable rechargeable batteries include several "dry cell" types, which are sealed units and are therefore useful in appliances such as mobile phones and laptop computers. A laptop computer, also known as a notebook computer, is a small Personal computer designed for mobile use. Cells of this type (in order of increasing power density and cost) include nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-Ion) cells. In Engineering, the term specific power can refer to power either per unit of Mass, Volume or Area, although power per unit of The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd and ˈnɑɪˌkæd "nye-cad" is a type of Rechargeable battery using Nickel oxide hydroxide A nickel-metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH, is a type of Rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium ( Ni[[Cadmium Cd]] battery Lithium-ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion batteries) are a type of Rechargeable battery in which a Lithium ion moves between the Anode

Recent developments include batteries with embedded functionality such as USBCELL, with a built-in charger and USB connector within the AA format, enabling the battery to be charged by plugging into a USB port without a charger,[27] and low self-discharge (LSD) mix chemistries such as Hybrio,[28] ReCyko,[29] and Eneloop,[30] where cells are precharged prior to shipping. The low self-discharge NiMH battery ( LSD NiMH) was introduced in November 2005.

#### Disposable

Not designed to be rechargeable - sometimes called "primary cells". "Disposable" may also imply that special disposal procedures must take place for proper disposal according to regulation, depending on battery type.

• Zinc-carbon battery: mid cost, used in light drain applications. A Zinc-carbon Dry cell or battery is packaged in a Zinc can that serves as both a container and anode
• Zinc-chloride battery: similar to zinc-carbon but slightly longer life.
• Alkaline battery: alkaline/manganese "long life" batteries widely used in both light-drain and heavy-drain applications. Alkaline batteries are a type of disposable battery dependent upon the reaction between Zinc and Manganese (IV oxide ( Zn / Mn[[Oxygen
• Silver-oxide battery: commonly used in hearing aids, watches, and calculators. A silver oxide battery (IEC code S also known as a silver–zinc battery, is a Primary cell (although it may be used as a Secondary cell with an
• Lithium-Thionyl Chloride battery: used in industrial applications, including computers, electric meters and other devices which contain volatile memory circuits and act as a "carryover" voltage to maintain the memory in the event of a main power failure. Lithium batteries are not to be confused with lithium-ion batteries which are high energy-density rechargeable batteries Lithium batteries are Other applications include providing power for wireless gas and water meters. The cells are rated at 3. 6 Volts and come in 1/2AA, AA, 2/3A, A, C, D & DD sizes. They are relatively expensive, but have a long shelf life, losing less than 10% of their capacity in ten years. [31]
• Mercury battery: formerly used in digital watches, radio communications, and portable electronic instruments. A mercury battery (also called mercuric oxide battery, or mercury cell) is a non-rechargeable electrochemical battery, a Primary cell. Manufactured only for specialist applications due to toxicity. Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism
• Zinc-air battery: commonly used in hearing aids. Zinc-air batteries (non-rechargeable and zinc-air Fuel cells (mechanically-rechargeable are electro-chemical batteries powered by the Oxidation A hearing aid is an electroacoustic body-worn apparatus which typically fits in or behind the wearer's Ear, and is designed to amplify and modulate sounds
• Thermal battery: high-temperature reserve. Molten salt batteries are a class of Primary cell and Secondary cell high temperature Electric battery that use Molten salts as an Electrolyte Almost exclusively military applications.
• Water-activated battery: used for radiosondes and emergency applications. A Water-activated battery is a disposable battery that does not contain an Electrolyte and hence produces no Voltage until it is soaked in Water A radiosonde ( Sonde is French for Probe) is a unit for use in Weather balloons that measures various atmospheric parameters
• Nickel Oxyhydroxide battery: Ideal for applications that use bursts of high current, such as digital cameras. They will last two times longer than alkaline batteries in digital cameras. [32]
• Paper battery: In August 2007, a research team at RPI (led by Drs. A paper battery is a battery engineered to use a paper-thin sheet of Cellulose (which is the major constituent of regular paper among other things infused with aligned Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a Nonsectarian private Research University located in Troy, New York Robert Linhardt, Pulickel M. Ajayan, and Omkaram Nalamasu) developed a paper battery with aligned carbon nanotubes, designed to function as both a lithium-ion battery and a supercapacitor, using ionic liquid, essentially a liquid salt, as electrolyte. Pulickel Madhavapanicker Ajayan (പുളിക്കല്‍ മാധവപ്പണിക്കര്‍ അജയന്‍) known as P Electric double-layer capacitors, also known as supercapacitors, electrochemical double layer capacitors ( EDLCs) or ultracapacitors An ionic liquid is a liquid that contains essentially only ions Some ionic liquids such as Ethylammonium nitrate are in a dynamic equilibrium where at any time more Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants An electrolyte is any substance containing free Ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium The sheets can be rolled, twisted, folded, or cut into numerous shapes with no loss of integrity or efficiency, or stacked, like printer paper (or a voltaic pile), to boost total output. A voltaic pile is a set of individual Voltaic cells placed in series As well, they can be made in a variety of sizes, from postage stamp to broadsheet. A postage stamp is an adhesive paper evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services Broadsheet is the largest of the various Newspaper formats and is characterized by long vertical pages (typically 22 inches or more Their light weight and low cost make them attractive for portable electronics, aircraft, and automobiles, while their ability to use electrolytes in blood make them potentially useful for medical devices such as pacemakers. For other uses see Pacemaker (disambiguation A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker In addition, they are biodegradable, unlike most other disposable cells. Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by the enzymes produced by living organisms [33][34]

