The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. Types of woodwind instruments See also List of woodwind instruments Single-reed instruments use a reed, which is a thin cut A double reed is a type of reed used to produce sound in various Wind instruments The term double reed comes from the fact that there are two In Music, the range of a Musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. The tenor bassoon or " tenoroon," is a member of the Bassoon family of Double reed Woodwind instruments This group also includes the more The contrabassoon is a larger version of the Bassoon sounding an octave lower The dulcian is a Renaissance bass woodwind instrument with a Double reed and a folded Conical bore. "Hautbois" redirects here for the strawberry variety see Hautbois strawberry. Types of woodwind instruments See also List of woodwind instruments Single-reed instruments use a reed, which is a thin cut A double reed is a type of reed used to produce sound in various Wind instruments The term double reed comes from the fact that there are two Bass (pronounced like the word "base" refers to a variety of Musical instruments that can be collectively regarded as bass instruments since they produce The tenor is the highest male voice within the Modal register, just above the Baritone voice Appearing in its modern form in the 1800s, the bassoon figures prominently in orchestral, concert band, and chamber music literature. An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble, usually fairly large with string brass woodwind sections and possibly a percussion section as well A concert band, also called wind band, symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble Chamber music is a form of Classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber The instrument is known for its distinctive tone color, wide range, variety of character, and agility. Its warm, dark, reedy timbre has often been compared to that of a male baritone voice. In Music, timbre (ˈtæm-bər' like timber, or, from Fr timbre tɛ̃bʁ is the quality of a Musical note or sound that distinguishes different This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. Due to the complicated fingering and the problem of reeds, the bassoon is an especially difficult instrument to learn; schoolchildren typically take up the bassoon only after starting on another woodwind instrument, such as the flute, clarinet, or saxophone. Fingering is the choice of which fingers and hand positions to use when playing a Musical instrument. A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to produce a sound on a Musical instrument. The flute is a Musical instrument of the Woodwind family Unlike other woodwind instruments a flute is a Reedless wind instrument that produces its The clarinet is a Musical instrument in the Woodwind family The name derives from adding the suffix -et meaning little to the Italian word The saxophone (commonly referred to simply as sax) is a conical- bored transposing Musical instrument considered a member of the Woodwind
The dulcian is generally considered to be the forerunner of the modern bassoon, as it shares many characteristics with the latter, including a double reed fitted to a metal crook, obliquely drilled tone holes, and a conical bore that doubles back upon itself. The dulcian is a Renaissance bass woodwind instrument with a Double reed and a folded Conical bore. A tone hole is an opening in the body of a Wind instrument which when covered alters the pitch of the sound produced The bore of a Wind instrument is its interior chamber that defines a flow path through which air travels and is set into vibration to produce sounds The origins of the dulcian are obscure, but by the mid 16th century it was available in as many as eight different sizes, from soprano to great bass. This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. A full consort of dulcians was a rarity; its primary function seems to have been to provide the bass in the typical wind band of the time, either loud (shawms) or soft (recorders), indicating a remarkable ability to vary dynamics to suit the need. The shawm was a Medieval and Renaissance Musical instrument of the Woodwind family made in Europe from the late 13th century until The recorder is a woodwind Musical instrument of the family known as Fipple Flutes ' or internal duct flutes &mdash whistle-like In Music, dynamics normally refers to the volume of a Sound or note, but can also refer to every aspect of the execution of a given piece either stylistic Otherwise, dulcian technique was rather primitive, with eight fingerholes and generally one key, indicating that it could play in only a limited number of key signatures.
About this time, the dulcian began to be known as fagotto in Italy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest However, the usual etymology that equates fagotto with "bundle of sticks" is somewhat misleading, as the latter term did not come into general use until somewhat later.  A further discrepancy lies in the fact that the dulcian was usually carved out of a single block of wood, which is to say that it was a single "stick", and not a bundle.
