Second printing cover of Batman #608 (Oct. Batman is an ongoing Comic book series featuring the DC Comics Hero of the same name. 2002).
Pencils by Jim Lee and inks by Scott Williams. Jim Lee (born August 11, 1964) is a Korean-American Comic book Artist, Creator and Publisher.
|First appearance||Detective Comics #27|
|Created by||Bob Kane|
|In story information|
|Alter ego||Bruce Wayne|
|Team affiliations||Batman Family|
|Notable aliases||Matches Malone|
Peak human physical condition
Martial arts master
Access to high tech equipment
Extensive monetary resources
Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a fictional comic book superhero co-created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger (although only Kane receives official credit) and published by DC Comics. DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company In Comic books and other stories with a long history first appearance refers to the first occurrence to feature a Fictional character. Detective Comics is an American comic book published monthly by DC Comics since 1937 best-known for introducing the iconic Superhero Batman Bob Kane (born Robert Kahn, October 24, 1915 &ndash November 3, 1998) was an American Comic book artist William "Bill" Finger ( February 8, 1914 &ndash January 18, 1974) was an American Comic strip and Comic The Justice League sometimes called the Justice League of America or JLA for short is a Fictional DC Comics superhero team. Wayne Enterprises (formerly WayneCorp) is a Fictional company in the DC Universe. The Outsiders are fictional characters a DC Comics Superhero team Robin (also referred to as The Boy Wonder) is the name of several Fictional characters appearing in Comic books published by DC Comics, originally A genius is a person of great Intelligence or remarkable abilities in a specific subject who shows an exceptional natural capacity of intellect and/or ability especially Escapology is the practice of escaping from restraints or other traps Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for Combat. High tech is Technology that is at the cutting edge —the most advanced technology currently available A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative A superhero (sometimes rendered super-hero or super hero) is a Fictional character "of unprecedented physical prowess dedicated to acts of derring-do Bob Kane (born Robert Kahn, October 24, 1915 &ndash November 3, 1998) was an American Comic book artist William "Bill" Finger ( February 8, 1914 &ndash January 18, 1974) was an American Comic strip and Comic DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company The character first appeared in Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). Detective Comics is an American comic book published monthly by DC Comics since 1937 best-known for introducing the iconic Superhero Batman  Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy industrialist, playboy, and philanthropist. A secret identity is an element of fiction wherein a character develops a separate Persona (usually adopting a Pseudonym) while keeping their true identity A business magnate, sometimes referred to as a mogul, tycoon, baron, or industrialist, is a person who has reached a prominent place in Philanthropy is the act of donating money goods services time and/or effort to support a socially beneficial cause with a defined objective and with no financial or material Witnessing the murder of his parents as a child leads him to train himself to physical and intellectual perfection and don a bat-themed costume in order to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City, assisted by various supporting characters including his sidekick Robin and his butler Alfred Pennyworth, and fights an assortment of villains influenced by the characters' roots in film and pulp magazines. Gotham City is a Fictional City appearing in DC Comics, and is best known as the home of Batman. Robin (also referred to as The Boy Wonder) is the name of several Fictional characters appearing in Comic books published by DC Comics, originally Alfred Thaddeus Crane Pennyworth (or simply Alfred) is a Fictional character that appears in Comic books published by DC Comics. Pulp magazines (or pulp fiction; often referred to as "the pulps" were inexpensive Fiction magazines Unlike most superheroes, he does not possess any superpowers; he makes use of intellect, detective skills, science and technology, wealth, physical prowess, and intimidation in his war on crime. Superpowers (also super powers or simply powers) is another term for Superhuman abilities that is any abilities that a human does not possess in real
Batman became a popular character soon after his introduction, and eventually gained his own title, Batman. Batman is an ongoing Comic book series featuring the DC Comics Hero of the same name. As the decades wore on, differing takes on the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series utilized a camp aesthetic associated with the character for years after the show ended. Batman is a 1960s American Television series, based on the DC Comic book character of the same name. A television program (US television programme (UK or television show (U Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in the 1986 miniseries Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, by writer-artist Frank Miller. Batman The Dark Knight Returns, originally published under the title Batman The Dark Knight, is a Batman comic book mini-series Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American Writer, Artist and Film director best known for his dark That and the success of director Tim Burton's 1989 Batman motion picture helped reignite popular interest in the character. A film director, or filmmaker, is a person who directs the making of a Film. Timothy "Tim" William Burton (born August 25 1958 is an American Film director, Screenwriter and Set designer, notable for the quirky Batman is a 1989 Superhero film based on the DC Comics character of the same name. A cultural icon, Batman has been licensed and adapted into a variety of media, from radio to television and film, and appears on a variety of merchandise sold all over the world.
In early 1938, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at the comic book division of National Publications (the future DC Comics) to request more superheroes for its titles. Batman is one of DC Comics 's most popular characters He has featured in several ongoing series as well as Miniseries and Graphic novels and plays a major Superman is a fictional Comic book Superhero widely considered to be one of the most recognized of such characters and an American Cultural icon Action Comics is an American Comic book series which introduced Superman, the first major Superhero character as the term National Publications was one of the companies that would later become DC Comics. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Bob Kane (born Robert Kahn, October 24, 1915 &ndash November 3, 1998) was an American Comic book artist  Collaborator Bill Finger recalled Kane
|“||. William "Bill" Finger ( February 8, 1914 &ndash January 18, 1974) was an American Comic strip and Comic . . had an idea for a character called 'Batman', and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, and he had drawn a character who looked very much like Superman with kind of . . . reddish tights, I believe, with boots . . . no gloves, no gauntlets . . . with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings that were sticking out, looking like bat wings. And under it was a big sign . . . BATMAN. ||”|
Finger offered such suggestions as giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, and gloves, and removing the red sections from the original costume. A domino mask is a small rounded Mask covering only the eyes and the space between them .  Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot. Robert I King of Scots ( 11 July, 1274 &ndash 7 June, 1329) usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce ( Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name that would suggest colonialism. I tried Adams, Hancock . . . then I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne". Anthony Wayne (January 1 1745–December 15 1796 was a United States Army general and statesman  Various aspects of Batman's personality, character history, visual design and equipment were inspired by contemporary popular culture of the 1930s, including movies, pulp magazines, comic strips, newspaper headlines, and even aspects of Kane himself.  Kane noted especially the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro (1920) and The Bat Whispers (1930) in the creation of the iconography associated with the character, while Finger drew inspiration from literary characters Doc Savage, The Shadow, and Sherlock Holmes in his depiction of Batman as a master sleuth and scientist. The Mark of Zorro is a silent motion picture released in 1920 starring Douglas Fairbanks and Noah Beery. Doc Savage is a Fictional character, one of the Pulp heroes of the 1930s and 1940s Sherlock Holmes is a famous fictional detective of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries who first appeared in Publication in 1887 
Kane himself, in his 1989 autobiography, detailed Finger's contributions to Batman creation:
|“||One day I called Bill and said, 'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at'. An autobiography, from the Greek αὐτός autos "self" βίος bios "life" and γράφειν graphein "to write" He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin later wore, on Batman's face. Bill said, 'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, and take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit; the wings, trunks, and mask were black. I thought that red and black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright: 'Color it dark gray to make it look more ominous'. The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action, and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope. Also, he didn't have any gloves on, and we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints. ||”|
Kane signed away ownership in the character in exchange for, among other compensation, a mandatory byline on all Batman comics. This byline did not, originally, say "Batman created by Bob Kane"; his name was simply written on the title page of each story. The name disappeared from the comic book in the mid-1960s, replaced by credits for each story's actual writer and artists. In the late 1970s, when Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster began receiving a "created by" credit on the Superman titles, along with William Moulton Marston being given the byline for creating Wonder Woman, Batman stories began saying "Created by Bob Kane" in addition to the other credits. Jerome "Jerry" Siegel (October 17 1914 – January 28 1996 who also used pseudonyms including Joe Carter, Jerry Ess, Siegel was a fan of movies Joseph "Joe" Shuster (July 10 1914 - July 30 1992 was a Canadian -born American Comic book Artist best known for co-creating the DC Comics Dr William Moulton Marston ( May 9, 1893 &ndash May 2, 1947) was an American psychologist feminist theorist inventor and
Finger did not receive the same recognition. While he had received credit for other DC work since the 1940s, he began, in the 1960s, to receive limited acknowledgment for his Batman writing; in the letters page of Batman #169 (Feb. 1965) for example, editor Julius Schwartz names him as the creator of the Riddler, one of Batman's recurring villains. Julius "Julie" Schwartz ( June 19, 1915 – February 8, 2004) was a Jewish Comic book and Pulp magazine The Riddler ( Edward Nigma or Nygma, or Nashton) is a Fictional character, a DC Comics Supervillain, an enemy of However, Finger's contract left him only with his writing page rate and no byline. Kane wrote, "Bill was disheartened by the lack of major accomplishments in his career. He felt that he had not used his creative potential to its fullest and that success had passed him by".  At the time of Finger's death in 1974, DC had not officially credited Finger as Batman co-creator.
