The electric bass guitar (also called electric bass, or simply bass; pronounced /ˈbeɪs/, as in "base") is a stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs A finger is a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the Hands of Humans and other Primates Normally humans have five digits Often called a pick or plec, a plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. The bass is similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, but with a larger body, a longer neck and scale length, and usually four strings tuned to the same pitches as those of the double bass, or one octave lower in pitch than the four lower strings of a guitar (E, A, D, and G). An electric guitar is a type of Guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into an electrical current which is made louder The neck is the part of the Body on many limbed Vertebrates that distinguishes the head from the Torso or trunk In Music, a scale is a group of musical notes collected in ascending and descending order that provides material for or is used to conveniently represent part or all The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. In Music, an octave ( is the the use of which is "common in most musical systems Pitch represents the perceived Fundamental frequency of a sound  Bass guitar is notated in bass clef an octave higher than the sound it makes.
Since the 1950s, the electric bass guitar has largely replaced the double bass in popular music. Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Popular music is Music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more The bass guitar provides the low-pitched basslines and bass runs in many different styles of music ranging from rock and metal to blues and jazz. A bassline (also spelled bass line) is the term used in many styles of Popular music, such as jazz blues funk and electronic Music for the low-pitched A bass run (or "bass break" is a short Instrumental break or fill in which the bass instrument, such as an electric bass or a Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States It is also used as a soloing instrument in jazz, fusion, Latin, funk, and rock styles. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Fusion or more specifically jazz fusion or jazz rock, is a Musical genre that merges Jazz with elements of other styles of music particularly Latin music, includes the music of all countries in Latin America (and the Caribbean) and comes in many varieties Funk is an American musical style that originated in the mid- to late-1960s when African American musicians blended Soul music, Soul Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums.
In the 1930s, inventor Paul Tutmarc from Seattle, Washington, developed the first guitar-style electric bass instrument that was fretted and designed to be held and played horizontally. An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method form device or other useful means Paul Tutmarc (1896-1972 was a Seattle musician and musical instrument inventor Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. A fret is a raised portion on the neck of a Stringed instrument, that extends generally across the full width of the neck The 1935 sales catalogue for Tutmarc's company, Audiovox, featured his "electronic bass fiddle," a four stringed, solid bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30½-inch scale length. Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  The change to a "guitar" form made the instrument easier to hold and transport, and the addition of guitar-style frets enabled bassists to play in tune more easily and made the new electric bass easier to learn. However, Tutmarc's inventions never caught the public imagination, and little further development of the instrument took place until the 1950s. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive
In the 1950s, Leo Fender, with the help of his employee George Fullerton, developed the first mass-produced electric bass. Clarence Leonidas Fender ( August 10, 1909 - March 21, 1991) also known as Leo Fender, was an American inventor who  His Fender Precision Bass, introduced in 1951, became a widely copied industry standard. The Fender Precision Bass (sometimes shortened to the " P Bass " is an electric bass guitar, and was the first widely-available model of the instrument Year 1951 ( MCMLI) was a Common year starting on Monday. Events of 1951 January The Precision Bass (or "P-bass") evolved from a simple, uncontoured "slab" body design similar to that of a Telecaster with a single coil pickup, to a contoured body design with beveled edges for comfort and a single four-pole "split coil pickup. The Fender Telecaster, also known as the Tele (pronounced Telly is typically a dual-pickup solid-body Electric guitar made by Fender. A single coil pickup is a type of magnetic Transducer for the Electric guitar and the electric bass. " Monk Montgomery was the first bass player to tour with the Fender bass guitar, with Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. William Howard "Monk" Montgomery ( October 10, 1921 – May 20, 1982) was an American Jazz Bassist Lionel Leo Hampton ( April 20, 1908 &ndash August 31, 2002) was an American Jazz Vibraphonist, Percussionist A big band is a type of Musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late  Roy Johnson, who replaced Montgomery in Hampton's band, and Shifty Henry with Louis Jordan & His Tympany Five, were other early Fender Bass pioneers. John Willie "Shifty" Henry (born 4 October 1921, Edna Texas — died 30 November 1958, Los Angeles, California Louis Jordan ( July 8, 1908 – February 4, 1975) was a pioneering American Jazz, Blues and Rhythm & blues Tympany Five was a successful Rhythm and blues and Jazz dance band founded by Louis Jordan in 1938  Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, adopted the Fender Precision Bass around 1957. William Patton "Bill" Black Jr ( September 17, 1926 – October 21, 1965) was an American Musician. 
Following Fender's lead, Gibson released the violin-shaped EB-1 Bass in 1953, followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass in 1959. The Gibson Guitar Corporation of Nashville Tennessee, USA is a manufacturer of acoustic and Electric guitars The company's most popular guitar The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member The Gibson EB-0 is a Bass guitar by Gibson that was introduced in 1959. As with Fender's designs, Gibson relied heavily upon an existing guitar design for this bass; the EB-0 was very similar to a Gibson SG in appearance (although the earliest examples have a slab-sided body shape closer to that of the double-cutaway Les Paul Special). The Gibson SG is a popular model of solid-bodied Electric guitar that was introduced in the early 1960s
Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket. A conventional humbucker (or Humbucking pickup) is a type of Electric guitar pickup that uses two coils both generating string signal The EB-3, introduced in 1961, also had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. The Gibson EB-3 is an electric Bass guitar model produced by the Gibson Guitar Corporation. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Gibson basses also tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments; Gibson did not produce a 34" scale bass until 1963 with the release of the Thunderbird, which was also the first Gibson bass to utilize dual-humbucking pickups in a more traditional position, about halfway between the neck and bridge. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Gibson Thunderbird is an electric Bass guitar made by Gibson.