It is tempting to say that the dulcian merged imperceptibly into the bassoon, but in fact there is circumstantial evidence to indicate that the baroque bassoon was a newly-invented instrument, with only a superficial resemblance to the old dulcian. Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. Note that the dulcian was never entirely supplanted--it continued to be used well into the 18th century by Johann Sebastian Bach and others. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section.2 This article is written in British English including maximised use of "-ise" The man most likely responsible for the development of the true bassoon was Martin Hotteterre (d. 1712), who may also have been the inventor of the three-piece flûte traversière and the hautbois. "Hautbois" redirects here for the strawberry variety see Hautbois strawberry. Sometime in the 1650s, Hotteterre is believed to have conceived the bassoon in four sections (bell, bass joint, boot and wing joint), an arrangement which allowed far greater accuracy in machining the bore compared with the old dulcian. He also extended the compass downward to B♭ with the addition of two keys An alternate view holds that Hotteterre was but one of several craftsmen responsible for the development of the early bassoon; these may have included additional members of the Hotteterre family, as well as other French makers active around the same time. B ( bee - flat; also called si bémol) is the eleventh Semitone of the Western Chromatic scale. A key is a specific part of a Musical instrument. The purpose and function of the part in question depends on the instrument This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  No original French bassoon from this period survives, but if it did, it would most likely resemble the earliest extant bassoons of Johann Christoph Denner and Richard Haka from the 1680s. Johann Christoph Denner (bap August 13, 1655; bur April 26, 1707) was a famous woodwind instrument maker of the Baroque Sometime around 1700, a fourth key (G♯) was added, and it was for this type of instrument that composers such as Antonio Vivaldi, Bach, and Georg Philipp Telemann wrote their demanding music. Sol Dièse or G# (G sharp is the ninth Semitone of the Solfege. Georg Philipp Telemann (March 14 1681 &ndash June 25 1767 was a German Baroque music Composer, born in Magdeburg. A fifth key, for the low E♭, was added during the first half of the 18th century. Mi Bémol or E (E-flat is the fourth Semitone of the Solfege. Notable makers of the 4-key and 5-key baroque bassoon include J. H. Eichentopf (c. 1678-1769), J. Poerschmann (1680-1757), Thomas Stanesby, Jr. Thomas Stanesby Sr & Thomas Stanesby Jr were English Oboe -makers of the 18th century (1668-1734), G. H. Scherer (1703-1778), and Prudent Thieriot (1732-1786).
Increasing demands on the capabilities of instruments and players in the 1800s — particularly concert halls requiring louder tones and the rise of virtuoso composer-performers — spurred on the further refinement of the bassoon. Increased sophistication both in manufacturing techniques and acoustical knowledge made possible great improvements in the playability of the instrument.
The modern bassoon exists in two distinct primary forms, the Buffet system and the Heckel system. The Buffet system is played primarily in France but also in Belgium and parts of Latin America, while the Heckel system is played in the majority of the world. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those
The design of the modern bassoon owes a great deal to the performer, teacher, and composer Carl Almenräder, who, assisted by the German acoustic researcher Gottfried Weber developed the 17-key bassoon whose range spanned four octaves. Carl Almenräder ( 3 October 1786 in Ronsdorf ( Wuppertal) &ndash 14 September 1846 in Biebrich) was a German Gottfried Weber ( March 1, 1779, Freinsheim – September 21, 1839, Bad Kreuznach) was a prominent German writer on music In Music, an octave ( is the the use of which is "common in most musical systems Almenräder's improvements to the bassoon began with an 1823 treatise in which he described ways of improving intonation, response, and technical ease of playing by means of augmenting and rearranging the keywork; subsequent articles further developed his ideas. Intonation, in Music, is a musician's realization of pitch accuracy or the pitch accuracy of a musical instrument Working at the Schott factory gave him the means to construct and test instruments according to these new designs, the results of which were published in Caecilia, Schott's house journal; Almenräder continued publishing and building instruments until his death in 1846, and Ludwig van Beethoven himself requested one of the newly-made instruments after hearing of the papers. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Almenräder left Schott to start his own factory along with partner Johann Adam Heckel in 1831.