Jerry Robinson, who also worked with Finger and Kane on the strip at this time, has criticized Kane for failing to share the credit. Jerry Robinson (born January 1, 1922 in Trenton, New Jersey) is an American Comic book Artist best known He recalled Finger resenting his position, stating in a 2005 interview with The Comics Journal,
|“||Bob made him more insecure, because while he slaved working on Batman, he wasn't sharing in any of the glory or the money that Bob began to make, which is why. The Comics Journal, often abbreviated TCJ, is a US magazine of news and criticism pertaining to Comic books and strips . . [he was] going to leave [Kane's employ]. . . . [Kane] should have credited Bill as co-creator, because I know; I was there. . . . That was one thing I would never forgive Bob for, was not to take care of Bill or recognize his vital role in the creation of Batman. As with Siegel and Shuster, it should have been the same, the same co-creator credit in the strip, writer and artist. ||”|
Although Kane initially rebutted Finger's claims at having created the character, writing in a 1965 open letter to fans that "it seemed to me that Bill Finger has given out the impression that he and not myself created the ''Batman, t' (sic) as well as Robin and all the other leading villains and characters. Sic is a Latin word meaning "thus" "so" "as such" or "just as that" This statement is fraudulent and entirely untrue. " Kane himself also commented on Finger's lack of credit. "The trouble with being a 'ghost' writer or artist is that you must remain rather anonymously without 'credit'. However, if one wants the 'credit', then one has to cease being a 'ghost' or follower and become a leader or innovator".  In 1989, Kane revisited Finger's situation, recalling in an interview,
|“||In those days it was like, one artist and he had his name over it [the comic strip] — the policy of DC in the comic books was, if you can't write it, obtain other writers, but their names would never appear on the comic book in the finished version. So Bill never asked me for it [the byline] and I never volunteered — I guess my ego at that time. And I felt badly, really, when he [Finger] died. ||”|
The first Batman story, "The Case of the Chemical Syndicate," was published in Detective Comics #27 (May 1939). Finger said, "Batman was originally written in the style of the pulps", and this influence was evident with Batman showing little remorse over killing or maiming criminals and was not above using firearms. Batman proved a hit character, and he received his own solo title in 1940, while continuing to star in Detective Comics. By that time, National was the top-selling and most influential publisher in the industry; Batman and the company's other major hero, Superman, were the cornerstones of the company's success.  The two characters were featured side-by-side as the stars of World's Finest Comics, which was originally titled World's Best Comics when it debuted in fall 1940. World's Finest Comics was a Comic book series published by DC Comics from 1941 to 1986 Creators including Jerry Robinson and Dick Sprang also worked on the strips during this period. Jerry Robinson (born January 1, 1922 in Trenton, New Jersey) is an American Comic book Artist best known Richard W "Dick" Sprang ( July 28, 1915 - May 10, 2000) was an American Comic book Artist and
Over the course of the first few Batman strips elements were added to the character and the artistic depiction of Batman evolved. Kane noted that within six issues he drew the character's jawline more pronounced, and lengthened the ears on the costume. "About a year later he was almost the full figure, my mature Batman," Kane said.  Batman's characteristic utility belt was introduced in Detective Comics #29 (July 1939), followed by the boomerang-like batarang and the first bat-themed vehicle in #31 (Sept. A boomerang is a simple implement used for various purposes It is primarily associated with Australian Aborigines but has been found amongst peoples of North 1939).
The character's origin was revealed in #33 (Nov. 1939), unfolding in a two-page story that establishes the brooding persona of Batman, a character driven by the loss of his parents. Written by Finger, it depicts a young Bruce Wayne witnessing the death of his parents as part of a street robbery. Days later, at their grave, the child vows that "by the spirits of my parents [I will] avenge their deaths by spending the rest of my life warring on all criminals".  The early, pulp-inflected portrayal of Batman started to soften in Detective Comics #38 (April 1940) with the introduction of Robin, Batman's kid sidekick.  Robin was introduced based on Finger's suggestion Batman needed a "Watson" with whom Batman could talk.  Sales nearly doubled, despite Kane's preference for a solo Batman, and it sparked a proliferation of "kid sidekicks".  The first issue of the solo spin-off series Batman was notable not only for introducing two of his most persistent antagonists, the Joker and Catwoman, but for a story in which Batman shoots some monstrous giants to death. Batman is an ongoing Comic book series featuring the DC Comics Hero of the same name. The Joker is a fictional character appearing in Comic books published by DC Comics. Catwoman is a Fictional character associated with DC Comics ' Batman franchise. That story prompted editor Whitney Ellsworth to decree that the character could no longer kill or use a gun. Fredric Whitney Ellsworth ( November 27 1908 &ndash September 7 1980) was an American Comic book Editor 
By 1942, the writers and artists behind the Batman comics had established most of the basic elements of the Batman mythos.  In the years following World War II, DC Comics "adopted a postwar editorial direction that increasingly de-emphasized social commentary in favor of lighthearted juvenile fantasy". World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The impact of this editorial approach was evident in Batman comics of the postwar period; removed from the "bleak and menacing world" of the strips of the early 1940s, Batman was instead portrayed as a respectable citizen and paternal figure that inhabited a "bright and colorful" environment. 
Batman was one of the few superhero characters to be continuously published as interest in the genre waned during the 1950s. In the story "The Mightiest Team In the World" in Superman #76 (June 1952), Batman teams up with Superman for the first time and the pair discovers each other's secret identity. Superman (sometimes called Superman (volume 1 and for a time published as Adventures of Superman) is a comic book published by DC Comics  Following the success of this story, World's Finest Comics was revamped so it featured stories starring both heroes together, instead of the separate Batman and Superman features that had been running before.  The team-up of the characters was "a financial success in an era when those were few and far between;" this series of stories ran until the book's cancellation in 1986.
Batman comics were among those criticized when the comic book industry came under scrutiny with the publication of psychologist Fredric Wertham's book Seduction of the Innocent in 1954. Fredric Wertham ( March 20, 1895 November 18, 1981) was a German-American Psychiatrist and crusading author who protested Seduction of the Innocent is a book by Dr Frederic Wertham, published in 1954, that warned that Comic books were a bad form of popular Literature Wertham's thesis was that children imitated crimes committed in comic books, and that these works corrupt the morals of the youth. Wertham criticized Batman comics for their supposed homosexual overtones and argued that Batman and Robin were portrayed as lovers. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation.  Wertham's criticisms raised a public outcry during the 1950s, eventually leading to the establishment of the Comics Code Authority. The Comics Code Authority ( CCA) is part of the Comics Magazine Association of America (CMAA and was created to regulate the content of comic books in the United The tendency towards a "sunnier Batman" in the postwar years intensified after the introduction of the Comics Code.  It has also been suggested by scholars that the characters of Batwoman (in 1956) and Bat-Girl (in 1961) were introduced in part to refute the allegation that Batman and Robin were gay, and the stories took on a campier, lighter feel. Batwoman (originally referred to as The Bat-Woman) is a fictional character and female counterpart to the superhero Batman, created by Bob Kane and 
In the late 1950 Batman stories gradually become more science fiction-oriented, an attempt at mimicking the success of other DC characters that had dabbled in the genre.  New characters such as Batwoman, Ace the Bat-Hound, and Bat-Mite were introduced. The Comic book character Ace the Bat-Hound was the canine crime-fighting partner of Batman and Robin in DC Comics of the 1950s and 1960s Bat-Mite is a Character appearing in stories published by DC Comics. Batman has adventures involving either odd transformations or dealing with bizarre space aliens. In 1960, Batman debuted as a member of the Justice League of America in The Brave and the Bold #28 (February 1960) and went on to appear in several Justice League comic series starting later that same year. The Justice League sometimes called the Justice League of America or JLA for short is a Fictional DC Comics superhero team. For the Tortoise and Bonnie 'Prince' Billy album see The Brave and the Bold (album.