#### Rechargeable

A rechargeable lithium polymer Nokia mobile phone battery. Nokia Corporation (pronunciation /'nɔkiɑ/),,) is a Finnish multinational Communications Corporation, headquartered

Also known as secondary batteries or accumulators. See also Rechargeable electricity storage system A rechargeable battery, also known as a storage battery, is a group of two or more secondary A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or (rechargeable battery by forcing an Electric current through it The National Electrical Manufacturers Association has estimated that U. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association or NEMA is a U S. demand for rechargeables is growing twice as fast as demand for non-rechargeables. [35] There are a few main types:

• Nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd): Best used for motorized equipment and other high-discharge, short-term devices. The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd and ˈnɑɪˌkæd "nye-cad" is a type of Rechargeable battery using Nickel oxide hydroxide NiCd batteries can withstand even more drain than NiMH; however, the mAh rating is not high enough to keep a device running for very long, and the memory effect is far more severe. Memory effect, also known as lazy battery effect or battery memory, is an effect observed in nickel cadmium Rechargeable batteries that causes them to [36]
• Nickel-metal hydride battery (NiMH): Best used for high-tech devices. A nickel-metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH, is a type of Rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium ( Ni[[Cadmium Cd]] battery NiMH batteries can last up to four times longer than alkaline batteries because NiMH can withstand high current for a long while. [37]
• Lithium ion battery: commonly used in digital cameras. Lithium-ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion batteries) are a type of Rechargeable battery in which a Lithium ion moves between the Anode Sometimes used in watches and computer clocks. Very long life (up to ten years in wristwatches) and capable of delivering high currents but expensive. Will operate in sub-zero temperatures.
• Rechargeable alkaline battery: Uses similar chemistry as non-rechargeable alkaline batteries and are best suited for similar applications. Rechargeable alkaline battery is a type of Alkaline battery that is Rechargeable. [38] Additionally, they hold their charge for years, unlike NiCd and NiMH batteries. However drain/charging pattern can greatly affect their efficacy and lifespan.
• LiFeP as used in the OLPC laptop.

##### Flow batteries

Flow batteries are a special class of rechargeable battery where additional quantities of electrolyte are stored outside the main power cell of the battery, and circulated through it by pumps or by movement. A flow battery is a form of Rechargeable battery in which Electrolyte containing one or more dissolved electroactive species flows through a power cell / reactor An electrolyte is any substance containing free Ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium [39] Flow batteries can have extremely large capacities and are used in marine applications and are gaining popularity in grid energy storage applications. Grid energy storage is used to manage the flow of electrical energy

Zinc-bromine[39] and vanadium redox batteries are typical examples of commercially available flow batteries. The zinc-bromine flow battery is a type of hybrid flow battery The vanadium redox (and redox flow battery in its present form (with sulfuric acid electrolytes was patented by the University of New South Wales in Australia in 1986.

