Battenburg refers to a pattern of high-visibility markings used to maximise conspicuity, primarily on the emergency service vehicles but also in other applications such as uniforms. Emergency services are organizations which ensure Public safety by addressing different emergencies It is named after the battenberg cake, which has similar markings. Battenberg cake (or window cake) is a light Sponge cake which when cut in cross section, displays a distinctive two-by-two check pattern alternately
Battenburg markings were originally developed by the Police Scientific Development Board (PDSB) at the request of the national motorway policing sub-committee of the Association of Chief Police Officers. The Association of Chief Police Officers ( ACPO) established in 1948 is the lead organisation for developing Police policy in England Wales and Northern Ireland They were first developed for the United Kingdom police forces to use on traffic patrol cars, although other private organisations and civil emergency services have since started to use the pattern on their vehicles. Law enforcement in the United Kingdom is organised separately in Scotland, Northern Ireland, England and Wales (administration of Police matters The brief was to create a livery for motorway and trunk road police vehicles which would maximise the visibility of the vehicles when stopped on scene, both in daylight, and under headlights from a minimum distance of 500m, and which would distinctively mark it as a police car. A highway patrol is either a Police agency created primarily for the purpose of overseeing and enforcing Traffic safety Compliance on roads and highways 
The key research objectives included:
The research showed the human eye is most sensitive to blue/green shades at night and yellow/green in daylight. The battenburg design typically comprises 2 or more rows of alternating retroreflective squares or blocks, usually starting with yellow at the top, then the alternating colour, along the sides of a vehicle. A retroreflector (sometimes called a retroflector) is a device or surface that reflects light back to its source with a minimum scattering of light The battenburg livery is not used on the rear of vehicles, with the majority of users using upward facing chevrons in yellow and red to the rear, in line with the markings used by other road users. Whilst most cars use only two rows in the design, larger vehicles can be marked with more rows. 
During the development of battenburg markings, one of the key functions was to clearly identify a vehicle as being linked to the police. The New South Wales Police Force (NSW Police Force previously New South Wales Police Service & New South Wales Police is the primary Law enforcement agency in the State of In addition to the advantages in effectiveness tests, the pattern was also reminiscent of the Sillitoe Tartan pattern of black-and-white or blue-and-white chequered markings, first introduced by City of Glasgow Police in the 1930s, and subsequently adopted as a symbol of police services as far away as Chicago and Australia. sillitoe-blue-whitegif|thumb|Blue and white Sillitoe Tartan|200px|right|Blue and white Sillitoe Tartan commonly used for police in Australia and New Zealand. The City of Glasgow Police is the first professional Police force in modern history The Chicago Police Department, also known as the CPD, is the principal law enforcement agency of the City of Chicago, Illinois
Subsequent to the launch of the markings of the vehicles, the police introduced retro-reflective versions of the Sillitoe tartan markings to their uniforms, usually in blue and white, rather than blue and yellow used on vehicles.
In the United Kingdom, the majority of the emergency services have adopted the battenburg style of markings, with nearly half of all police forces adopting the markings within three years of its introduction, and over three quarters using it by 2003. 
In 2004, following the widespread adoption and recognition of the battenburg markings on police vehicles, the Home Office subsequently recommended that all police vehicles, not just those on traffic duty, be marked up with a 'half-battenburg' livery which formalised a position which had already been undertaken by a number of forces.
In the United Kingdom, the emergency services have chosen or been given certain colours which identify them, with the police continuing to use the blue, whereas ambulances tend to use green and the fire service use red.
The use of these colours in retro-reflective material is controlled by the Road Vehicle Lighting Regulations 1989, with civilian vehicles only legally allowed the use of yellow retro-reflective material.  However, a number of civilian organisations have adopted the pattern, which is not legally protected, and a number of these also use other retro-reflective colours.
An alternative to the use of retro-reflective materials is the use of fluorescent markings, or other non-reflective markings, which at least in the United Kingdom can be used by any vehicle, regardless of ownership or purpose.
|Common battenburg markings|
used in the United Kingdom
|Ambulance and doctors|
|Fire and Rescue|
|National Blood Service|
|Highways Agency and VOSA|
Some emergency vehicles and special vehicles in the Hong Kong Fire Service used Battenburg markings. Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom, to provide immediate care to people with acute illness or injury are predominantly provided through a system of regional government The fire service in the United Kingdom operates under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and The National Blood Service is the organisation for England and North Wales which collects Blood and other tissues tests processes and supplies all the The Highways Agency is an Executive agency, part of the Department for Transport in the United Kingdom. Vehicle and Operator Services Agency (VOSA is a Non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Transport of the Network Rail is a British "not for dividend" Company limited by guarantee whose principal asset is Network Rail Infrastructure Limited a company limited Mountain Rescue services in England and Wales operate under the umbrella association of the MREW - Mountain Rescue (England Her Majesty's Coastguard is the service of the Government of the United Kingdom concerned with co-ordinating Rescue at sea Fire Services Department ( of the Hong Kong Government is an emergency service responsible for fire-fighting and rescue on land and sea
The New Zealand Police liveries are checkered Battenburg markings orange-blue (general duties) or yellow-blue (highway patrol), as well as cars in standard factory colours. The New Zealand Police ( Ngā Pirihimana o Aotearoa) is the national Police force of New Zealand, responsible for enforcing criminal and
Originally Swedish Police vehicle were painted black and white but in the reverse of the Los Angeles Police pattern. The Swedish Police Service (in Swedish: Polisen) is a collection of Government agency concerned with Police matters in Sweden. Black and white is an American slang term for a Police car that is painted in large panels of Black and white. Swedish police vehicles had black roofs and doors or black roofs, bonnet and boot. This was a necessity due to the heavy snows Sweden acquires. Later they became just blue and in 2005 they changed to a light blue and fluorescent yellow livery (Battenburg markings). Most Swedish police cars are either Volvos or Saabs, with the same livery all over Sweden.
Scottish Ambulance Service paramedic vehicle with full Battenburg colour scheme and rear hazard warning panel
A British Transport Police motorcycle in London
A typical Highways Agency Traffic Officer vehicle in black and yellow
Swedish Volvo V70 police car. For London as a whole see the main article London. The City of London is a geographically A logo ( Greek el λογότυπος = el-Latn logotypos is a graphical element ( Ideogram, Symbol, Emblem, Icon, Sign) The British Transport Police ( BTP) (Heddlu Trafnidiaeth Prydeinig is a Special police force empowered to police those railways and light-rail systems in The Mercedes-Benz Sprinter is a delivery Van, Chassis cab and Minibus built by Daimler AG in Düsseldorf, Germany and SASDivmap copyjpg|right|200px]] Helimed5jpg|thumb|right|EC-135 G-SASA "Helimed 5" based at Glasgow City Heliport]] The Scottish Ambulance Service ( Scottish The Highways Agency is an Executive agency, part of the Department for Transport in the United Kingdom. The Volvo V70 is a mid-size five-door station wagon / estate manufactured by Volvo Cars since 1996 &mdash and closely related to the S70, S60