Heckel and two generations of descendants continued to refine the bassoon, and it is their instrument that has become the standard for other instrument makers to follow. Because of their superior singing tone quality (an improvement upon one of the main drawbacks of the Almenräder instruments), the Heckel instruments competed for prominence with the reformed Wiener system, a Boehm-style bassoon, and a completely-keyed instrument devised by Charles-Joseph Sax, father of Adolphe Sax. The Boehm system is a system of keywork for the Flute, created by Inventor and Flautist Theobald Boehm between 1831 and 1847 Charles-Joseph Sax ( 1 February 1791 - 1 February 1864) was a Belgian (he lived in Dinant musical instrument maker Antoine-Joseph 'Adolphe' Sax (November 6 1814 &ndash February 4 1894 was a Belgian Musical instrument designer and Musician ( Clarinetist One latecomer attempt, from 1893, with a logical reformed fingering system was implemented by F. W. Kruspe, but failed to catch on. Other attempts at improving the instrument included a 24-keyed model and a single-reeded mouthpiece, but both were found to have adverse effects on the bassoon's distinctive tone and were abandoned. The mouthpiece of a Woodwind instrument is that part of the instrument which is placed partly in the player's mouth
Coming into the 20th century the Heckel-style German model of bassoon dominated the field; Heckel himself had made over 1,100 instruments by the turn of the century (serial numbers begin at 3,000), and the English makers' instruments were no longer desirable for the changing pitch requirements of the symphony orchestra, remaining primarily in military band use. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Pitch represents the perceived Fundamental frequency of a sound A military band is a group of personnel that perform musical duties for military functions usually
Except for a brief 1940s wartime conversion to ball bearing manufacture, the Heckel concern has produced instruments continuously to the present day. A ball bearing is an engineering term referring to a type of Rolling-element bearing which uses Balls to maintain the separation between the moving parts Heckel bassoons are considered by many the best, although a range of Heckel-style instruments is available from several other manufacturers, all with slightly different playing characteristics. Companies that manufacture Heckel-system bassoons include: Wilhelm Heckel, Yamaha, Fox Products, W. Schreiber & Söhne, Püchner, The Selmer Company, Linton, Moosmann Kohlert, Moennig/Adler, B. The Selmer Company was a manufacturer of Musical instruments started in Paris France in the early 1900s H. Bell and Guntram Wolf. Guntram Wolf is a maker of modern and historical Woodwind instruments in Kronach, Germany. In addition, several factories in the People's Republic of China are producing inexpensive instruments under such labels as Laval, Haydn and Lark, and these have been available in the West for some time now. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES However, they are generally of marginal quality and are usually avoided by serious players.
Because its mechanism is the most primitive of all the woodwinds, there have been occasional attempts at "reinventing" the bassoon. In the 1960s the Englishman Giles Brindley began development of what he called the "logical" bassoon, which aimed to improve intonation and evenness of tone through use of an electrically activated mechanism, making possible key combinations that were too complex for the human hand to manage. However, Brindley's "logical bassoon" was never marketed.
The Buffet system bassoon achieved its basic acoustical properties somewhat earlier than the Heckel; thereafter it continued to develop in a more conservative manner. While the early history of the Heckel bassoon included a complete overhaul of the instrument in both acoustics and keywork, the development of the Buffet system consisted primarily of incremental improvements to the keywork. Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of Sound, Ultrasound and Infrasound (all mechanical waves in gases liquids and solids This minimalist approach deprived the Buffet of the improved consistency, and thus the ease of operation and increased power found in the Heckel bassoons, but the Buffet is considered by some to have a more vocal and expressive quality. For example, the conductor John Foulds lamented in 1934 the dominance of the Heckel-style bassoon, considering them to be too homogeneous in sound with the horn. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> John Herbert Foulds ( November 2 1880 &ndash April 25
Compared to the Heckel bassoon, Buffet system bassoons have a narrower bore and somewhat simplified mechanism, requiring different fingerings for many notes. It is not possible to switch from the Heckel to the Buffet, and vice versa, without extensive "retraining". Buffet instruments are known for a reedier sound and greater facility in the upper registers, reaching e''' and f''' with far greater ease and less air pressure. In Music, a register is the relative "height" or range of a Note, set of pitches or Pitch classes Melody French woodwind tone in general exhibits a certain amount of "edge", with more of a vocal quality than is usual elsewhere, and the Buffet bassoon is no exception. This type of sound can be beneficial in music by French composers, but it also has drawn criticism for being too intrusive. As with all bassoons, the tone varies considerably depending on the individual instrument and performer. In the hands of a lesser player, the Heckel bassoon can sound rather flat and woody, but good players succeed in producing a vibrant, singing tone. Conversely, when poorly played the Buffet can sound buzzy and nasal, but good players succeed in producing a warm, expressive sound different from but in no way inferior to that of the Heckel.