Almost any liquid or moist object that has enough ions to be electrically conductive can serve as the electrolyte for a cell. As a novelty or science demonstration, it is possible to insert two electrodes made of different metals into a lemon,[40] potato,[41] et cetera and generate small amounts of electricity. A lemon battery is a device used in an Experiment proposed in many science textbooks around the world The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae "Two-potato clocks" are also widely available in hobby and toy stores; they consist of a pair of cells, each consisting of a potato (lemon, et cetera) with two electrodes inserted into it, wired in series to form a battery with enough voltage to power a digital clock. [42] Homemade cells of this kind are of no real practical use, because they produce far less current—and cost far more per unit of energy generated—than commercial cells, due to the need for frequent replacement of the fruit or vegetable. In addition, one can make a voltaic pile from two coins (such as a nickel and a penny) and a piece of paper towel dipped in salt water. A voltaic pile is a set of individual Voltaic cells placed in series Nickel (ˈnɪkəl is a metallic Chemical element with the symbol Ni and Atomic number 28 A penny (pl pence or pennies) is a Coin or a unit of Currency used in several English -speaking countries A Paper towel is a towel made from Paper. It serves the same general purposes as conventional Towels such as drying hands wiping windows dusting and cleaning Saline water is a general term for Water that contains a significant concentration of dissolved Salts ( NaCl) Such a pile would make very little voltage itself, but when many of them are stacked together in series, they can replace normal batteries for a short amount of time. If two or more circuit components are connected end to end like a daisy chain it is said they are connected in series. [43]

Sony has developed a biologically friendly battery that generates electricity from sugar in a way that is similar to the processes observed in living organisms. The battery generates electricity through the use of enzymes that break down carbohydrates, which are essentially sugar. [44]

Lead acid cells can easily be manufactured at home, but a tedious charge/discharge cycle is needed to 'form' the plates. This is a process whereby lead sulfate forms on the plates, and during charge is converted to lead dioxide (positive plate) and pure lead (negative plate). Repeating this process results in a microscopically rough surface, with far greater surface area being exposed. This increases the current the cell can deliver. For an example, see [3].

Daniell cells are also easy to make at home. The Daniell cell (var sp Daniel cell, also called the gravity cell or crowfoot cell was invented in 1836 by John Frederic Daniell, who was Aluminum-air batteries can also be produced with high purity aluminum. Aluminium batteries or aluminum batteries are commonly known as aluminium-air batteries or Al-air batteries since they produce electricity from the reaction Aluminum foil batteries will produce some electricity, but they are not very efficient, in part because a significant amount of hydrogen gas is produced. WikipediaManual of Style#National varieties of English --> Aluminium foil (known Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1

### Battery packs

Main article: Battery pack

The cells in a battery can be connected in parallel, series or in both. A battery pack is a set of any number of (preferably identical batteries or individual battery cells A parallel combination of cells has the same voltage as a single cell, but can supply a higher current (the sum of the currents from all the cells). Electrical tension (or voltage after its SI unit, the Volt) is the difference of electrical potential between two points of an electrical Electric current is the flow (movement of Electric charge. The SI unit of electric current is the Ampere. A series combination has the same current rating as a single cell but its voltage is the sum of the voltages of all the cells. Most practical electrochemical batteries, such as 9-volt flashlight batteries and 12-volt automobile batteries, have several cells connected in series inside the casing. The volt (symbol V) is the SI derived unit of electric Potential difference or Electromotive force. [45] Parallel arrangements suffer from the problem that, if one cell discharges faster than its neighbour, current will flow from the full cell to the empty cell, wasting power and possibly causing overheating. Even worse, if one cell becomes short-circuited due to an internal fault, its neighbour will be forced to discharge its maximum current into the faulty cell, leading to overheating and possibly explosion. [46] Cells in parallel are therefore usually fitted with an electronic circuit to protect them against these problems. In both series and parallel types, the energy stored in the battery is equal to the sum of the energies stored in all the cells.

### Traction batteries

Traction batteries are high-power batteries designed to provide propulsion to move a vehicle, such as an electric car or tow motor. An electric car is a type of alternative fuel Car that utilizes Electric motors and Motor controllers instead of an Internal combustion engine A major design consideration is power to weight ratio since the vehicle must carry the battery. Power-to-weight ratio (specific power is a calculation commonly applied to Engines and other mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another [47] While conventional lead acid batteries[48] with liquid electrolyte have been used, gelled electrolyte[49] and AGM-type[50] can also be used, especially in smaller sizes. Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French Physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of Rechargeable battery. An electrolyte is any substance containing free Ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium

The largest installations of batteries for propulsion of vehicles are found in submarines, although the toxic gas produced by seawater contact with acid electrolyte is a considerable hazard. A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability

Battery types commercially used in electric vehicles include

• lead-acid battery, which uses lead(IV) oxide (PbO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4)[22]
• Nickel-metal hydride and Nickel-Cadmium batteries
• Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Polymer batteries
• Zebra Na/NiCl2 battery operating at 270 °C requiring cooling in case of temperature excursions
• NiZn battery (higher cell voltage 1. Lead-acid batteries, invented in 1859 by French Physicist Gaston Planté, are the oldest type of Rechargeable battery. Lead(IV oxide, PbO2 also plumbic oxide and lead dioxide, is an Oxide of Lead, with lead in Oxidation state +4 Sulfuric (or sulphuric acid, H 2 S[[oxygen O]]4 is a strong Mineral acid. A nickel-metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH, is a type of Rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium ( Ni[[Cadmium Cd]] battery The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd and ˈnɑɪˌkæd "nye-cad" is a type of Rechargeable battery using Nickel oxide hydroxide Lithium-ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion batteries) are a type of Rechargeable battery in which a Lithium ion moves between the Anode Lithium-ion polymer batteries, polymer lithium ion, or more commonly lithium polymer batteries (abbreviated Li-poly Li-Pol LiPo LIP PLI or LiP are Molten salt batteries are a class of Primary cell and Secondary cell high temperature Electric battery that use Molten salts as an Electrolyte History Developed by an Irish chemist Dr James J Drumm (1897-1974 and installed in four 2-car Drumm Railcar sets between 1932 and 1948 for 6 V and thus 25% increased specific energy, very short lifespan)

See also: battery electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicle. The battery electric vehicle, or BEV, is a type of Electric vehicle (EV that uses chemical Energy stored in Rechargeable battery A hydrogen vehicle is a Vehicle that uses Hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power

## Battery capacity and discharging

A device to check the charge of batteries

The more electrolyte and electrode material there is in the cell, the greater the capacity of the cell. Thus a small cell has less capacity than a larger cell, given the same chemistry (e. g. alkaline cells), though they develop the same open-circuit voltage. Alkaline batteries are a type of disposable battery dependent upon the reaction between Zinc and Manganese (IV oxide ( Zn / Mn[[Oxygen [51]

Because of the chemical reactions within the cells, the capacity of a battery depends on the discharge conditions such as the magnitude of the current, the duration of the current, the allowable terminal voltage of the battery, temperature and other factors. [51]

The available capacity of a battery depends upon the rate at which it is discharged. [52] If a battery is discharged at a relatively high rate, the available capacity will be lower than expected.

The battery capacity that battery manufacturers print on a battery is the product of 20 hours multiplied by the maximum constant current that a new battery can supply for 20 hours at 68 F° (20 C°),[53] down to a predetermined terminal voltage per cell.

A battery rated at 100 A·h will deliver 5 A over a 20 hour period at room temperature. Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain Temperature within enclosed space at which humans are accustomed However, if it is instead discharged at 50 A, it will run out of charge before the theoretically-expected 2 hours.

For this reason, a battery capacity rating is always related to an expected discharge duration—the standard duration is 20 hours.

$t = \frac Q I$

where

Q is the battery capacity (typically given in mA·h). An ampere-hour (symbol A h or A·h, sometimes abbreviated as Ah) is a unit of Electric charge.
I is the current drawn from battery (mA).
t is the amount of time (in hours) that a battery can sustain.

The relationship between current, discharge time, and capacity for a lead acid battery is expressed by Peukert's law. Peukert's Law, presented by the German scientist W Peukert in 1897, expresses the Capacity of a lead-acid battery in terms of the rate at which it is discharged The efficiency of a battery is different at different discharge rates. When discharging at low rate, the battery's energy is delivered more efficiently than at higher discharge rates.

In general, the higher the ampere-hour rating, the longer the battery will last for a certain load. Installing batteries with different A·h ratings will not affect the operation of a device rated for a specific voltage unless the load limits of the battery are exceeded. Theoretically, a battery would operate at its A·h rating, but realistically, high-drain loads like digital cameras can result in lower actual energy, most notably for alkaline batteries. Many compact digital still cameras can record Sound and moving Video as well as still Photograph. [24] For example, a battery rated at 2000 mA·h may not sustain a current of 1 A for the full two hours.