A small number of other companies also began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, and Danelectro in 1956; Rickenbacker and Höfner also produced models. Kay Musical Instrument Company was a notably prolific US manufacturer of Musical instruments that operated from the 1930s through 1960s Year 1952 ( MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Danelectro is a manufacturer of musical instruments and accessories specializing in Guitars Bass guitars amplifiers and Effects units Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. For the American WWI fighter pilot see Eddie Rickenbacker. For the airport see Rickenbacker International Airport. Karl Höfner GmbH & Co KG is a German Manufacturer of Musical instruments with one division that manufactures Guitars and basses, and another With the explosion of the popularity of rock music in the 1960s many more manufacturers began making bass guitars. The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969
First introduced in 1960, The Fender Jazz Bass was known as the Deluxe Bass and was meant to accompany the Jazzmaster guitar. Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Jazz Bass (or J Bass) was the second model of electric bass guitar created by Leo Fender. The Fender Jazzmaster is an Electric guitar that was first introduced at the 1958 NAMM Show and was designed as a more upmarket instrument than the The Jazz Bass (often referred to as a "J-bass") featured two single-coil pickups, one close to the bridge and one in the Precision bass' split coil pickup position, and was designed by Leo Fender to be an easier bass for a guitarist to play than the existing Precision Bass, due to the narrower nut (noted later). The earliest production basses had a 'stacked' volume and tone control for each pickup. The volume of any solid plasma vacuum or theoretical object is how much three- Dimensional space it occupies often quantified numerically This was soon changed to the familiar configuration of a volume control for each pickup, and a single, passive tone control. The Jazz Bass' neck was narrower at the nut than the Precision bass (1½" versus 1¾").
Another visual difference that set the Jazz Bass apart from the Precision is its "offset-waist" body. Pickup shapes on electric basses are often referred to as "P" or "J" pickups in reference to the visual and electrical differences between the Precision Bass and Jazz Bass pickups. A pickup device acts as a Transducer that captures mechanical vibrations (usually from suitably equipped Stringed instruments such as the Electric guitar Fender also began production of the Mustang Bass; a 30" scale length instrument used by bassists such as Tina Weymouth of Talking Heads ("P" and "J" basses have a scale length of 34", a design echoed on most current production electric basses of all makes). The Fender Mustang Bass is an electric Bass guitar model produced by Fender. Martina Michèle Weymouth (born on November 22, 1950 in Coronado California) known simply as Tina Weymouth, is an American musician Talking head Talking Heads was an American New Wave band formed in 1974 in New York City and active until 1991
In the 1950s and 1960s, the bass guitar was often called the Fender bass, due to Fender's early dominance in the market for mass-produced bass guitars. Fender Musical Instruments Corporation of Quincy Illinois is a manufacturer of stringed instruments such as solid-body Electric guitars including the The term electric bass began replacing Fender bass in the late 1960s, however, as evidenced by the title of Carol Kaye's popular bass instructional book in 1969 How to Play the Electric Bass The instrument is also referred to as an electric bass guitar, electronic bass, or simply bass. Carol Kaye (born March 24, 1935) is an American musician best known as one of the most prolific Bass guitarists in history playing on an estimated
The 1970s saw the founding of Music Man Instruments, owned by Leo Fender, which produced the StingRay, the first widely-produced bass with active (powered) electronics. This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970. Music Man is an American Guitar, and Bass guitar manufacturer Music Man StingRay is an electric bass guitar by Music Man, introduced in 1976 This amounts to an impedance buffering pre-amplifier on-board the instrument to lower the output impedance of the bass's pickup circuit, increasing low-end output, and overall frequency response (more lows and highs). Specific models became identified with particular styles of music, such as the Rickenbacker 4001 series, which became identified with progressive rock bassists like Chris Squire of Yes, while the StingRay was used by Louis Johnson of the funk band The Brothers Johnson. Christopher Russell Edward "Chris" Squire (born March 4, 1948) is an English musician best known as the Bass guitarist and Yes are an English Progressive rock band that formed in London in 1968. Louis Johnson (born April 13, 1955, in Los Angeles California, United States) is an American musician regarded as one of the best The Brothers Johnson is a band consisting of American Musicians and brothers George ('Lightnin' Licks' and Louis Johnson ('Thunder Thumbs'
In 1971, Alembic established the template for what would subsequently be known as "boutique" or "high end" electric bass guitars. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Alembic was founded in 1969 and is a manufacturer of high-end electric basses guitars and preamps These expensive, custom-tailored instruments featured unique designs, premium wood bodies chosen and hand-finished by highly skilled luthiers, onboard electronics for preamplification and equalization, and innovative construction techniques such as multi-laminate neck-through-body construction and graphite necks. Neck-through or neck-thru (or in full form neck through body) is a method of Electric guitar or Bass guitar construction that involves extending In the mid-1970s, Alembic and other "boutique" bass manufacturers such as Tobias, and Ken Smith produced 4- string basses and 5-string basses with a low "B" string. Tobias is a brand of Bass guitar originally made by Luthier Michael Tobias starting in the 1970s and later bought out by Gibson Guitar Corporation. In 1975, bassist Anthony Jackson commissioned luthier Carl Thompson to a 6-string bass tuned (low to high) B, E, A, D, G, C. This article is about the musician For the English actor see Anthony Jackson (actor. Carl Thompson (born 1939 is a Luthier and musician specializing in the construction of high-quality custom Bass guitars, based in Brooklyn New York.