Though the French system was once widely favored in England, Buffet-system instruments are no longer made there, and the last prominent English player of the French system retired in the 1980s. However, with its continued use in some regions and its distinctive tone, the Buffet continues to have a place in modern bassoon playing, particularly in France. Buffet-model bassoons are currently made in Paris by Buffet Crampon and The Selmer Company. Buffet Crampon et Compagnie is a manufacturer of high-quality Woodwind instruments including Oboes Flutes Saxophones and Bassoons Some players, for example Gerald Corey in Canada, have learned to play both types and will alternate between them depending on the repertoire being played. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
The bassoon was first used in the orchestra to reinforce the bass line, and to act as the bass of the double reed choir (oboes, taille or cor anglais). "Hautbois" redirects here for the strawberry variety see Hautbois strawberry. The cor anglais, or English horn, is a Double reed Woodwind Musical instrument in the Oboe family Baroque composer Jean-Baptiste Lully and his Les Petits Violons included oboes and bassoons along with the strings in the 16-piece (later 21-piece) ensemble, as one of the first orchestras to include the newly-invented double reeds. Jean-Baptiste de Lully ( Giovanni Battista di Lulli) (ʒɑ̃batist də lyˈli in French (November 28 1632 &ndash March 22 1687 was a French Composer of Italian Antonio Cesti included a bassoon in his 1668 opera Il Pomo d'oro (The Golden Apple). Antonio Cesti (bap August 5, 1623 &ndash October 14, 1669) known today primarily as an Italian composer of the Baroque However, the use of the bassoon in the concert orchestra was sporadic until the late 17th century when double reeds began to make their way into the standard instrumentation, largely due to the spread of the hautbois to countries outside of France. Increasing use of the bassoon as a basso continuo instrument meant that it began to be included in opera orchestras, first in France and later in Italy, Germany and England. Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer Musical notation used to indicate intervals, chords and Nonchord tones in relation Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto Meanwhile, composers such as Joseph Bodin de Boismortier, Michel Corrette, Johann Ernst Galliard, Jan Dismas Zelenka, Johann Friedrich Fasch and Telemann wrote demanding solo and ensemble music for the instrument. Joseph Bodin de Boismortier ( December 23, 1689 in Thionville – October 28, 1755 in Roissy-en-Brie) was a French Michel Corrette ( April 10 1707 &ndash January 21 1795) was a French Organist, Composer and author of musical Johann Ernst Galliard ( 1687 &ndash 1749) was a German composer Jan Dismas Zelenka, also known as Johann Dismas Zelenka (October 16 1679 &ndash December 23 1745 was a Czech Baroque Composer. Johann Friedrich Fasch ( April 15, 1688 &ndash December 5, 1758) was a German Composer. Antonio Vivaldi brought the bassoon to prominence by featuring it in 37 concerti for the instrument. The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a three part musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an Orchestra
By mid-century, the bassoon's function in the orchestra was still mostly limited to that of a continuo instrument--since scores often made no specific mention of the bassoon, its use was implied, particularly if there were parts for oboes or other winds. Beginning in the early Rococo era, composers such as Joseph Haydn, Johann Christian Bach, Giovanni Battista Sammartini and Johann Stamitz included parts that exploited the bassoon for its unique color, rather than for its perfunctory ability to double the bass line. Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. Johann Christian Bach ( September 5, 1735 &ndash January 1, 1782) was a Composer of the Classical era the eleventh and WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Giovanni Battista Sammartini (1700 or 1701 &ndash January 15, 1775 Jan Václav Antonín Stamic (later during his life in Mannhein Germanized as Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz ( June 17, 1717 &ndash March 27 Orchestral works with fully-independent parts for the bassoon would not become commonplace until the Classical era. The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as 1750 to 1810 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's "Jupiter" symphony is a prime example, with its famous bassoon solos in the first movement. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart completed his Symphony No 41 in C major ( K A movement is a self-contained part of a Musical composition or Musical form. The bassoons were generally paired, as in current practice, though the famed Mannheim Orchestra boasted four.