By 1964, sales on Batman titles had fallen drastically; Bob Kane noted that as a result "[DC was] planning to kill Batman off altogether. " Editor Julius Schwartz was soon assigned to the Batman titles and presided over drastic changes. Julius "Julie" Schwartz ( June 19, 1915 – February 8, 2004) was a Jewish Comic book and Pulp magazine Beginning with 1964's Detective Comics #327 (May 1964) – cover-billed as the "New Look" – Schwartz introduced changes designed to make Batman more contemporary and return him to more detective-oriented stories, including a redesign of Batman's equipment, the Batmobile, and his costume (introducing the yellow ellipse behind the costume's bat-insignia), and brought in artist Carmine Infantino to help in this makeover. The Batmobile is the fictional personal Automobile of Comic book Superhero Batman. Carmine Infantino (born May 24, 1925) is an American Comic book Artist and editor who was a major force in the Silver Age The space aliens and characters of the 1950s such as Batwoman, Ace, and Bat-Mite were retired. Batman's erstwhile butler Alfred was killed and replaced with Aunt Harriet, who came to live with Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson. Richard John "Dick" Grayson is a fictional Superhero that appears in Comic books published by DC Comics. 
The debut of the Batman television series in 1966 had a profound influence on the character. Batman is a 1960s American Television series, based on the DC Comic book character of the same name. The success of the series increased sales throughout the comic book industry, and Batman reached a circulation of close to 900,000 copies.  Elements such as the character of Batgirl and the show's campy nature were introduced into the comics; the series also initiated the return of Alfred. Batgirl is the name of several Fictional characters appearing in Comic books published by DC Comics, depicted as female counterparts to the Superhero Although both the comics and TV show were successful for a time, the camp approach eventually wore thin and the show was canceled in 1968. In the aftermath the Batman comics themselves lost popularity once again. As Julius Schwartz noted, "When the television show was a success, I was asked to be campy, and of course when the show faded, so did the comic books. "
Starting in 1969, writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams made a deliberate effort to distance Batman from the campy portrayal of the 1960s TV series and to return the character to his roots as a "grim avenger of the night. Dennis O'Neil (often credited as Denny O'Neil) is a Comic book Writer and editor, principally for Marvel Comics and DC Comics Neal Adams (born June 6, 1941, Governors Island, Manhattan, New York City) is an American Comic book and " O'Neil said his idea was "simply to take it back to where it started. I went to the DC library and read some of the early stories. I tried to get a sense of what Kane and Finger were after. " O'Neil and Adams first collaborated on the story "The Secret of the Waiting Graves" (Detective Comics #395, Jan. 1970). Few stories were true collaborations between O'Neil, Adams, Schwartz, and inker Dick Giordano, and in actuality these men were mixed and matched with various other creators during the 1970s; nevertheless the influence of their work was "tremendous. Dick Giordano (born Richard Joseph Giordano on July 20, 1932) is an American Comic book Artist and editor " Giordano said, "We went back to a grimmer, darker Batman, and I think that's why these stories did so well . . . Even today we're still using Neal's Batman with the long flowing cape and the pointy ears. " While the work of O'Neil and Adams was popular with fans, the acclaim did little to help declining sales; the same held true with a similarly acclaimed run by writer Steve Englehart and penciler Marshall Rogers in Detective Comics #471-476 (Aug. Steve Englehart (born April 22, 1947, Indianapolis Indiana) is an American Comic book writer best known for his work for Marvel Marshall Rogers ( January 22, 1950 – March 25, 2007) was an American Comic-book artist best-known for his work at 1977 - April 1978), which went on to influence the 1989 movie Batman and be adapted for the 1990s animated series. An animated cartoon is a short hand-drawn (or made with computers to look similar to something hand-drawn Film for the cinema, Television or computer  Regardless, circulation continued to drop through the 1970s and 1980s, hitting an all-time low in 1985. 
Frank Miller's 1986 limited series Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, which tells the story of a 50-year-old Batman coming out of retirement in a possible future, reinvigorated the character. Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American Writer, Artist and Film director best known for his dark A limited series is a term originated by Marvel Comics referring to a Comic book series with a set number of issues Batman The Dark Knight Returns, originally published under the title Batman The Dark Knight, is a Batman comic book mini-series The Dark Knight Returns was a financial success and has since become one of the medium's most noted touchstones.  The series also sparked a major resurgence in the character's popularity.  That year Dennis O'Neil took over as editor of the Batman titles and set the template for the portrayal of Batman following DC's status quo-altering miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths. Crisis on Infinite Earths is a twelve-issue American comic book Limited series (identified as a "12-part maxi-series" and crossover O'Neil operated under the assumption that he was hired to revamp the character and as a result tried to instill a different tone in the books than had gone before.  One outcome of this new approach was the "Year One" storyline in Batman #404-407 (Feb. Batman Year One is the title of an American Comic book Story arc written by Frank Miller, illustrated by David Mazzucchelli -May 1987), where Frank Miller and artist David Mazzucchelli redefined the character's origins. David Mazzucchelli (born 1960 is an American Comic book artist and Illustrator. Writer Alan Moore and artist Brian Bolland continued this dark trend with 1988's 48-page one-shot Batman: The Killing Joke, in which the Joker, attempting to drive Commissioner Gordon insane, cripples Gordon's daughter Barbara, and then kidnaps and tortures the commissioner, physically and psychologically. Alan Moore (born November 18 1953 in Northampton) is an English Writer most famous for his influential work in Comics, including the acclaimed Brian Bolland (born 1951 is a British Comics Artist, known for his meticulous detailed linework and eye-catching compositions In the American Comic book industry the term one-shot is used to denote a pilot comic or a stand-alone story created to last as one issue Batman The Killing Joke is an influential one-shot Superhero Comic book written by Alan Moore and drawn by Brian Bolland James Worthington "Jim" Gordon is a Fictional character who appears in Comic books published by DC Comics. Barbara "Babs" Gordon is a Fictional character appearing in Comic books published by DC Comics and in related media created by Gardner Fox
The Batman comics garnered major attention in 1988 when DC Comics created a 900 number for readers to call to vote on whether Jason Todd, the second Robin, lived or died. Premium-rate telephone numbers are Telephone numbers for Telephone calls during which certain services are provided and for which prices higher than normal are Jason Todd is a Fictional character appearing in Comic books published by DC Comics. Voters decided in favor of Jason's death by a narrow margin of 28 votes (see Batman: A Death in the Family). A Death in the Family is a Batman Comic book story arc first published in the late 1980s which gave fans the ability to influence the story  The following year drew more attention to the character, due to the release of the feature 1989 film Batman. In addition to the film's multimillion dollar gross and millions more generated in merchandising, the first issue of Legends of the Dark Knight, the first new solo Batman title in nearly fifty years, sold close to a million copies.  1993's "Knightfall" arc introduces a new villain, Bane, who critically injures Batman. Batman Knightfall is the title given to a major Batman Story arc published by DC Comics that dominated Batman -related serial Bane is a Fictional character that appears in Comic books published by DC Comics. Jean-Paul Valley, known as Azrael, is called upon to wear the Batsuit during Bruce Wayne's convalescence. Azrael ( Jean-Paul Valley) is a Fictional character in the DC Comics universe. Writers Doug Moench, Chuck Dixon, and Alan Grant worked on the Batman titles during "Knightfall" and would also contribute to other Batman crossovers throughout the 1990s. Douglas "Doug" Moench (b 1948 is an American Comic book writer probably best known for his Batman work Charles "Chuck" Dixon (b 1954 is an American Comic book Writer, perhaps best-known for long runs on Batman titles in the Alan Grant (born 1949 is a Scottish Comic book writer known for writing Judge Dredd in 2000 AD as well as various 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline served as the precursor to 1999's "No Man's Land", a year-long storyline that ran through all the Batman-related titles dealing with the effects of an earthquake-ravaged Gotham City. Batman Cataclysm is an 18 chapter crossover Story arc that ran through the various Batman family comics from March to May 1998. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer At the conclusion of "No Man's Land" O'Neil stepped down as editor and was replaced by Bob Schreck. In 2003, writer Jeph Loeb and artist Jim Lee began a 12-issue run on Batman. Joseph "Jeph" Loeb III is an Emmy and WGA nominated American Film and Television Writer, producer and award-winning Jim Lee (born August 11, 1964) is a Korean-American Comic book Artist, Creator and Publisher. Hush is a 2002-2003 Comic book Story arc that ran through the Batman monthly series Lee's first regular comic book work in nearly a decade, the series became #1 on the Diamond Comic Distributors sales chart for the first time since Batman #500 (Oct. Diamond Comic Distributors Inc (often called Diamond Comics, DCD, or casually Diamond) is the largest Comic book distributor 1993). Lee then teamed with Frank Miller on All-Star Batman and Robin, which debuted with the best-selling issue in 2005, as well as the highest sales in the industry since 2003. All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder is an ongoing American Comic book series published by DC Comics.  Batman was featured in major roles in DC's 2005 company-wide crossover Identity Crisis and 2006's Infinite Crisis. Identity Crisis is a seven-issue Comic book Limited series published by DC Comics in 2004, written by Brad Meltzer Infinite Crisis is a seven-issue Limited series of Comic books written by Geoff Johns and illustrated by Phil Jimenez, George Starting in 2006, the regular writers on Batman and Detective Comics were Grant Morrison and Paul Dini, respectively. Grant Morrison (born January 31 1960 is a Scottish Comic book writer and artist Paul Dini (born August 7, 1957) is an American Television producer of Animated cartoons.