In the 1980s, bass designers continued to explore new approaches. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. Ned Steinberger introduced a headless bass in 1979 and continued his innovations in the 1980s, using graphite and other new materials and (in 1984) introducing the Trans-Trem tremolo bar. Ned Steinberger (b Princeton, New Jersey, 1948) is an American creator of innovative Musical instruments. Year 1979 ( MCMLXXIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1979 Gregorian calendar) Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) Trans-Trem is a guitar tremolo system developed by Steinberger in 1984 A tremolo arm or tremolo bar (also called a "whammy bar" or "wang bar" is a lever attached to the bridge and/or the Tailpiece of In 1987, the Guild Guitar Corporation launched the fretless Ashbory bass, which used silicone rubber strings and a piezoelectric pickup to achieve a "double bass" sound with a short 18" scale length. Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) The Ashbory bass designed by Alun Ashworth-Jones and Nigel Thornbory is an 18-inch scale fretless (but marked electric bass developed in 1985 In the late 1980s, MTV's "Unplugged" show helped to popularize hollow-bodied acoustic bass guitars amplified with pickups. MTV Unplugged is a series showcasing popular musical artists playing Acoustic instruments It was produced by Viacom and was directed by Beth The acoustic bass guitar (also called ABG or acoustic bass) is a bass instrument with a hollow wooden body similar to though usually somewhat larger than a steel-string
During the 1990s, as five-string basses became more widely available and more affordable, an increasing number of bassists in genres ranging from metal to gospel began using five-string instruments for added lower range. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 As well, the onboard battery-powered electronics such as preamplifiers and equalizer circuits, which were previously only available on expensive "boutique" instruments, became increasingly available on modestly priced basses.
In the 2000s, some bass manufacturers included digital modelling circuits inside the instrument to recreate tones and sounds from many models of basses (e. Digital signal processing ( DSP) is concerned with the representation of the signals by a sequence of numbers or symbols and the processing of these signals g. , Line 6's Variax bass). Line 6 is a manufacturer of Digital modelling Electric guitars Acoustic guitars, amplifiers and Traditional bass designs such as the Fender Precision Bass and Fender Jazz Bass remain popular in the 2000s; in 2006, a 60th Anniversary P-bass was introduced by Fender. The Fender Precision Bass (sometimes shortened to the " P Bass " is an electric bass guitar, and was the first widely-available model of the instrument The Jazz Bass (or J Bass) was the second model of electric bass guitar created by Leo Fender. Fender Musical Instruments Corporation of Quincy Illinois is a manufacturer of stringed instruments such as solid-body Electric guitars including the
A wide variety of different options are available for the body, neck, pickups, and other features of the bass. Instruments handmade by highly skilled luthiers are becoming increasingly available. Bass bodies are typically made of wood although other materials such as graphite (for example, some of the Steinberger designs) have also been used. The Mineral graphite, as with Diamond and Fullerene, is one of the Allotropes of carbon. Steinberger refers to a series of distinctive Electric guitars and Bass guitars designed and originally manufactured by Ned Steinberger. While a wide variety of woods are suitable for use in the body, neck, and fretboard of the bass guitar – the most common type of wood used for the body is alder, for the neck is maple, and for the fretboard is rosewood. Tonewood is the term generally used to designate wood with recognized and consistent acoustic qualities when used in the making of musical instruments Alder is the common name of a Genus of Flowering plants ( Alnus) belonging to the Birch family (Family Betulaceae) Acer ( maple) is a Genus of Trees or Shrubs They are variously classified in a family of their own the Aceraceae, or Other commonly used woods include mahogany, maple, ash, and poplar for bodies, mahogany for necks, and ebony for fretboards.
The choice of body material and shape can have a significant impact on the timbre of the completed instrument as well as on aesthetic considerations. In Music, timbre (ˈtæm-bər' like timber, or, from Fr timbre tɛ̃bʁ is the quality of a Musical note or sound that distinguishes different Other design options include finishes, such as lacquer, wax and oil; flat and carved designs; Luthier-produced custom-designed instruments; headless basses, which have tuning machines in the bridge of the instrument (e. g. Steinberger and Hohner designs) and several artificial materials such as luthite. Steinberger refers to a series of distinctive Electric guitars and Bass guitars designed and originally manufactured by Ned Steinberger. For the music band from Cologne see Höhner. Hohner Musikinstrumente GmbH & Co Luthite is a light-weight synthetic material developed by Cort Guitars for the construction of Bass guitar and guitar bodies The use of artificial materials allows for unique production techniques such as die-casting, to produce complex body shapes.
While most basses have solid bodies, they can also include hollow chambers to increase the resonance or reduce the weight of the instrument. Some basses are built with entirely hollow bodies, which changes the tone and resonance of the instrument. Acoustic bass guitars are typically equipped with piezoelectric or magnetic pickups and amplified. The acoustic bass guitar (also called ABG or acoustic bass) is a bass instrument with a hollow wooden body similar to though usually somewhat larger than a steel-string
Bass guitar necks, which are longer than regular electric guitar necks, are generally made of maple. Acer ( maple) is a Genus of Trees or Shrubs They are variously classified in a family of their own the Aceraceae, or More exotic woods include bubinga, wenge, ovangkol, ebony and goncalo alves. Guibourtia is a Flowering plant Genus in the Family Fabaceae ( Legume family Wenge (pronounced "wengay" ˈwɛŋɡeɪ wood (also known as palissandre d'Afrique / du Congo ( African / Congolese Rosewood Guibourtia ehie ( Hyedua, Black Hyedua, Ovangkol, Amazoué, or Shedua) is a species of Guibourtia Ebony ( Diospyros ebenum) also known as India Ebony or Ceylon Ebony depending on its origin is a Tree in the genus Diospyros Goncalo alves, (in Portuguese Gonçalo Alves or Gonçaleiro) sometimes referred to as Zebrawood or Tigerwood — names that underscore Graphite or carbon fiber are used to make lightweight necksand, in some cases, entire basses. The Mineral graphite, as with Diamond and Fullerene, is one of the Allotropes of carbon. 