Another important use of the bassoon during the Classical era was in the Harmonie, a chamber ensemble consisting of pairs of oboes, horns and bassoons; later, two clarinets would be added to form an octet. Harmonie is a German word that in the context of the history of music designates a band of wind instruments employed by an aristocratic patron particularly during the The Harmonie was an ensemble maintained by German and Austrian noblemen for private music-making, and was a cost-effective alternative to a full orchestra. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Haydn, Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Krommer all wrote considerable amounts of music for the Harmonie. Ludwig van Beethoven ( English ˈlʊdvɪg væn ˈbeɪtoʊvən, 16 December 1770 &ndash 26 March 1827 was a German Composer and Pianist. Franz Krommer ( lang-cz František Vincenc Kramář) ( November 27 1759 &ndash January 8 1831) was a Moravian
The modern symphony orchestra typically calls for two bassoons, often with a third playing the contrabassoon. The contrabassoon is a larger version of the Bassoon sounding an octave lower Some works call for four or more players. The first player is frequently called upon to perform solo passages. The bassoon's distinctive tone suits it for both plaintive, lyrical solos such as Maurice Ravel's Boléro and more comical ones, such as the grandfather's theme in Peter and the Wolf. Boléro is a one-movement orchestral piece by Maurice Ravel. Originally composed as a ballet, the piece which premiered in 1928 is considered Ravel's Peter and the Wolf is a composition by Sergei Prokofiev written in 1936 after his return to the Soviet Union. Its agility suits it for passages such as the famous running line (doubled in the violas and cellos) in the overture to The Marriage of Figaro. The viola is a bowed String instrument. It is the middle voice of the Violin family, The violoncello (abbreviated to cello, or 'cello, plural cellos or celli —the c is tʃ Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans The Marriage of Figaro or the Day of Madness) K In addition to its solo role, the bassoon is an effective bass to a woodwind choir, a bass line along with the cellos and double basses, and harmonic support along with the French horns. The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. In Acoustics and Telecommunication, the harmonic of a Wave is a component Frequency of the signal that is an Integer
A wind ensemble will usually also include two bassoons and sometimes contra, each with independent parts; other types of concert wind ensembles will often have larger sections, with many players on each of first or second parts; in simpler arrangements there will be only one bassoon part and no contra. The bassoon's role in the wind band is similar to its role in the orchestra, though when scoring is thick it often cannot be heard above the brass instruments also in its range. La Fiesta Mexicana, by H. Owen Reed, features the instrument prominently, as does the transcription of Malcolm Arnold's Four Scottish Dances which has become a staple of the concert band repertoire. Herbert Owen Reed (born June 17, 1910) is an American Composer, conductor, and Author. Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006 was an English Composer and symphonist.
The bassoon is also part of the standard wind quintet instrumentation, along with the flute, oboe, clarinet, and horn; it is also frequently combined in various ways with other woodwinds. A wind quintet, also sometimes known as a woodwind quintet, is a group of five wind players (most commonly flute, Oboe, clarinet, horn Richard Strauss's "Duet-Concertino" pairs it with the clarinet as concertante instruments, with string orchestra in support. Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted
The bassoon quartet has also gained favor in recent times. The bassoon's wide range and variety of tone colors make it ideally suited to grouping in like-instrument ensembles. Peter Schickele's "Last Tango in Bayreuth" (after themes from Tristan and Iseult) is a popular work; Schickele's fictional alter ego P. D. Q. Bach exploits the more humorous aspects with his quartet "Lip My Reeds", which at one point calls for players to perform on the reed alone. Johann Peter Schickele (born July 17 1935) is an American Composer, musical educator and parodist, best known for his comedy music The legend of Tristan and Iseult is an influential romance and tragedy retold in numerous sources with as many variations P D Q Bach is a fictional composer invented by musical satirist "Professor" Peter Schickele. It also calls for a low A at the very end of the prelude section in the fourth bassoon part. La or A is the sixth Note ( Submediant) in the C major scale "A" is generally used as a standard for tuning It is written so that the first bassoon does not play; instead, his or her role is to place an extension in the bell of the fourth bassoon so that the note can be played.