Batman's history has undergone various revisions, both minor and major. Few elements of the character's history have remained constant. Scholars William Uricchio and Roberta E. Pearson noted in the early 1990s, "Unlike some fictional characters, the Batman has no primary urtext set in a specific period, but has rather existed in a plethora of equally valid texts constantly appearing over more than five decades. "
The central fixed event in the Batman stories is the character's origin story. Creation mythIn comic book terminology, an origin story is an account or Back-story revealing how a character or team gained their superpowers or the circumstances  As a little boy, Bruce Wayne is horrified and traumatized to see his parents, the physician Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, being murdered by a mugger in front of his very eyes. Thomas Wayne is a Fictional character in the Batman series of Comic books. Martha Wayne is a Fictional character of the Batman series of Comic books, published by DC Comics. This drives him to fight crime in Gotham City as Batman. Gotham City is a Fictional City appearing in DC Comics, and is best known as the home of Batman. In later years, June 26th becomes the established date (Batman Confidential #14) that the murder occurred, and the Batman annually visits the spot in Crime Alley where his parents died.
Pearson and Uricchio also noted beyond the origin story and such events as the introduction of Robin, "Until recently, the fixed and accuring and hence, canonized, events have been few in number," a situation altered by an increased effort by later Batman editors such as Dennis O'Neil to ensure consistency and continuity between stories. 
In Batman's first appearance in Detective Comics #27, he is already operating as a crime fighter.  Batman's origin is first presented in Detective Comics #33 in November 1939, and is later fleshed out in Batman #47. As these comics state, Bruce Wayne is born to Dr. Thomas Wayne and his wife Martha, two very wealthy and charitable Gotham City socialites. Gotham City is a Fictional City appearing in DC Comics, and is best known as the home of Batman. Bruce is brought up in Wayne Manor and its wealthy splendor and leads a happy and privileged existence until the age of eight, when his parents are killed by a small-time criminal named Joe Chill on their way home from the movie theater. Joe Chill is a fictional character in the DC Comics Batman series Bruce Wayne swears an oath to rid the city of the evil that had taken his parents' lives. He engages in intense intellectual and physical training; however, he realizes that these skills alone would not be enough. "Criminals are a superstitious and cowardly lot", Wayne remarks, "so my disguise must be able to strike terror into their hearts. I must be a creature of the night, black, terrible. . . " As if responding to his desires, a bat suddenly flies through the window, inspiring Bruce to assume the persona of Batman. 
In early strips, Batman's career as a vigilante initially earns him the ire of the police. During this period Wayne has a fiancée named Julie Madison. Julie Madison is a Fictional character in the DC Universe, best known as Batman 's first significant Love interest.  Wayne takes in an orphaned circus acrobat, Dick Grayson, who becomes his sidekick, Robin. Batman also becomes a founding member of the Justice Society of America, although he, like Superman, is an honorary member and thus only participates occasionally. The Justice Society of America, or JSA, is a DC Comics Superhero group the first team of superheroes in Comic book history Batman's relationship with the law thaws quickly, and he is made an honorary member of Gotham City's police department. The Gotham City Police Department (GCPD is a Fictional Police department servicing Gotham City in the DC Universe.  During this time, butler Alfred arrives at Wayne Manor and after deducing the Dynamic Duo's secret identities joins their service. 
The Silver Age of comic books in DC Comics is sometimes held to have begun in 1956 when the publisher introduced Barry Allen as a new, updated version of The Flash. The Batman of Earth-Two is a parallel version of the fictional DC Comics superhero who was introduced after DC Comics created Earth-Two, a parallel The Silver Age of Comic Books was a period of artistic advancement and commercial success in mainstream American comic books predominantly those featuring the Superhero Bartholomew "Barry" Allen is a Fictional character, a Superhero in the DC Comics universe and the second Flash Batman is not significantly changed by the late 1950s for the continuity which would be later referred to as Earth-One. The DC Multiverse is a Fictional continuity construct that exists in stories published by Comic book company DC Comics. The lighter tone Batman had taken in the period between the Golden and Silver Ages led to the stories of the late 1950s and early 1960s that often feature a large number of science-fiction elements, and Batman is not significantly updated in the manner of other characters until Detective Comics #327 (May 1964), in which Batman reverts to his detective roots, with most science-fiction elements jettisoned from the series.
After the introduction of DC Comics' multiverse in the 1960s, it is retroactively established that stories from the Golden Age star the Earth-Two Batman, a character from a parallel world. The DC Multiverse is a Fictional continuity construct that exists in stories published by Comic book company DC Comics. The Batman of Earth-Two is a parallel version of the fictional DC Comics superhero who was introduced after DC Comics created Earth-Two, a parallel This version of Batman partners with and marries the reformed Earth-Two Catwoman, Selina Kyle (as shown in Superman Family #211) and fathers Helena Wayne, who, as the Huntress, becomes (along with the Earth-Two Robin) Gotham's protector once Wayne retires from the position to become police commissioner, a position he occupies until he is killed during one final adventure as Batman. Superman Family was a DC Comics Comic book series which ran from 1974 to 1982 featuring primarily stories starring supporting The Silver Age Huntress was Helena Wayne, the daughter of the Batman and Catwoman of Earth-Two, an alternate universe established Richard John "Dick" Grayson is a fictional Superhero that appears in Comic books published by DC Comics. Batman titles however often ignored that a distinction had been made between the pre-revamp and post-revamp Batmen (since unlike The Flash or Green Lantern, Batman comics had been published without interruption through the 1950s) and would on occasion make reference to stories from the Golden Age.  Nevertheless, details of Batman's history were altered or expanded upon through the decades. Additions include meetings with a future Superman during his youth, his upbringing by his uncle Philip Wayne (introduced in Batman #208, Jan. /Feb. 1969) after his parents' death, and appearances of his father and himself as prototypical versions of Batman and Robin, respectively.  In 1980 then-editor Paul Levitz commissioned the Untold Legend of the Batman limited series to thoroughly chronicle Batman's origin and history. Paul Levitz (born 21 October 1956) is an American Comic book Writer, Editor and executive A limited series is a term originated by Marvel Comics referring to a Comic book series with a set number of issues
Batman meets and regularly works with other heroes during the Silver Age, most notably Superman, whom he began regularly working alongside in a series of team-ups in World's Finest Comics, starting in 1954 and continuing through the series' cancellation in 1986. World's Finest Comics was a Comic book series published by DC Comics from 1941 to 1986 Batman and Superman are usually depicted as close friends. Batman becomes a founding member of the Justice League of America, appearing in its first story in 1960s Brave and the Bold #28. The Justice League sometimes called the Justice League of America or JLA for short is a Fictional DC Comics superhero team. For the Tortoise and Bonnie 'Prince' Billy album see The Brave and the Bold (album. In the 1970s and 1980s, Brave and the Bold became a Batman title, in which Batman teams up with a different DC Universe superhero each month. The DC Universe ( DCU) is the fictional Shared universe where most of the comic stories published by DC Comics take place
In 1969, Dick Grayson attends college as part of DC Comics' effort to revise the Batman comics. Additionally, Batman also moves from Wayne Manor into a penthouse apartment atop the Wayne Foundation building in downtown Gotham City, in order to be closer to Gotham City's crime. Batman spends the 1970s and early 1980s mainly working solo, with occasional team-ups with Robin and/or Batgirl. Batman's adventures also become somewhat darker and more grim during this period, depicting increasingly violent crimes, including the first appearance (since the early Golden Age) of an insane, murderous Joker, and the arrival of Ra's Al Ghul. Ra's al Ghul, sometimes written Rā's al Ghūl (رأس الغول is a DC Comics Supervillain and an enemy of Batman. In the 1980s, Dick Grayson becomes Nightwing. For the Marduk album see Nightwing (album. For the current and most prominent holder of the Nightwing title see Dick Grayson Nightwing
In the final issue of Brave and the Bold in 1983, Batman quits the Justice League and forms a new group called the Outsiders. The Outsiders are fictional characters a DC Comics Superhero team He serves as the team's leader until Batman and the Outsiders #32 (1986) and the comic subsequently changed its title.