Exotic woods are used on more expensive instruments: for example, the company 'Alembic' is associated with the use of cocobolo as a body material or top layer because of its attractive grain. Warwick bass guitars are also well-known for exotic hardwoods: most of the necks are made of ovangkol, and the fingerboards wenge or ebony. Solid bubinga bodies are also used for tonic and aesthetic qualities.
The "long scale" necks used on Leo Fender's basses, giving a scale length (distance between nut and bridge) of 34", remain the standard for electric basses. For the musical (rather than instrumental scale, see Pythagorean tuning. The nut of a String instrument is a small piece of hard material which supports the strings at the end closest to the Headstock or scroll. A bridge is a device for supporting the strings on a Stringed instrument and transmitting the Vibration of those strings to some other structural component However, 30" or "short scale" instruments, such as the Höfner Violin Bass, played by Paul McCartney, and the Fender Mustang Bass are popular, especially for players with smaller hands. Karl Höfner GmbH & Co KG is a German Manufacturer of Musical instruments with one division that manufactures Guitars and basses, and another Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942 is an English rock Singer, Bass guitarist songwriter Composer, The Fender Mustang Bass is an electric Bass guitar model produced by Fender. While 35", 35. 5" and 36" scale lengths were once only available in "boutique" instruments, in the 2000s, many manufacturers have begun offering these lengths, also called an "extra long scale. " This extra long scale provides a higher string tension, which yields a more defined tone on the low "B" string of 5- and 6-stringed instruments (or detuned 4-string basses).
Another design consideration for the bass is whether to use frets on the fingerboard. A fret is a raised portion on the neck of a Stringed instrument, that extends generally across the full width of the neck On a fretted bass, the frets divide the fingerboard into semitone divisions (as on a normal guitar). A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone, is the smallest Musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music and it is considered the The original Fender basses had 20 frets, but modern basses may have 24 or more.
Fretless basses have a distinct sound, because the absence of frets means that the string must be pressed down directly onto the wood of the fingerboard. A fretless guitar is a Guitar without Frets It operates in the same manner as most other Stringed instruments and traditional Guitars but does The string buzzes against the wood, as with the double bass, creating a "mwaah" sound. The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. The fretless bass allows players to use the expressive devices of glissando, vibrato and microtonal intonations such as quarter tones and just intonation. " Glissando " (plural glissandi abbreviated gliss is a glide from one pitch to another Vibrato is a musical effect produced in singing and on musical instruments by a regular pulsating change of pitch, and is used to add expression and vocal-like qualities to A quarter tone is an interval about half as wide (aurally or logarithmically as a Semitone, which is half a Whole tone. In music just intonation is any Musical tuning in which the frequencies of Notes are related by Ratios of Whole numbers Any interval Some bassists use both fretted and fretless basses in performances, according to the type of material they are performing. While fretless basses are often associated with jazz and jazz fusion, bassists from other genres use fretless basses, such as metal bassist Steve DiGiorgio. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Fusion or more specifically jazz fusion or jazz rock, is a Musical genre that merges Jazz with elements of other styles of music particularly Steve DiGiorgio (born November 7, 1967, Waukegan, Illinois) is an American musician The first fretless bass guitar was made by Bill Wyman in 1961 when he converted an inexpensive Japanese fretted bass by removing the frets. Bill Wyman (born William George Perks on 24 October 1936 was the Bass guitarist for the English Rock and roll band The Rolling  The first production fretless bass was the Ampeg AUB-1 introduced in 1966, and Fender introduced a fretless Precision Bass in 1970. In the early 1970s, fusion-jazz bassist Jaco Pastorius created his own fretless bass by removing the frets from a Fender Jazz Bass, filling the holes with wood putty, and coating the fretboard with epoxy resin. John Francis Anthony "Jaco" Pastorius III (December 1 1951–September 21 1987 was a American Jazz Musician and Composer widely 
Some fretless basses have "fret line" markers inlaid in the fingerboard as a guide, while others only use guide marks on the side of the neck. Tapewound (Double Bass Type) and Flatwound strings are sometimes used with the fretless bass so that the metal string windings will not wear down the fingerboard. The fingerboard (also known as a fretboard on fretted instruments is a part of most Stringed instruments It is a thin long strip of Wood that is Some fretless basses have fingerboards which are coated with epoxy to increase the durability of the fingerboard, enhance sustain and give a brighter tone. Sustain is a Parameter of Musical Sound in Time. As its name may imply it denotes the period of time during which the sound is sustained before Although most fretless basses have four strings, five-string and six-string fretless basses are also available. Fretless basses with more than six strings are also available as "boutique" or custom-made instruments.