Typical alkaline battery sizes and capacities[54] (at lowest discharge rates)
DiagramSizeCapacity (mA·h)VoltageANSI/NEDAIECDiam. This article refers to common battery types and sizes in household and light industrial use An ampere-hour (symbol A h or A·h, sometimes abbreviated as Ah) is a unit of Electric charge. The National Electronic Distributors Association (sic or NEDA is a Trade association in the United States of manufacturers and distributors The International Electrotechnical Commission ( IEC) is a not-for-profit, non-governmental international Standards organization that prepares and publishes (mm)Mass (g)Height (mm)Length (mm)Width (mm)
AAAA6251. The AAAA battery (usually read as quadruple-A) is 425 mm long and 8 525ALR8D4258. 36. 542. 5cylindricalcylindrical
N10001. 5910ALR112930. 2cylindricalcylindrical
AAA12501. A AAA battery (pronounced "triple A" is a dry cell-type battery commonly used in portable electronic devices 524ALR0310. 511. 544. 5cylindricalcylindrical
AA28501. A AA battery (double a or /ˈdʌbəl eɪ/ is a dry cell-type battery commonly used in portable Electronic devices 515ALR614. 52350. 5cylindricalcylindrical
J62561412A4LR61prismatic3048. 535. 69. 18
9V62591604A6LR61prismatic45. A PP3 battery, commonly referred to simply as a "nine-volt battery" is shaped as a rounded rectangular prism and has a nominal output of nine Volts 648. 526. 517. 5
C83501. C size batteries typically are used in medium-drain applications like toys and musical instruments 514ALR1426. 266. 250cylindricalcylindrical
D205001. D batteries are a electrochemical cell typically used in high current drain applications in products with motors radio receivers and transmitters portable entertainment systems 513ALR2034. 214861. 5cylindricalcylindrical
Lantern260006915A4R25Yprismatic88511268. 268. 2
Lantern260006908A4LR25Xprismatic88511568. 268. 2
Lantern520006918A4LR25-2prismatic1900127136. 573

Discharging performance of all batteries drops at low temperature. [55]

### Life of primary batteries

Even if never taken out of the original package, disposable (or "primary") batteries can lose 8 to 20 percent of their original charge every year at a temperature of about 20°–30°C. [56] This is known as the "self discharge" rate and is due to non-current-producing "side" chemical reactions, which occur within the cell even if no load is applied to it. The rate of the side reactions is reduced if the batteries are stored at low temperature, although some batteries can be damaged by freezing. High or low temperatures may reduce battery performance. This will affect the initial voltage of the battery. For an AA alkaline battery this initial voltage is approximately normally distributed around 1. 6 volts.

### Life of rechargeable batteries

Rechargeable batteries traditionally self-discharge more rapidly than disposable alkaline batteries; up to three percent a day (depending on temperature). However, modern Lithium designs have reduced the self-discharge rate to a relatively low level (but still poorer than for primary batteries). Due to their poor shelf life, rechargeable batteries should not be stored and then relied upon to power flashlights or radios in an emergency. For this reason, it is a good idea to keep alkaline batteries on hand. NiCd Batteries are almost always "dead" when purchased, and must be charged before first use.

Although rechargeable batteries may be refreshed by charging, they still suffer degradation through usage. Low-capacity Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries (1700-2000 mA·h) can be charged for about 1000 cycles, whereas high capacity NiMH batteries (above 2500 mA·h) can be charged for about 500 cycles. [57] Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries tend to be rated for 1,000 cycles before their internal resistance increases beyond usable values. Normally a fast charge, rather than a slow overnight charge, will result in a shorter battery lifespan. [57] However, if the overnight charger is not "smart" (i. e. it cannot detect when the battery is fully charged), then overcharging is likely, which will damage the battery. [58] Degradation usually occurs because electrolyte migrates away from the electrodes or because active material falls off the electrodes. NiCd batteries suffer the drawback that they should be fully discharged before recharge. Without full discharge, crystals may build up on the electrodes, thus decreasing the active surface area and increasing internal resistance. This decreases battery capacity and causes the dreaded "memory effect". Memory effect, also known as lazy battery effect or battery memory, is an effect observed in nickel cadmium Rechargeable batteries that causes them to These electrode crystals can also penetrate the electrolyte separator, thereby causing shorts. NiMH, although similar in chemistry, does not suffer from "memory effect" to quite this extent. Memory effect, also known as lazy battery effect or battery memory, is an effect observed in nickel cadmium Rechargeable batteries that causes them to [59]

Automotive lead-acid rechargeable batteries have a much harder life. Because of vibration, shock, heat, cold, and sulfation of their lead plates, few automotive batteries last beyond six years of regular use. Automotive starting batteries have many thin plates to provide as much current as possible in a reasonably small package. Typically they are only drained a small amount before recharge. Care should be taken to avoid deep discharging a starting battery, since each charge and discharge cycle causes active material to be shed from the plates. A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or (rechargeable battery by forcing an Electric current through it Hole formation in the plates leads to less surface area for the current-producing chemical reactions, resulting in less available current when under load. Leaving a lead-acid battery in a deeply discharged state for any significant length of time allows the lead sulfate to crystallize, making it difficult or impossible to remove during the charging process. This can result in a permanent reduction in the available plate surface, and therefore reduced current output and energy capacity.