After the 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths, DC Comics rebooted the histories of some major characters in an attempt at updating them for contemporary audiences. A limited series is a term originated by Marvel Comics referring to a Comic book series with a set number of issues Retroactive continuity is the deliberate changing of previously established facts in a work of serial fiction Frank Miller retold Batman's origin in the storyline Year One from Batman #404-407, which emphasizes a grittier tone in the character. Batman Year One is the title of an American Comic book Story arc written by Frank Miller, illustrated by David Mazzucchelli  Though the Earth-Two Batman is erased from history, many stories of Batman's Silver Age/Earth-One career (along with an amount of Golden Age ones) remain canonical in the post-Crisis universe, with his origins remaining the same in essence, despite alteration. For example, Gotham's police are mostly corrupt, setting up further need for Batman's existence. While Dick Grayson's past remains much the same, the history of Jason Todd, the second Robin, is altered, turning the boy into the orphan son of a petty crook, who tries to steal the tires from the Batmobile. Jason Todd is a Fictional character appearing in Comic books published by DC Comics.  Also removed is the guardian Phillip Wayne, leaving young Bruce to be raised by Alfred. Additionally, Batman is no longer a founding member of the Justice League of America, although he becomes leader for a short time of a new incarnation of the team launched in 1987. To help fill in the revised backstory for Batman following Crisis, DC launched a new Batman title called Legends of the Dark Knight in 1989 and has published various miniseries and one-shot stories since then that largely take place during the "Year One" period. Various stories from Jeph Loeb and Matt Wagner also touch upon this era. Joseph "Jeph" Loeb III is an Emmy and WGA nominated American Film and Television Writer, producer and award-winning Matt Wagner (born 1961) is an American Comic book Writer and Artist, best known as the creator of two irregular series
In 1988's "Batman: A Death in the Family" storyline from Batman #426-429 Jason Todd, the second Robin, is killed by the Joker. A Death in the Family is a Batman Comic book story arc first published in the late 1980s which gave fans the ability to influence the story Subsequently Batman takes an even darker, often excessive approach to his crime fighting. Batman works solo until the decade's close, when Tim Drake becomes the new Robin. Timothy "Tim" Drake Wayne is a Fictional character, a Comic book Superhero from the DC Comics universe.  In 2005 writers resurrected the Jason Todd character and have pitted him against his former mentor.
Many of the major Batman storylines since the 1990s have been inter-title crossovers that run for a number of issues. In 1993, the same year that DC published the "Death of Superman" storyline, the publisher released the "Knightfall" storyline. The Death of Superman is a Comic book Storyline (culminating in Superman #75 in 1992 that served as the catalyst for DC Comics ' Batman Knightfall is the title given to a major Batman Story arc published by DC Comics that dominated Batman -related serial In the storyline's first phase, the new villain Bane paralyzes Batman, leading Wayne to ask Azrael to take on the role. After the end of "Knightfall", the storylines split in two directions, following both the Azrael-Batman's adventures, and Bruce Wayne's quest to become Batman once more. The story arcs realign in "KnightsEnd", as Azrael becomes increasingly violent and is defeated by a healed Bruce Wayne. Wayne hands the Batman mantle to Dick Grayson (then Nightwing) for an interim period, while Wayne trains to return to his role as Batman. 
1994's company-wide crossover Zero Hour changes aspects of DC continuity again, including those of Batman. Zero Hour Crisis in Time is a five-issue Comic book Limited series and crossover storyline published by DC Comics in 1994 Noteworthy among these changes is that the general populace and the criminal element now considers Batman an urban legend rather than a known force. Similarly, the Waynes' killer is never caught or identified, effectively removing Joe Chill from the new continuity, rendering stories such as "Year Two" non-canon. Joe Chill is a fictional character in the DC Comics Batman series
Batman once again becomes a member of the Justice League during Grant Morrison's 1996 relaunch of the series, titled JLA. While Batman contributes greatly to many of the team's successes, the Justice League is largely uninvolved as Batman and Gotham City face catastrophe in the decade's closing crossover arc. In 1998's "Cataclysm" storyline, Gotham City is devastated by an earthquake. Batman Cataclysm is an 18 chapter crossover Story arc that ran through the various Batman family comics from March to May 1998. Deprived of many of his technological resources, Batman fights to reclaim the city from legions of gangs during 1999's "No Man's Land. Batman No Man’s Land is an American comic book crossover storyline that ran for the whole of 1999 through the Batman comic book " While Lex Luthor rebuilds Gotham at the end of the "No Man's Land" storyline, he then frames Bruce Wayne for murder in the "Bruce Wayne: Murderer?" and "Bruce Wayne: Fugitive" story arcs; Wayne is eventually acquitted. Lex Luthor is a fictional character that appears in comic books published by DC Comics. " Bruce Wayne Fugitive " is a storyline that ran through the Batman comic books in 2002
DC's 2005 limited series Identity Crisis, reveals that JLA member Zatanna had edited Batman's memories, leading to his deep loss of trust in the rest of the superhero community. A limited series is a term originated by Marvel Comics referring to a Comic book series with a set number of issues Identity Crisis is a seven-issue Comic book Limited series published by DC Comics in 2004, written by Brad Meltzer Zatanna Zatara is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe. Batman later creates the Brother I satellite surveillance system to watch over the other heroes. The OMACs ( Omni Mind And Community) are fictional type of powerful Cyborgs that exists in the DC Comics universe. Its eventual co-opting by Maxwell Lord is one of the main events that leads to the Infinite Crisis miniseries, which again restructures DC continuity. Maxwell Lord is a fictional character in the DC Comics universe. Infinite Crisis is a seven-issue Limited series of Comic books written by Geoff Johns and illustrated by Phil Jimenez, George In Infinite Crisis #7, Alexander Luthor, Jr. mentions that in the newly rewritten history of the "New Earth", created in the previous issue, the murderer of Martha and Thomas Wayne – again, Joe Chill – was captured, thus undoing the retcon created after Zero Hour. Alexander Luthor Jr is a DC Comics character who turned from a hero to a villain Retroactive continuity is the deliberate changing of previously established facts in a work of serial fiction Batman and a team of superheroes destroy Brother Eye and the OMACs. Following Infinite Crisis, Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson, and Tim Drake retrace the steps Bruce had taken when he originally left Gotham City, to "rebuild Batman". In the "Face the Face" storyline, Batman and Robin return to Gotham City after their year-long absence. Batman Face the Face was an eight issue Comic book Story arc written by James Robinson with art by Leonard Kirk, Andy Clarke At the end of the story arc, Bruce adopts Tim as his son.  The follow-up story arc in Batman, "Batman & Son", introduces Damian Wayne, who is Batman's son with Talia al Ghul. "Batman & Son" is a Comic book Story arc from DC Comics by Grant Morrison and Andy Kubert, featuring Batman in Damian Wayne is a Fictional Comic book Character in the DC Universe. Talia al Ghul (طليعة الغول - "Vanguard of the Demon" is a Fictional character in the DC Comics universe, the now-estranged Batman, along with Superman and Wonder Woman, reforms the Justice League in the new Justice League of America series, and is leading the newest incarnation of the Outsiders. The Outsiders are fictional characters a DC Comics Superhero team 
Batman's primary character traits can be summarized as "wealth; physical prowess; deductive abilities and obsession. " The details and tone of Batman's characterization have varied over the years due to different interpretations. Dennis O'Neil noted that character consistency wasn't a major concern during earlier editorial regimes; he said, "Julie Schwartz did a Batman in Batman and Detective and Murray Boltinoff did a Batman in the Brave and the Bold and apart from the costume they bore very little resemblance to each other. Julie and Murray did not coordinate their efforts, did not pretend to, did not want to, were not asked to. Continuity was not important in those days. "
A main component that defines Batman as a character is his origin story. Bob Kane said he and Bill Finger discussed the character's background and decided that "there's nothing more traumatic than having your parents murdered before your eyes. " Batman is thus driven to fight crime in order to avenge the death of his parents.  While details of Batman's origin have varied from version to version, the "reiteration of the basic origin events holds together otherwise divergent expressions" of the character.  The origin is the source of many of the character's traits and attributes, which play out in many of the character's adventures. 
Batman is often treated as a vigilante by other characters in his stories. Frank Miller views the character as "a dionysian figure, a force for anarchy that imposes an individual order. " Dressed as a bat, Batman deliberately cultivates a frightening persona in order to aid him in crime fighting. 
In his secret identity, Batman is Bruce Wayne, a billionaire businessman who lives in Gotham City. To the world at large, Bruce Wayne is often seen as an irresponsible, superficial playboy who lives off his family's personal fortune (amassed when Bruce's family invested in Gotham real estate before the city was a bustling metropolis) and the profits of Wayne Enterprises, a major private technology firm that he inherits. Wayne Enterprises (formerly WayneCorp) is a Fictional company in the DC Universe. However, Wayne is also known for his contributions to charity, notably through his Wayne Foundation charity.  Bruce creates the playboy public persona to aid in throwing off suspicion of his secret identity, often acting dim-witted and self-absorbed to further the act. 