The standard design for the electric bass guitar has four strings, tuned E, A, D and G, in fourths such that the open highest string, G, is an eleventh (an octave and a fourth) below middle C, making the tuning of all four strings the same as that of the double bass. Bass guitar tuning refers to the pitch adjustments carried out on the individual strings of a Bass guitar in order to achieve a prescribed arrangement of Notes A string is the vibrating element that is the source of vibration in String instruments such as the Guitar, Harp, Piano, and members The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. This tuning is also the same as the standard tuning on the lower four strings on a 6-string guitar, only an octave lower. String types include all-metal strings (roundwound, flatwound, groundwound, or halfwound), metal strings with different coverings, such as tapewound and plastic-coatings. A string is the vibrating element that is the source of vibration in String instruments such as the Guitar, Harp, Piano, and members A string is the vibrating element that is the source of vibration in String instruments such as the Guitar, Harp, Piano, and members The variety of materials used in the strings gives bass players a range of tonal options.
In the 1950s, bassists often used flatwound strings with a smooth surface, which had a smooth, damped sound reminiscent of a double bass. A string is the vibrating element that is the source of vibration in String instruments such as the Guitar, Harp, Piano, and members In the 1960s and 1970s, roundwound bass strings similar to guitar strings became popular. A string is the vibrating element that is the source of vibration in String instruments such as the Guitar, Harp, Piano, and members Roundwounds have a brighter timbre with greater sustain than flatwounds. In Music, timbre (ˈtæm-bər' like timber, or, from Fr timbre tɛ̃bʁ is the quality of a Musical note or sound that distinguishes different Sustain is a Parameter of Musical Sound in Time. As its name may imply it denotes the period of time during which the sound is sustained before Flatwounds are still used by some bassists who want a more 'vintage' or Motown-style sound. "Motown" redirects here For the city see Detroit Michigan.
A number of other tuning options and bass types have been used to extend the range of the instrument. The most common are:
Some bassists have used other types of basses or tuning methods to obtain an extended range or other benefits such as providing multiple octaves of notes at any given position, as well as a significantly larger tonal range. Instrument types or tunings used for this purpose include basses with fewer than four strings (1-string bass guitars , 2-string bass guitars, 3-string bass guitars (E-A-D) ); alternate tunings (e. g. , tenor bass , piccolo bass, and guitar-tuned basses) and 8, 10, 12 and 15-string basses, which built on the same principle as the 12-string guitar, where the strings are grouped into "courses" tuned in unison or octaves, to be played simultaneously. Piccolo bass can refer to two String instruments the acoustic piccolo bass and the electric piccolo bass 
Extended Range Basses (ERBs) are basses with 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 strings which are not doubling unisons or octaves. The Extended-Range Bass ("ERB" as a term refers to an electric Bass guitar with more range (usually meaning more strings but sometimes additional frets are added The 7-string bass (B-E-A-D-G-C-F) was built by luthier Michael Tobias in 1987. This custom instrument commissioned by bassist Garry Goodman was an early example of a bass with more than six single course strings. Goodman developed a special playing technique requiring seven or more strings. Conklin builds 8- and 9-string basses.  The Guitarbass is a 10-string instrument with four bass strings (tuned E-A-D-G) and six guitar strings (tuned E-A-D-G-B-E).  Luthier Michael Adler built the first 11-string bass in 2004 and completed the first single-course 12-string bass in 2005. Adler's 11- and 12-string instruments have the same range as a grand piano. Sub-contra basses, such as C#-F#-B-E ("C#" being at 17. 32 Hz) have been created . .
Most electric bass guitars use magnetic pickups. The vibrations of the instrument's metal strings within the magnetic field of the permanent magnets in magnetic pickups produce small variations in the magnetic flux threading the coils of the pickups. A pickup device acts as a Transducer that captures mechanical vibrations (usually from suitably equipped Stringed instruments such as the Electric guitar This in turn produces small electrical voltages in the coils. These low-level signals are then amplified and played through a speaker. Less commonly, non-magnetic pickups are used, such as piezoelectric pickups which sense the mechanical vibrations of the strings. Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably Crystals and certain Ceramics including bone to generate an Electric potential in response to Since the 1990s, basses are often available with battery-powered "active" electronics that boost the signal and/or provide equalization controls to boost or cut bass and treble frequencies.
"P-" pickups (the "P" refers to the original Fender Precision Bass) are actually two distinct single-coil halves, wired in opposite direction to reduce hum, each offset a small amount along the length of the body so that each half is underneath two strings. A single coil pickup is a type of magnetic Transducer for the Electric guitar and the electric bass. Less common is the single-coil "P" pickup, used on the 1951 Fender Precision bass
"J-" pickups (referring to the original Fender Jazz Bass) are wider eight-pole pickups which lie underneath all four strings. J pickups are typically single-coil designs, but because one is wired opposite to the other, when used at the same volume they have hum canceling properties. A single coil pickup is a type of magnetic Transducer for the Electric guitar and the electric bass.
Humbucker (dual coil) pickups, are found in Gibson, Music Man and other basses. A conventional humbucker (or Humbucking pickup) is a type of Electric guitar pickup that uses two coils both generating string signal Music Man is an American Guitar, and Bass guitar manufacturer They have two signal producing coils which are reverse wound around opposed polarity magnets. This significantly reduces noise from interference compared to single coil pickups. Humbuckers also often produce a higher output level than single coil pickups.
"Soapbar" Pickups get their name due to their resemblance to a bar of soap and originally referred to the Gibson P-90 guitar pickup. The P-90 is a Single coil Electric guitar pickup produced by Gibson since 1946. The term is now also used to describe any pickup with a rectangular shape and no visible pole pieces. They are commonly found in ERB basses. EMG now makes a Soapbar pickup that has both a single coil and a humbucker in the same pickup. The player switches between the two by pulling or pushing on the volume knob.