The bassoon is infrequently used as a jazz instrument and rarely seen in a jazz ensemble. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States A jazz band (or jazz ensemble) is a Musical ensemble that plays Jazz Music usually without a conductor It first began appearing in the 1920s, including specific calls for its use in Paul Whiteman's group and a few other session appearances. Paul Whiteman ( March 28, 1890 &ndash December 29, 1967) was an American orchestral The next few decades saw the instrument used only sporadically, as symphonic jazz fell out of favor, but the 1960s saw artists such as Yusef Lateef and Chick Corea incorporate bassoon into their recordings; Lateef's diverse and eclectic instrumentation saw the bassoon as a natural addition, while Corea employed the bassoon in combination with flautist Hubert Laws. Dr Yusef Lateef (born William Emanuel Huddleston, October 9, 1920) is an American Jazz Multi-instrumentalist, Composer Armando Anthony "Chick" Corea (born June 12, 1941) is a multiple Grammy Award winning American Jazz Pianist A flautist, flutist, or flute player is a Musician who plays the Flute. Hubert Laws (b November 10, 1939) is an American Flutist with a 30-year career in Jazz, classical, and other music
More recently, Illinois Jacquet and Frank Tiberi have both doubled on bassoon in addition to their usual saxophone performances. Jean-Baptiste Illinois Jacquet ( October 31, 1922 &ndash July 22, 2004) was a Jazz tenor Saxophonist most famous for his Frank Tiberi, of Camden New Jersey, is the leader of the Woody Herman Orchestra Bassoonist Karen Borca, a performer of free jazz, is one of the few jazz musicians to play only bassoon; Michael Rabinowitz, the Spanish bassoonist Javier Abad, and James Lassen, an American resident in Bergen, Norway, are others. Karen Borca (b Sept 5 1948 Green Bay, Wisconsin) is an American Free jazz Bassoonist Borca studied music at the University of Wisconsin For the Ornette Coleman album after which this genre was named see Free Jazz A Collective Improvisation. Michael Rabinowitz is a bassoonist who plays both Classical music and Jazz. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the is the second largest city in Norway. It is located on the south-western coast of Norway in the county of Hordaland in between a group of mountains known as De syv fjell Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional Lindsay Cooper, Paul Hanson, the Brazilian bassoonist Alexandre Silverio, and Daniel Smith are also currently using the bassoon in jazz. Lindsay Cooper (born 3 March 1951) is an English Bassoon and Oboe player Composer and Political activist Paul Hanson is an American Jazz Bassoonist and saxophonist. He received a bachelor of music degree from the San Francisco Conservatory |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld French bassoonists Jean-Jacques Decreux and Alexandre Ouzounoff have both recorded jazz, exploiting the flexibility of the Buffet system instrument to good effect.
The bassoon is even rarer as a regular member of rock bands. However, several 1960s pop music hits feature the bassoon, including The Tears of a Clown by Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, Jennifer Juniper by Donovan, 59th Street Bridge Song by Simon & Garfunkel, and the oompah bassoon underlying The New Vaudeville Band's Winchester Cathedral. "The Tears of a Clown" is a 1967 song by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles for the Tamla ( Motown) label originally released on the 1967 album The Miracles (known from 1965 to 1972 as Smokey Robinson & the Miracles) is an American Rhythm and blues group from Detroit Michigan, notable Jennifer Juniper is a song and single by Donovan, released in 1968 Donovan ( Donovan Phillips Leitch, born 10 May 1946 in Glasgow) is a Scottish Singer-songwriter and guitarist " The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin' Groovy " is a short and whimsical song by Folk music duo Simon and Garfunkel, appearing on their 1966 album Simon & Garfunkel are an American Singer-songwriter duo of Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel. The New Vaudeville Band was a group created by Songwriter Geoff Stephens (born 1 October 1934 in New Southgate, North London " Winchester Cathedral " is a song released in late 1966 by Fontana Records, whereupon it shot to the #1 spot on the Billboard Hot 100 chart From 1968 to 1978, the bassoon was played by Lindsay Cooper in the English avant-garde band Henry Cow, and in the 1970s it was used by the English band Gryphon (played by Brian Gulland). Avant-garde music is a subjective term that can be used in different ways Henry Cow were an English Avant-garde rock group, founded at Cambridge University in 1968 by multi-instrumentalists Fred Gryphon were a British Progressive rock band of the 1970s notable for their unusual sound and instrumentation
In the 1990s, Madonna Wayne Gacy provided bassoon for the alternative metal band Marilyn Manson as did Aimee DeFoe, in what is self-described as "grouchily lilting garage bassoon", in the indie-rock band Blogurt from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Stephen Gregory Bier Jr, formerly known by his Stage name Madonna Wayne Gacy, (born March 6, 1964, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida Marilyn Manson is an American Alternative metal band based in Los Angeles California. The Icelandic pop band Hjaltalín also contains a bassoon player called Rebekka . The rock band Better Than Ezra took their name from a passage in Ernest Hemingway's A Moveable Feast in which the author comments that listening to an annoyingly talkative person is still “better than Ezra learning how to play the bassoon,” referring to Ezra Pound. Better Than Ezra is an American Alternative rock trio based in New Orleans Louisiana. Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21 1899 — July 2 1961 was an American novelist short-story writer, and Journalist. A Moveable Feast is a set of memoirs by American author Ernest Hemingway about his years in Paris as part of the American expatriate Ezra Weston Loomis Pound ( Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States October 30 1885 – Venice, Italy November 1 1972 was an American Expatriate
Bassoons also frequently provide background music for advertisements and cartoons. They give a great sense of a light and happy environment. Although, they could also give a much darker and creepier tone. Indeed, the bassoon could be used for a wide variety of tone settings. The bassoon is one of the most unique instruments and is known distinctly for its wide range (which is what allows it to produce such different moods).