Writers of both Batman and Superman stories have often compared the two within the context of various stories, to varying conclusions. Like Superman, the prominent persona of Batman's dual identities varies with time. Modern-age comics have tended to portray "Bruce Wayne" as the facade, with "Batman" as the truer representation of his personality (in counterpoint to the post-Crisis Superman, whose "Clark Kent" persona is the 'real' personality, and "Superman" is the 'mask'). However, some stories have portrayed the division between the two as less clear-cut than that; when the alien race known as the Cathexis divided Batman, along with five other heroes, into their superhuman and civilian identities, the Batman identity grew increasingly withdrawn, unable to fight crime with the same strength as before. The Cathexis are a race of sixth-dimensional beings from the DC Universe. This was explained as being due to the fact that, while Batman was driven by the memories of his parents' deaths, the original memory belonged to Bruce, not Batman, leaving Wayne constantly angry at the world and unable to vent his frustrations.
Unlike many superheroes, Batman has no superpowers and instead relies on "his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, and athletic prowess. " Batman is physically at the peak of human ability in dozens of areas, notably martial arts, acrobatics, strength, and escape artistry. Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for Combat. Intellectually, he is just as peerless; Batman is one of the world's greatest scientists, engineers, criminologists, and tacticians, as well as a master of disguise, often gathering information under the identity of Matches Malone. He is regarded as one of the DC Universe's greatest detectives. Rather than simply outfighting his opponents, Batman often uses cunning and planning to outwit them. In Grant Morrison's first storyline in JLA, Superman describes Batman as "the most dangerous man on Earth," able to defeat a team of superpowered aliens all by himself in order to rescue his imprisoned teammates. 
Batman's costume incorporates the imagery of a bat in order to frighten criminals. The Batsuit (also Bat-Suit) is the Costume of the Fictional character appearing in DC Comics as a Superhero, Batman.  The details of the Batman costume change repeatedly through various stories and media, but the most distinctive elements remain consistent: a scallop-hem cape, a cowl covering most of the face featuring a pair of batlike ears, and a stylized bat emblem on the chest, plus the ever-present utility belt. This article is about the garment used by monks For other uses see Cowl (disambiguation or Cowling (disambiguation. Batman 's utility belt is the most characteristic portion of Batman's costume, much like Wonder Woman 's Lasso of Truth, or Green The costumes' colors are traditionally thought of as blue and grey, although this colorization arose due to the way comic book art is colored.  Batman was conceptualized by Bill Finger and Bob Kane as having a black cape and cowl and grey suit, but conventions in coloring call for black to be highlighted with blue. William "Bill" Finger ( February 8, 1914 &ndash January 18, 1974) was an American Comic strip and Comic Bob Kane (born Robert Kahn, October 24, 1915 &ndash November 3, 1998) was an American Comic book artist  Batman has been presented as wearing a black cape and cowl, as seen in the Tim Burton Batman movie series, whilst the 1960s television showed Batman in blue and grey, as have prose adventures. Timothy "Tim" William Burton (born August 25 1958 is an American Film director, Screenwriter and Set designer, notable for the quirky  This coloring has been claimed by Larry Ford, in Place, Power, Situation, and Spectacle: A Geography of Film, to be a reversion of conventional color-coding symbolism, which sees "bad guys" wearing dark colors.  Batman's gloves typically feature three scallops that protrude from the sides. A yellow ellipse around the bat logo on the character's chest was added in 1964, and became the hero's trademark symbol, akin to the red and yellow "S" symbol of Superman.  The overall look of the character, particularly the length of the cowl's ears and of the cape, varies greatly depending on the artist. Dennis O'Neil said, "We now say that Batman has two hundred suits hanging in the Batcave so they don't have to look the same . . . Everybody loves to draw Batman, and everybody wants to put their own spin on it. "
Batman utilizes a large arsenal of specialized gadgets in his war against crime, the designs of which usually share a bat motif. Batman historian Les Daniels credits Gardner Fox with creating the concept of Batman's arsenal with the introduction of the utility belt in Detective Comics #29 (July 1939) and the first bat-themed weapons the batarang and the "Batgyro" in Detective Comics #31 and #32 (September; October, 1939). Les Daniels (born 1943 is an American Writer. Background He attended Brown University in Providence Rhode Island, where Gardner Francis Cooper Fox (Speed Saunders was initially credited to "E A batarang is a roughly Bat -shaped throwing weapon used by the DC Comics Superhero Batman.  Batman's primary vehicle is the Batmobile, which is usually depicted as an imposing black car with large tailfins that suggest a bat's wings. The Batmobile is the fictional personal Automobile of Comic book Superhero Batman. For the tail fin of an aircraft see Vertical stabilizer. The tailfin era of Automobile styling encompassed the 1950s Batman's other vehicles include the Batplane (aka the Batwing), Batboat, Bat-Sub, and Batcycle. The Batplane, later known as the Batwing, is the fictional Aircraft for the Comic book Superhero Batman. The Batboat is the fictional personal watercraft of Comic book Superhero Batman. The Batboat is the fictional personal watercraft of Comic book Superhero Batman. The Batcycle is the fictional personal Motorcycle of Comic book Superhero Batman.
In proper practice, the "bat" prefix (as in batmobile or batarang) is rarely used by Batman himself when referring to his equipment, particularly after some portrayals (primarily the 1960s Batman live-action television show and the Super Friends animated series) stretched the practice to campy proportions. Batman is a 1960s American Television series, based on the DC Comic book character of the same name. Super Friends is an American Animated television series about a team of Superheroes which ran from 1973 to 1986 on ABC as part The 1960s television series Batman has an arsenal that includes such ridiculous, satirical "bat-" names as the bat-computer, bat-scanner, bat-radar, bat-cuffs, bat-pontoons, bat-drinking water dispenser, bat-camera with polarized bat-filter, bat-shark repellent bat-spray, and bat-rope. Sharks ( Superorder Selachimorpha) are a type of Fish with a full cartilaginous Skeleton and a highly streamlined body The storyline "A Death in the Family" suggests that given Batman's grim nature, he is unlikely to have adopted the "bat" prefix on his own.
Batman keeps most of his field equipment in a utility belt. Over the years it is shown to contain a virtually limitless variety of crime fighting tools. Different versions of the belt have these items stored in either pouches or hard cylinders attached evenly around it.
In some of his early appearances, Batman uses guns (see especially Detective Comics #32, September 1939). However, this soon changed. In Batman #1 Batman is depicted as using a gun, stating "Much as I hate to take human life, I'm afraid this time it's necessary. " The editor of Batman at this time, Whitney Ellsworth, found this distasteful and decreed that Batman would no longer be shown using a gun or taking human life. Fredric Whitney Ellsworth ( November 27 1908 &ndash September 7 1980) was an American Comic book Editor  Later Batman editor Julius Schwartz, unaware of this rule, inadvertently allowed Batman to use a gun. Julius "Julie" Schwartz ( June 19, 1915 – February 8, 2004) was a Jewish Comic book and Pulp magazine "The first story I did, I made two terrible mistakes. One was that the story took place during the day, and the second was that when Batman caught the villain, he pulled a gun on him. " Some stories relax this rule, allowing Batman to arm his vehicles for the purpose of disabling other vehicles or removing inanimate obstacles. In two stories, The Dark Knight Returns and The Cult, Batman uses machine guns loaded with rubber bullets rather than live ammunition. In the 1989 Batman film, firearms figure more prominently in the Dark Knight's arsenal; machine guns and grenades are mounted on the Batmobile, and missiles and machine cannons on the Batwing. Batman is a 1989 Superhero film based on the DC Comics character of the same name.
When Batman is needed, the Gotham City police activate a searchlight with a bat-shaped insignia over the lens called the Bat-signal which shines into the night sky, creating a bat-symbol on a passing cloud which can be seen from any point in Gotham. The Bat-Signal is a Fictional Distress signal device appearing in the various interpretations of the Batman mythos A searchlight is an apparatus with Reflectors for projecting a powerful beam of Light of approximately parallel rays in a particular The origin of the signal varies, depending on the continuity and medium. 
In various incarnations, most notably the 1960s Batman TV series, Commissioner Gordon also has a dedicated phone line, dubbed the Bat-Phone, connected to a bright red telephone (in the TV series) which sits on a wooden base and has a transparent cake cover on top. Batman is a 1960s American Television series, based on the DC Comic book character of the same name. The line connects directly to Wayne Manor, specifically to a similar phone sitting on the desk in Bruce Wayne's study.