Many basses have just one pickup, typically a "P" or soapbar pickup. Multiple pickups are also quite common, two of the most common configurations being a "P" near the neck and a "J" near the bridge (e. g. Fender Precision Bass Special, Fender Precision Bass Plus), or two "J" pickups (e. g. Fender Jazz).  The placement of the pickup greatly affects the sound, with a pickup near the neck joint thought to sound "fatter" or "warmer" (the bass frequencies being dominant) while a pickup near the bridge is thought to sound "tighter" or "sharper" (providing a larger amount of treble). Usually basses with multiple pickups allow blending of the output from the pickups, providing for a range of timbres. Sound demonstrations of the tonal effects of varying blends of the P and J pickups are demonstrated at the following link .
Like the electric guitar, the electric bass guitar is always connected to an amplifier for live performances. Bass instrument amplification for the Bass guitar, Double bass and similar instruments is distinct from other types of amplification systems due to the An electric guitar is a type of Guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into an electrical current which is made louder Electric bassists use either a "combo" amplifier, which combines an amplifier and a speaker in a single cabinet, or an amplifier and a separate speaker cabinet (or cabinets). In some cases when the bass is being used with large-scale PA amplification, it is plugged into a "DI" or "direct box", which routes their signal directly into a mixing console, and thence to the main and monitor speakers. A public address or " PA " system is an electronic amplification system with a mixer, Amplifier and Loudspeakers used to In professional audio, a mixing console, or audio mixer, also called a sound board or soundboard, is an electronic device for combining For some recordings, the electric bass is recorded without the use of an amplifier and speakers by connecting the bass with the mixing board using a "DI", while the musician listens to the sound of the instrument through headphones.
Various electronic bass effects such as preamplifiers, "stomp box"-style pedals and signal processors and the configuration of the amplifier and speaker can be used to alter the basic sound of the instrument. Bass effects are electronic devices used to modify the tone pitch or sound of electric bass guitars or more rarely amplified Double basses Bass effects can be housed A preamplifier (preamp or control amp in some parts of the world is an Electronic amplifier which precedes another amplifier to prepare an electronic Generally an amplifier or simply amp, is any device that changes usually increases the amplitude of a signal. For the Marty Friedman album see Loudspeaker (album A loudspeaker, speaker, or speaker system is an electroacoustical In the 1990s and early 2000s, signal processors such as equalizers, distortion devices, and compressors or limiters became increasingly popular additions to many electric bass players' gear. A distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic of an object image sound waveform or other form of information or representation Dynamic range compression, also called DRC (often seen in DVD player settings or simply compression, is a process that reduces the Dynamic range of In Electronics, a limiter is a circuit that allows signals below a specified input power to pass unaffected while attenuating the peaks of stronger signals that exceed this input
Most bass players stand while playing, although sitting is also accepted, particularly in large ensemble settings, such as jazz big bands, or in acoustic genres such as folk music. It is a matter of the player's preference as to which position gives the greatest ease of playing, and what a bandleader expects. When sitting, right-handed players can balance the instrument on the right thigh, or like classical guitar players, the left. Balancing the bass on the left thigh positions it in such a way that it mimics the standing position, allowing for less difference between the standing and sitting positions.
The electric bass guitar, in contrast to the upright bass (or double bass), is played in a similar position to the guitar; that is, it is held horizontally across the body. Notes are usually produced by pizzicato, in which the strings are plucked by the index and middle fingers (and sometimes with the thumb and ring fingers as well) or with a pick (or plectrum). Pizzicato (ˌpɪtsɪˈkɑːtoʊ is a playing technique that involves plucking the strings of a String instrument. A guitar pick is a type of Plectrum designed for use on a Guitar. Often called a pick or plec, a plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. Bassists from speed metal bands (e. g. , Lemmy from Motörhead) and hardcore bands use picks to obtain a more articulate attack. Lemmy (born Ian Fraser Kilmister, December 24 1945) also known as Lemmy Kilmister, Ian Willis or Lemmy von Motörhead
Although the use of a pick is primarily associated with rock, picks are also used in other styles. Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. Jazz bassist Steve Swallow uses a pick for upbeat or funky songs. Steve Swallow (b October 4, 1940) is a Jazz Bass guitarist and Composer born in Fair Lawn New Jersey. Picks can be used with alternating downstrokes and upstrokes, or with all downstrokes for a more consistent attack. A bassist usually holds a pick in a fist-like grip with the index and thumb. Also, usually the wrist is used, but sometimes for tremolo picking, the whole arm is used. Some bassists use their fingernails to play flamenco-style, such as John Entwistle, Geddy Lee and Les Claypool. John Alec Entwistle ( October 9, 1944 – June 27, 2002) was an English Bass guitarist, Songwriter, Singer Geddy Lee OC (born Gary Lee Weinrib on July 29, 1953 in Willowdale Toronto) is a Canadian musician best known as the lead vocalist Leslie Edward "Les" Claypool (born September 29, 1963 in Richmond, California, U
There are many varieties of picks available to a bassist, and usually one chooses one for comfort, or for tone. The norm, is to choose heavy picks that range from 1. 14 mm – 3. 00 mm (3. 00 is unusual). Picks are made with all types of material for tone preference. Felt picks are used to emulate a fingerstyle tone.