The bassoon is held diagonally in front of the player and cannot easily be supported by the player's hands alone. The most common means of support are 1) a neck-strap or shoulder-harness attached to the top of the boot joint, or 2) a seat strap attached to the base of the boot joint which is laid across the chair seat prior to sitting down. Occasionally a spike similar to those used for the cello or the bass clarinet is attached to the bottom of the boot joint and rests on the floor. It is possible to play while standing up if the player uses a neck strap or similar harness, or if they tie the seat strap to their belt. Sometimes a device called a balance hanger is used when playing in a standing position. This is installed between the instrument and the neck strap, and shifts the center of gravity to a higher, more favorable position.
The Heckel-system bassoon is played with both hands in a stationary position, the left above the right, with five main finger holes on the front of the instrument (nearest the audience) plus a sixth that is activated by an open-standing key. Five additional keys on the front are controlled by the little fingers of each hand. The back of the instrument (nearest the player) has twelve or more keys to be controlled by the thumbs, the exact number varying depending on model.
To stabilize the right hand, many bassoonists use an adjustable comma-shaped apparatus called a "crutch" which mounts to the boot joint; players use a thumb screw to secure the crutch and vary the distance that it protrudes from the bassoon. Players rest the curve of the right hand where the thumb joins the palm against the crutch. The crutch also keeps the right hand from tiring and enables the player to keep put the finger pads flat on the finger holes and keys.
An aspect of bassoon technique not found on any other woodwind is called flicking. It involves the momentary pressing, or "flicking", of the high A, C and D keys by the left hand thumb at the beginning of certain notes in the middle octave in order to eliminate the "cracking" or brief microphonic that happens without the use of the key. C or Do is the first Note of the fixed-Do Solfege. In Western Music, the expression " Middle C " refers to the note D is a musical note a whole tone above C, and is known as Re within the Solfege system "Flicking" is not universal amongst bassoonists; some American players, principally on the East Coast, use it sparingly, if at all. The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern The rest use it virtually 100% of the time--it has become in essence "part of the fingering".
European players in general are "flickers". Some hold down the appropriate key for the duration of the note, rather than just at the beginning; this is sometimes referred to as "venting".
A "no-flick" octave key system is available as an add-on, invented by Arthur Weisberg. Arthur Weisberg (1931- is an American Bassoonist, conductor composer and author Only a few years old, it has yet to be offered as "standard equipment" by any of the major bassoon manufacturers.
While bassoons are usually critically tuned at the factory, the player nonetheless has a great degree of flexibility of pitch control through the use of breath support and embouchure. The embouchure is the use of facial muscles and the shaping of the lips to the Mouthpiece of a Wind instrument. Players can also use alternate fingerings to adjust the pitch of many notes.
Many extended techniques can be performed on the bassoon, such as multiphonics, fluttertonguing, circular breathing, double tonguing, and harmonics. Multiphonics is an Extended technique in instrumental music in which a monophonic instrument (one which generally produces only one note at a time is made to produce Fluttertonguing is a Wind instrument Tonguing technique in which performers flutter their Tongue to make a characteristic "FrrrrFrrrrr" sound Circular breathing is a technique used by players of some Wind instruments to produce a continuous tone without interruption Tonguing is when a musician playing a wind instrument uses the tongue on the reed or mouthpiece to enunciate different notes
Also, using certain fingerings, notes may be produced on the instrument that sound lower pitches than the actual range of the instrument. These "impossible notes" tend to sound very gravelly and out of tune, but technically sound below the low B♭. Alternatively, lower notes can be produced by inserting a small paper or rubber tube into the end of the bell, which converts the lower B♭ into a lower note such as an A natural, but this affects the tuning of other notes in the lower register.