"Deep-Cycle" lead-acid batteries such as those used in electric golf carts have much thicker plates to aid their longevity. The main benefit of the lead-acid battery is its low cost; the main drawbacks are its large size and weight for a given capacity and voltage. Lead-acid batteries should never be discharged to below 20% of their full capacity, because internal resistance will cause heat and damage when they are recharged. Deep-cycle lead-acid systems often use a low-charge warning light or a low-charge power cut-off switch to prevent the type of damage that will shorten the battery's life.

Special "reserve" batteries intended for long storage in emergency equipment or munitions keep the electrolyte of the battery separate from the plates until the battery is activated, allowing the cells to be filled with the electrolyte. Shelf times for such batteries can be years or decades. However, their construction is more expensive than more common forms.

### Extending battery life

Battery life can be extended by storing the batteries at a low temperature, as in a refrigerator or freezer, because the chemical reactions in the batteries are slower. A refrigerator (often called a " fridge " for short is a cooling appliance comprising a thermally insulated compartment and a Heat pump - A refrigerator (often called a " fridge " for short is a cooling appliance comprising a thermally insulated compartment and a Heat pump - Such storage can extend the life of alkaline batteries by ~5%; while the charge of rechargeable batteries can be extended from a few days up to several months. [60] In order to reach their maximum voltage, batteries must be returned to room temperature; therefore, alkaline battery manufacturers like Duracell do not recommend refrigerating or freezing batteries. Duracell is a brand of batteries manufactured by Procter and Gamble. [61]

## Battery hazards

A battery explosion is caused by the misuse or malfunction of a battery, such as attempting to recharge a primary (non-rechargeable) battery,[62] or short circuiting a battery. Short Circuit is a 1986 comedy Science fiction film starring Ally Sheedy and Steve Guttenberg and directed by [63] With car batteries, explosions are most likely to occur when a short circuit generates very large currents. In addition, car batteries liberate hydrogen when they are overcharged (because of electrolysis of the water in the electrolyte). Hydrogen (ˈhaɪdrədʒən is the Chemical element with Atomic number 1 In chemistry and manufacturing electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an Electric current Normally the amount of overcharging is very small, as is the amount of explosive gas developed, and the gas dissipates quickly. However, when "jumping" a car battery, the high current can cause the rapid release of large volumes of hydrogen, which can be ignited by a nearby spark (for example, when removing the jumper cables).

When a battery is recharged at an excessive rate, an explosive gas mixture of hydrogen and oxygen may be produced faster than it can escape from within the walls of the battery, leading to pressure build-up and the possibility of the battery case bursting. In extreme cases, the battery acid may spray violently from the casing of the battery and cause injury. Overcharging—that is, attempting to charge a battery beyond its electrical capacity—can also lead to a battery explosion, leakage, or irreversible damage to the battery. It may also cause damage to the charger or device in which the overcharged battery is later used. Additionally, disposing of a battery in fire may cause an explosion as steam builds up within the sealed case of the battery. [63]

## Environmental concerns

Battery manufacture consumes resources and often involves hazardous chemicals. Used batteries also contribute to electronic waste. Electronic waste, " e-waste " or " Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment " (" WEEE " is a Waste type consisting Some areas now have battery recycling services available to recover some of the materials from used batteries. Recycling involves processing used materials into new products in order to prevent the waste of potentially useful materials reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials reduce [64] Batteries may be harmful or fatal if swallowed. Swallowing, known scientifically as deglutition is the process in the human or animal body that makes something pass from the Mouth, to the Pharynx, into [65] Recycling or proper disposal prevents dangerous elements (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium) found in some types of batteries from entering the environment. Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Cadmium (ˈkædmiəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Cd and Atomic number 48 In the United States, Americans purchase nearly three billion batteries annually, and about 179,000 tons of those end up in landfills across the country. [66] In the United States the Environmental Protection Agency’s Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act of 1996, has reduced the amount of mercury in regular household batteries. Recycling programs for lead and cadmium batteries have been put in place. [66] Recycling and disposal regulations may in the future apply to alkaline and nickel-metal hydride batteries.

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