Bassists trying to emulate the sound of a double bass sometimes pluck the strings with their thumb or fingers rather than a plectrum, and use palm-muting to create a short, "thumpy" tone. The palm mute is a playing technique for the Guitar or bass. This technique is known as Pizzicato by Classical guitar players (see Classical Sting performs using his thumb. Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner, CBE (born October 2, 1951) better known by his Stage name Sting, is a three time Academy Award James Jamerson, an influential bassist from the Motown era, played intricate bass lines using a single finger – his index finger, which he called "The Hook. James Lee Jamerson ( January 29, 1936 - August 2, 1983) was an American bassist "Motown" redirects here For the city see Detroit Michigan. " Depending on where the string is plucked, different timbres are produced. In Music, timbre (ˈtæm-bər' like timber, or, from Fr timbre tɛ̃bʁ is the quality of a Musical note or sound that distinguishes different
There are also variations in how a bassist chooses to rest the right-hand thumb (or left thumb in the case of left-handed players). A player may rest his thumb on the top edge of one of the pickups. One may also rest one's thumb on the side of the fretboard, which is especially common among bassists who have an upright bass influence. Some bassists anchor their thumbs on the lowest string and move it off to play on the low string. Alternatively, the thumb can be rested loosely on the strings to mute the unused strings.
Early Fender models came with a "thumbrest" attached to the pickguard, below the strings. Contrary to its name, this was not used to rest the thumb, but to rest the fingers while using the thumb to pluck the strings. The thumbrest was moved above the strings in 1970s models and eliminated in the 1980s.
The slap and pop method, which is a mainstay of funk, uses tones and percussive sounds achieved by thumping (or "slapping") a string with the thumb and snapping (or "popping") a string or strings with the index or middle fingers. In Music, the term slapping is often used to refer to two different playing techniques used on the Double bass and on the (electric Bass guitar. Funk is an American musical style that originated in the mid- to late-1960s when African American musicians blended Soul music, Soul Bassists often interpolate left hand-muted "dead notes" between the slaps and pops to achieve a rapid percussive effect. Larry Graham of Sly and the Family Stone and Graham Central Station was an early innovator of the slap style, and Louis Johnson of the The Brothers Johnson is also credited as an early slap bass player. Larry Graham Jr (born August 14, 1946 in Beaumont Texas) is an American Baritone Singer, Musician, Songwriter Sly & the Family Stone is an American funk, soul and rock band from San Francisco California. Graham Central Station was a funk band named after founder Larry Graham (formerly of Sly & the Family Stone) and is a pun on New York City The Brothers Johnson is a band consisting of American Musicians and brothers George ('Lightnin' Licks' and Louis Johnson ('Thunder Thumbs'
Slap and pop style is also used by many bassists in other genres, such as rock (e. g. , J J Burnel and Les Claypool) and fusion (e. Jean-Jacques Burnel (born 21 February 1952 in London) also known as J J Burnel, is an Anglo - French Musician and Songwriter Leslie Edward "Les" Claypool (born September 29, 1963 in Richmond, California, U g. Marcus Miller, Victor Wooten and Alain Caron). Marcus Miller (born June 14, 1959 in Brooklyn, New York) is a Grammy Award-winning Jazz musician composer producer and multi-instrumentalist Victor Lemonte Wooten (born September 11, 1964) is an electric bass player Alain Caron may refer to Alain Caron (bass player (born 1955 Alain Caron (hockey player (born 1938 Slap style playing was popularized throughout the 1980s and early 1990s by pop bass players such as Mark King (from Level 42) and funk-rock bassists such as Flea (from the Red Hot Chili Peppers) and Alex Katunich (from Incubus). Mark King (born 20 October 1958, Cowes, Isle of Wight) is an English Musician. Level 42 are an English Pop rock and Jazz-funk band. The group had a number of worldwide and UK hits during the 1980s and 1990s and have Michael Peter Balzary (born October 16 1962 more commonly known by the Stage name Flea, is an Australian-born American Bassist, Trumpet player Red Hot Chili Peppers are Alex Katunich (born August 18, 1976) is the former Bassist of Incubus. An incubus (plural incubi) is a Demon in male form supposed to lie upon sleepers especially women in order to have Sexual intercourse with them according Wooten popularized the "double thump," in which the string is slapped twice, on the upstroke and a downstroke (for more information, see Classical Thump). Victor Lemonte Wooten (born September 11, 1964) is an electric bass player
In the two-handed tapping style, bassists use both hands to play notes by rapidly pressing and holding the string to the fret. Tapping is a playing technique generally associated with the Electric guitar, although the technique may be performed on almost any String instrument. This makes it possible to play contrapuntal lines, chords and arpeggios. In Music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more voices that are independent in contour and Rhythm, and interdependent in Harmony A guitar chord is a chord, a collection of tones usually sounded together at once played on a Guitar, a type of chromatically fretted String Bassist John Entwistle of The Who would tap percussively on the strings, causing them to strike the fretboard with a twangy sound to create drum-style fills. John Alec Entwistle ( October 9, 1944 – June 27, 2002) was an English Bass guitarist, Songwriter, Singer The Who are an English rock band formed in 1964. The primary lineup consisted of guitarist Pete Townshend In Popular music, a fill is a shortened musical passage Riff, or rhythmic sound which helps to sustain the listener's attention during a break between the phrases Some players noted for this technique include Billy Sheehan, Stuart Hamm, John Myung, Victor Wooten, Les Claypool, and Michael Manring. William 'Billy' Sheehan (born on 1953 March 