Bassoon reeds, made of Arundo donax cane, are often made by the players themselves, although beginner bassoonists tend to buy their reeds from professional reed makers or use reeds made by their teachers. Arundo donax L ( Giant Reed) is a tall perennial reed growing in fresh and moderately saline waters Reeds begin with a length of tube cane that is split into three or four pieces. The cane is then trimmed and gouged to the desired thickness, leaving the bark attached. After soaking, the gouged cane is cut to the proper shape and milled to the desired thickness, or profile, by removing material from the bark side. This can be done by hand with a file; more frequently it is done with a machine or tool designed for the purpose. After the profiled cane has soaked once again it is folded over in the middle. Prior to soaking, the reed maker will have lightly scored the bark with parallel lines with a knife; this insures that the cane will assume a cylindrical shape during the forming stage. On the bark portion, the reed maker binds on three coils or loops of brass wire to aid in the final forming process. The exact placement of these loops can vary somewhat depending on the reed maker. The bound reed blank is then wrapped with thick cotton or linen thread to protect it, and a conical steel mandrel (which sometimes has been heated in a flame) is quickly inserted in between the blades. A mandrel (ˈmændrɨl and also spelled mandril; in American English also called an arbor) is either an object used to shape machined work a Tool Using a special pair of pliers, the reed maker presses down the cane, making it conform to the shape of the mandrel. (The steam generated by the heated mandrel causes the cane to permanently assume the shape of the mandrel. ) The upper portion of the cavity thus created is called the "throat", and its shape has an influence on the final playing characteristics of the reed. The lower, mostly cylindrical portion will be reamed out with a special tool, allowing the reed to fit on the bocal.
After the reed has dried, the wires are tightened around the reed, which has shrunk after drying. The lower part is sealed (generally with a nitrocellulose-based cement such as Duco) and then wrapped with string to ensure both that no air leaks out through the bottom of the reed and that the reed maintains its shape. Nitrocellulose (also cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by Nitrating Cellulose through exposure to
To finish the reed, the end of the reed blank, originally at the center of the unfolded piece of cane, is cut off, creating an opening. The blades above the first wire are now roughly 27–30 mm (1. 1–1. 2 in) long. In order for the reed to play, a slight bevel must be created at the tip with a knife, although there is also a machine that can perform this function. Other adjustments with the knife may be necessary, depending on the hardness and profile of the cane and the requirements of the player. The reed opening may also need to be adjusted by squeezing either the first or second wire with the pliers. Additional material may be removed from the sides (the "channels") or tip to balance the reed. Additionally, if the "e" in the staff is sagging in pitch, it may be necessary to "clip" the reed by removing 1–2 mm (0. 039–0. 079 in) from its length. 
Playing styles of individual bassoonists vary greatly; because of this, most advanced players will make their own reeds, in the process customizing them to their individual playing requirements. Many companies and individuals do offer reeds for sale, but even with store-bought reeds, the player must know how to make adjustments to suit his particular playing style.
Little is known about the early construction of the bassoon reed, as few examples survive, and much of what is known is only what can be gathered from artistic representations. The earliest known written instructions date from the middle of the 17th century, describing the reed as being held together by wire or resined thread; the earliest actual reeds that survive are more than a century younger, a collection of 21 reeds from the late 18th century Spanish bajon.
A collection of samples demonstrating the bassoon's range, abilities, and tone.
|Playing Range (A1 B♭1 E5 A♭5)|
|Tone across octaves (B♭1 B♭2 B♭3 B♭4)|
|Chromatic scale (B♭1 to B♭4)|
|Articulations (staccato, legato, legato+vibrato, slurred)|
|Trills (B4 to C5 B3 to C4 B2 to C3)|
|Bassoon reed alone|
|Bassoon performance from Beethoven's 4th Symphony|
|Bassoon solo composed by Rimsky-Korsakov|
|Tu Pauperum Refugium|
|Four bassoon ensemble performing from Josquin des Prez's Magnus es tu, Domine|