The Batcave is Batman's secret headquarters, consisting of a series of subterranean caves beneath his residence, Wayne Manor. The Batcave is the secret headquarters of fictional DC Comics Superhero Batman, (the alternate identity of billionaire playboy Bruce Wayne consisting In DC Comics, Wayne Manor is a Fictional setting the personal residence of Bruce Wayne who is also Batman. It serves as his command center for both local and global surveillance, as well as housing his vehicles and equipment for his war on crime. It also is a storeroom for Batman's memorabilia. In both the comic Batman: Shadow of the Bat (issue #45) and the 2005 film Batman Begins, the cave is said to have been part of the Underground Railroad. Batman Begins is a 2005 American Superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Batman, directed by The Underground Railroad was an informal network of secret routes and Safe houses used by 19th century Black slaves in the United States Of the heroes and villains who see the Batcave, few know where it is located. The cave is also home to a large colony of bats which Batman can summon to a scene with a sonic device. Batman also has several little caches throughout the city, linked together through his computer, where he stores extra equipment.
Batman's interactions with the characters around him, both heroes and villains, help to define the character.  Commissioner James "Jim" Gordon, Batman's ally in the Gotham City police, debuted along with Batman in Detective Comics #27 and has been a consistent presence since then. Chief of Police is the title typically given to the head of a Police department, particularly in North America. James Worthington "Jim" Gordon is a Fictional character who appears in Comic books published by DC Comics. However, the most important supporting role in the Batman mythos is filled by the hero's young sidekick Robin.  The first Robin, Dick Grayson, eventually leaves his mentor and becomes the hero Nightwing. The second Robin, Jason Todd, is beaten to death by the Joker but later returns as an adversary. Jason Todd is a Fictional character appearing in Comic books published by DC Comics. Tim Drake, the third Robin, first appears in 1989 and has gone on to star in his own comic series. Timothy "Tim" Drake Wayne is a Fictional character, a Comic book Superhero from the DC Comics universe. Alfred, Bruce Wayne's loyal butler, father figure, and one of the few to know his secret identity, "[lends] a homey touch to Batman's environs and [is] ever ready to provide a steadying and reassuring hand" to the hero and his sidekick. 
Batman is at times a member of superhero teams such as the Justice League of America and the Outsiders. Batman has often been paired in adventure with his Justice League teammate Superman, notably as the co-stars of World's Finest and Superman/Batman series. Superman/Batman is a monthly Comic book series published by DC Comics that features the publisher's two most popular characters In pre-Crisis continuity, the two are depicted as close friends; however, in current continuity, they have a mutually respectful but uneasy relationship, with an emphasis on their differing views on crime fighting and justice.
Batman is involved romantically with many women throughout his various incarnations. These range from society women such as Vicki Vale and Silver St. Cloud, to allies like Sasha Bordeaux, to even villainesses such as Catwoman and Talia al Ghul, the latter of whom he sired a son, Damien. Victoria "Vicki" Vale is a Fictional character that appears in Comic books published by DC Comics. Silver St Cloud is a fictional character who appears in Batman comics set in the. Sasha Bordeaux is a fictional character in the DC Universe. She was at first primarily associated with Batman, and has subsequently evolved an association with Catwoman is a Fictional character associated with DC Comics ' Batman franchise. Talia al Ghul (طليعة الغول - "Vanguard of the Demon" is a Fictional character in the DC Comics universe, the now-estranged While these relationships tend to be short, Batman's attraction to Catwoman is present in nearly every version and medium in which the characters appear. Authors have gone back and forth over the years as to how Batman manages the 'playboy' aspect of Bruce Wayne's personality; at different times he embraces or flees from the women interested in attracting "Gotham's most eligible bachelor".
Other supporting characters in Batman's world include former Batgirl Barbara Gordon, Commissioner Gordon's daughter who, now confined to a wheelchair due to a gunshot wound inflicted by the Joker, serves the superhero community at large as the computer hacker Oracle; Azrael, a would-be assassin who replaces Bruce Wayne as Batman for a time; Cassandra Cain, an assassin's daughter who became the new Batgirl, Huntress, the sole surviving member of a mob family turned Gotham vigilante who has worked with Batman on occasion, Ace the Bat-Hound, Batman's pet dog; and Bat-Mite, an extra-dimensional imp who idolizes Batman. Barbara "Babs" Gordon is a Fictional character appearing in Comic books published by DC Comics and in related media created by Gardner Fox In common usage hacker is generic term for a computer criminal often with a specific specialty in computer intrusion Cassandra Cain is a Fictional character in the DC Universe, and the most recent Batgirl. 
Batman faces a variety of foes ranging from common criminals to outlandish supervillains. This is a list of fictional characters from DC Comics who are enemies of Batman or of his associates, such as the Joker, Catwoman, and The Many Batman villains mirror aspects of the hero's character and development, often having tragic origin stories that lead them to a life of crime.  Batman's "most implacable foe" is the Joker, a clown like criminal who as a "personification of the irrational" represents "everything Batman [opposes]. The Joker is a fictional character appearing in Comic books published by DC Comics. " Other recurring antagonists include Catwoman, the Penguin, Two-Face, the Riddler, Scarecrow, Mister Freeze, Poison Ivy, Ra's Al Ghul, and Bane, among many others. The Penguin ( Oswald Chesterfield Cobblepot) a DC Comics Supervillain, was introduced by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger This article is about the DC comics villain For the Nigerian musician see 2face Idibia. The Riddler ( Edward Nigma or Nygma, or Nashton) is a Fictional character, a DC Comics Supervillain, an enemy of The Scarecrow ( Dr Jonathan Crane) is a DC Comics Supervillain, an enemy of Batman. Mr Freeze, real name Dr Victor Fries (pronounced as Victor "Frees" or "Freeze" is a DC Comics Supervillain, an enemy of Poison Ivy ( Pamela Lillian Isley) is a Fictional character, a DC Comics Supervillainess who is primarily an enemy of Batman. Ra's al Ghul, sometimes written Rā's al Ghūl (رأس الغول is a DC Comics Supervillain and an enemy of Batman. Bane is a Fictional character that appears in Comic books published by DC Comics.
Batman has become a pop culture icon, recognized around the world. The character's presence has extended beyond his comic book origins; events such as the release of the 1989 Batman film and its accompanying merchandising "brought the Batman to the forefront of public consciousness. " In an article commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of the character, The Guardian wrote, "Batman is a figure blurred by the endless reinvention that is modern mass culture. The Guardian (until 1959 The Manchester Guardian) is a British Newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. He is at once an icon and a commodity: the perfect cultural artefact for the 21st century. " In addition, media outlets have often used the character in trivial and comprehensive surveys- Forbes Magazine estimated Bruce Wayne to be the 7th-richest fictional character with his $6. Forbes is an American Publishing and media company Its flagship publication Forbes magazine is published bi-weekly 8 billion fortune while BusinessWeek listed the character as one of the ten most intelligent superheroes appearing in American comics. BusinessWeek is a business Magazine published by McGraw-Hill. 