19 in Buffalo NY) is an Irish American Bassist known for his work with Talas Stuart "Stu" Hamm (born February 8, 1960) is an American Bass guitar player known for his session and live work with numerous artists as John Ro Myung (ˈmaɪəŋ (born on January 24, 1967 in Chicago, Illinois) is a Bassist and a founding member of the Progressive Victor Lemonte Wooten (born September 11, 1964) is an electric bass player Leslie Edward "Les" Claypool (born September 29, 1963 in Richmond, California, U Michael Manring (born June 1960 in Washington DC) is an American electric bassist from the San Francisco Bay Area, ( Northern California The Chapman Stick and Warr Guitars are string instruments that are designed to be played using two-handed tapping. The Chapman Stick is an electric Musical instrument devised by Emmett Chapman in the early 1970s Warr Guitars is a company that manufactures the Warr Guitar which is a Musical instrument developed by Mark Warr that looks very much like a standard Electric guitar, but can Another rarely-used playing technique related to slapping is the use of wooden dowel "funk fingers", an approach popularized by Tony Levin. A dowel is a solid cylindrical rod, usually made of Wood, Plastic or Metal. Funk Fingers are a kind of Drumsticks that are attached to the fingers of a bass player for producing extra-funky sounds on a Bass guitar. Tony Levin (born June 6 1946, Boston Massachusetts) is an American Bass guitarist Levin is best-known for his work with Progressive
The electric bass guitar has occasionally been used in contemporary classical music (art music) since the late 1960s. Contemporary classical music can be understood as belonging to a period that started in the mid-1970s with the retreat of modernism. American composers using electric bass in the 1960s included experimental classical music composer Christian Wolff (born 1934) (Electric Spring 1, 1966; Electric Spring 2, 1966/70; Electric Spring 3, 1967; and Untitled, 1996); Francis Thorne, a student of Paul Hindemith at Yale University (born 1922), who wrote (Liebesrock 1968–69); and Krzysztof Penderecki (Cello Concerto no. Christian Wolff (born March 8, 1934) is an American Composer of experimental classical music. Francis Thorne (b Bay Shore, New York, June 23, 1922) is an American composer of Contemporary classical music and grandson of the Krzysztof Penderecki (ˈkʂɨʂtɔf pɛndɛrˈɛ͡tski born November 23 1933 in Dębica) is a Polish Composer and conductor of classical 1, 1966/67, rev. 1971/72), The Devils of Loudun, 1969; Kosmogonia, 1970; and Partita, 1971), Louis Andriessen (Spektakel, 1970; De Staat, 1972-76; Hoketus, 1976; De Tijd, 1980-81 and De Materie, 1984-1988). The Devils of Loudun ( Die Teufel von Loudon) is an Opera by the Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki, who based his own German Louis Andriessen ( June 6, 1939) is a Dutch Composer and pianist based in Amsterdam. De Materie ( Matter) is a four-part vocal and orchestral composition by Dutch composer Louis Andriessen, which he composed over the period 1984 European composers who began scoring for the bass guitar in the 1960s included Danish composer Pelle Gudmundsen-Holmgreen (born 1932) (Symfoni på Rygmarven, 1966; Rerepriser, 1967; and Piece by Piece, 1968); Irwin Bazelon (Churchill Downs, 1970). Pelle Gudmundsen-Holmgreen (b Copenhagen, Denmark, November 21, 1932) is a Danish Composer. Irwin Bazelon (b Evanston, Illinois, June 4, 1922; d August 2, 1995) was an American composer of Contemporary
In the 1970s, electric bass was used by the American conductor- composer Leonard Bernstein (1918 – 1990) for his MASS, 1971). Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato in the Battle of Thapsus Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes MASS (formally " MASS A Theatre Piece for Singers Players and Dancers " is a musical piece composed by Leonard Bernstein. American jazz pianist Dave Brubeck used bass guitar for his 1971 piece Truth Has Fallen. David Warren Brubeck (born December 6, 1920 in Concord California) better known as Dave Brubeck, is an American jazz pianist Russian and Soviet composer Alfred Schnittke used the instrument for his epic Symphony no. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg 1, 1972. In 1977, David Amram(born 1930) scored for electric bass in En memoria de Chano Pozo. David Amram (born November 17 1930) is an American Composer, Musician, conductor, and Writer. Amram is an American composer known for his eclectic use of jazz, ethnic and folk music.
In the 1980s and 1990s, electric bass was used in works by Hans Werner Henze (El Rey de Harlem, 1980; and Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria, 1981), Harold Shapero, On Green Mountain (Chaconne after Monteverdi), 1957, orchestrated 1981; Steve Reich's Electric Counterpoint (1987), Wolfgang Rihm (Die Eroberung von Mexico, 1987-91), Arvo Pärt (Miserere, 1989/92), Sofia Gubaidulina (Aus dem Stundenbuch, 1991), Giya Kancheli (Wingless, 1993), John Adams (I Was Looking at the Ceiling and Then I Saw the Sky, 1995; and Scratchband, 1996/97), and Michael Nyman (many works for the Michael Nyman Band). Hans Werner Henze (born July 1 1926 Gütersloh, Germany is a German composer well known for his left-wing political convictions For the mathematics professor see Harold S Shapiro. For the economics professor see Harold T WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3 Electric Counterpoint is a minimalistic composition written by American composer Steve Reich. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Arvo Pärt (born 11 September 1935 in Paide, Estonia) (ˈɑr̺vɔ WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Sofia Asgatovna Gubaidulina, (София Асгатовна Губайдулина София Giya Kancheli (გია ყანჩელი born August 10 1935 in Tbilisi, is a Georgian composer resident in Belgium. John Coolidge Adams (born February 15 1947 is an American Composer with strong roots in minimalism. I Was Looking at the Ceiling and Then I Saw the Sky is a 1995 musical / Opera music composed by John Adams, with a Libretto by WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes The Michael Nyman Band, formerly known as the Campiello Band, is a group formed as a street band for a 1976 production of Carlo Goldoni 's 1756