The character of Batman has appeared in various media aside from comic books. Theatrical movies See also Batman (film series A number of Batman theatrical Michael John Douglas (born September 9 1951 better known by the stage name Michael Keaton, is an American Actor, known for his early comedic roles in Batman is a 1989 Superhero film based on the DC Comics character of the same name. The character has been developed as a vehicle for newspaper syndicated comic strips, books, radio dramas, television and several theatrical feature films. A newspaper is a written Publication containing News, information and Advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called Newsprint. A comic strip is a sequence of drawings that tells a story Currently in the Western world, most comic strips are written and drawn by a Comics artist A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together Radio drama is a form of audio storytelling broadcast on radio. Television ( TV) is a widely used Telecommunication medium for sending ( Broadcasting) and receiving moving Images, either monochromatic In the Film industry, a feature film is a Film made for initial distribution in theaters and being the "main attraction" of the screening The first adaptation of Batman was as a daily newspaper comic strip which premiered on October 25, 1943. A comic strip is a sequence of drawings that tells a story Currently in the Western world, most comic strips are written and drawn by a Comics artist Events 1147 - The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  That same year the character was adapted in the 13-part serial Batman, with Lewis Wilson becoming the first actor to portray Batman on screen. Serials, more specifically known as Movie serials or Film serials, were Short subjects originally shown in theaters in conjunction with a Feature Batman was a 15-chapter serial released in 1943 by Columbia Pictures. Lewis Gilbert Wilson ( January 28, 1920 - August 9, 2000) was an American Actor from New York City who was most While Batman never had a radio series of his own, the character made occasional guest appearance in The Adventures of Superman starting in 1945 on occasions when Superman voice actor Bud Collyer needed time off. Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. The Adventures of Superman, adapted from the DC Comics character created in 1938 (see Superman) came to Radio as a syndicated Bud Collyer (born Clayton Johnson Heermance Jr, June 18, 1908 &ndash September 8 1969) was an American Radio actor/announcer  A second movie serial, Batman and Robin, followed in 1949, with Robert Lowery taking over the role of Batman. Batman and Robin ( 1949) was a 15-chapter serial released by Columbia Pictures. Robert Lowery ( October 17, 1913 – December 26, 1971) born Robert Larkin Hanks, was a Motion picture, Television The exposure provided by these adaptations during the 1940s "helped make [Batman] a household name for millions who never bought a comic book. "
The Batman television series, starring Adam West, premiered in January 1966 on the ABC television network. Batman is a 1960s American Television series, based on the DC Comic book character of the same name. Adam West (born William West Anderson on September 19, 1928) is an American Actor who is best known for playing the role of The American Broadcasting Company ( ABC) is an American Television network. Inflected with a camp sense of humor, the show became a pop culture phenomenon. In his memoir, Back to the Batcave, West notes his dislike for the term 'camp' as it was applied to the 1960s series, opining that the show was instead a farce or lampoon, and a deliberate one, at that. A farce is a Comedy written for the stage or film which aims to Entertain the audience by means of unlikely extravagant and improbable situations disguise and mistaken The series ran for 120 episodes, ending in 1968. In between the first and second season of the Batman television series the cast and crew made the theatrical release Batman (1966). The popularity of the Batman TV series also resulted in the first animated adaptation of Batman in the series The Batman/Superman Hour; the Batman segments of the series were repackaged as Batman with Robin the Boy Wonder which produced thirty-three episodes between 1968 and 1977. The Batman/Superman Hour was a Filmation Animated series that was broadcast on CBS from 1968 to 1969 Batman with Robin the Boy Wonder was a Filmation Animated series that premiered on CBS on September 13, 1969; it was From 1973 until 1984, Batman had a starring role in ABC's Super Friends series, which was animated by Hanna-Barbera. Super Friends is an American Animated television series about a team of Superheroes which ran from 1973 to 1986 on ABC as part Olan Soule was the voice of Batman in all these series, but was eventually replaced during Super Friends by Adam West, who voiced the character in Filmation's 1977 series The New Adventures of Batman. Olan Soule ( February 29, 1909 &ndash February 1, 1994) was an American character actor with hundreds of credits in films radio commercials For the unrelated isometric graphics engine used by Ultimate Play the Game in their 8-bit computer games see Filmation engine. The New Adventures of Batman is an Animated series produced by Filmation in 1977 featuring the DC Comics Superheroes
Batman returned to movie theaters in 1989, with director Tim Burton's Batman starring Michael Keaton. Batman is a 1989 Superhero film based on the DC Comics character of the same name. Michael John Douglas (born September 9 1951 better known by the stage name Michael Keaton, is an American Actor, known for his early comedic roles in Burton's film was a huge success; not only was it the top-grossing film of the year, but at the time was the fifth highest-grossing film in history.  The film spawned three sequels: Batman Returns (1992), Batman Forever (1995) and Batman & Robin (1997), the last two of which were directed by Joel Schumacher instead of Burton, and replaced Keaton with Val Kilmer and George Clooney, respectively. Batman Returns is a 1992 Superhero film directed by Tim Burton. See also Batman Forever (score, Batman Forever (soundtrack, Batman Forever (video game, Batman Forever The Arcade Game Batman " Batman & Robin " is a 1997 film from the Batman film series starring George Clooney as Batman, Chris O'Donnell returning Joel Schumacher (born August 29, 1939 in New York City) is an American Film director, Screenwriter and producer Val Edward Kilmer (born December 31, 1959) is an American Actor. George Timothy Clooney (born May 6 1961 is an Academy Award - and Golden Globe award-winning American actor director, producer, In 1992 Batman returned to television in Batman: The Animated Series which was produced by Warner Bros. and was broadcast on the Fox television network until 1997, when it moved to The WB Television Network and was reworked into The New Batman Adventures. Batman The Animated Series (often shortened Batman TAS or BTAS) is an American, two time Emmy Award winning Warner Bros Entertainment Inc (or Warner Bros, Warner Bros Pictures) is one of the world's largest producers of Film and The New Batman Adventures is the successor to the highly acclaimed American animated series Batman The Animated Series. The producers of Batman: The Animated Series would go to work on the animated feature film release Batman: Mask of the Phantasm (1993), as well as the futuristic Batman Beyond and Justice League series. Batman Mask of the Phantasm (also known as Batman The Animated Movie) is a 1993 Animated Superhero film based on the fictional Batman Beyond (known as Batman of the Future in Europe, Latin America, Australia, New Zealand and Justice League is an American Animated television series about a team of Superheroes which ran from 2001 to 2004 on Cartoon Network Like Batman: The Animated Series, these productions starred Kevin Conroy as the voice of Batman/Bruce Wayne. Kevin Conroy (born November 30 1955) is an American Actor of stage, Screen and voice, best known for his portrayal In 2004, a new animated series titled The Batman made its debut with Rino Romano as the title character. The Batman was an Emmy Award -winning American Animated Television series produced by Warner Bros Career He also voiced the character Alexander Munro in the Star Trek Voyager Elite Force series and as Luis Sera, a prominent character in In 2005 Christopher Nolan directed Batman Begins, a reboot of the film franchise starring Christian Bale as Batman. Christopher Jonathan James Nolan (born July 30 1970 is a Film director, writer and producer. Batman Begins is a 2005 American Superhero film based on the fictional DC Comics character Batman, directed by Reboot, in serial Fiction, means a discarding of much or even all previous continuity in the series to start anew Christian Charles Philip Bale (born 30 January 1974 is a British A sequel to Nolan's film, The Dark Knight, is due for release in July 2008, and an animated anthology feature set between the Nolan films, Batman: Gotham Knight, is set for a direct-to-DVD release. The Dark Knight is a 2008 American Superhero film directed and co-written by Christopher Nolan. This article is about the animated film for the Batman comic series see Batman Gotham Knights.
There has been some controversy over various sexual interpretations made regarding the content of Batman comics. Homosexual interpretations have been part of the academic study of Batman since psychologist Fredric Wertham asserted in Seduction of the Innocent that "Batman stories are psychologically homosexual". Seduction of the Innocent is a book by Dr Frederic Wertham, published in 1954, that warned that Comic books were a bad form of popular Literature He claimed that "The Batman type of story may stimulate children to homosexual fantasies, of the nature of which they may be unconscious". Wertham wrote, "Only someone ignorant of the fundamentals of psychiatry and of the psychopathology of sex can fail to realize a subtle atmosphere of homoeroticism which pervades the adventures of the mature 'Batman' and his young friend 'Robin'". 
Andy Medhurst wrote in his essay "Batman, Deviance, and Camp" that Batman is interesting to gay audiences because "he was one of the first fictional characters to be attacked on the grounds of his presumed homosexuality," "the 1960s TV series remains a touchstone of camp," and "[he] merits analysis as a notably successful construction of masculinity. "
Creators associated with the character have expressed their own opinions. Writer Alan Grant has stated, "The Batman I wrote for 13 years isn't gay. Denny O'Neil's Batman, Marv Wolfman's Batman, everybody's Batman all the way back to Bob Kane. . . none of them wrote him as a gay character. Only Joel Schumacher might have had an opposing view". Joel Schumacher (born August 29, 1939 in New York City) is an American Film director, Screenwriter and producer Writer Devin Grayson has commented, "It depends who you ask, doesn't it? Since you're asking me, I'll say no, I don't think he is . Devin Kalile Grayson (birth name unknown is an American writer of Comic books and novels . . I certainly understand the gay readings, though".  While Frank Miller has described the relationship between Batman and the Joker as a "homophobic nightmare", he views the character as sublimating his sexual urges into crime fighting, concluding, "He'd be much healthier if he were gay".  Burt Ward has also remarked upon this interpretation in his autobiography Boy Wonder: My Life in Tights, noting the relationship could be interpreted as a sexual one, with the show's double entendres and lavish camp also possibly offering ambiguous interpretation. Burt Ward (born Bert John Gervis Jr, on July 6, 1945) is an American Television Actor and Activist. 
Some continue to play off the homosexual interpretations of Batman. One notable example occurred in 2000, when DC Comics refused to allow permission for the reprinting of four panels (from Batman #79, 92, 105 and 139) to illustrate Christopher York's paper All in the Family: Homophobia and Batman Comics in the 1950s.  Another happened in the summer of 2005, when painter Mark Chamberlain displayed a number of watercolors depicting both Batman and Robin in suggestive and sexually explicit poses.  DC threatened both artist and the Kathleen Cullen Fine Arts gallery with legal action if they did not cease selling the works and demanded all remaining art, as well as any profits derived from them.