approx. 18,000,000 worldwide
|Regions with significant populations|
|Traditionally Roman Catholic|
|This table assumes that all residents in the Basque Country and Navarre are of Basque ethnicity, currently it is recognised that a large percentange isn't|
The Basques (Basque: Euskaldunak) are an ethnic group who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Basque ( native name: euskara) is the Language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain Monoglottism ( Greek monos, "alone solitary" + glotta, "tongue language" or more commonly monolingualism or unilingualism French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Basque ( native name: euskara) is the Language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
The name Basque derives from Medieval French and from the ancient tribe of the Vascones, described by Ancient Greek historian Strabo as living south of the western Pyrenees and north of the Ebro River, in modern day Navarre and northern Aragon. France in the Middle Ages covers an area roughly corresponding to modern day France, from the death of Charlemagne in 814 to the middle of the 15th The Vascones (Latin singular VASCO) were an ancient people who at the arrival of the Romans, inhabited the region of present day Navarre The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés The Ebro ( Ebre) is Spain 's most voluminous river Its source is in Fontibre ( Cantabria) Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain. This tribal name, of unknown etymology, was extended in late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages to cover all Basque-speaking people on either side of the Pyrenees. "Ancient" redirects here For other uses see Ancient_(disambiguation.
Basques are now mainly found in an area traditionally known as Euskal Herria, which is located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. The Pyrenees (Pirineos French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés Cantabrian Sea redirects here Not to be confused with Biscay Bay Newfoundland and Labrador or Biscayne Bay.
The Basques are known in local languages as:
This article discusses the Basques as an ethnic group or, as some view them, a nation, in contrast to other ethnic groups living in the Basque area. Basque ( native name: euskara) is the Language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Gascon (Gascon; French,) is a dialect of the Occitan language. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered The history of the Basque region as covered here will focus on how that history bears on the Basques as a people.
Recent genetic studies have confirmed that many western Europeans, including the great majority of Spaniards, Portuguese, Britons, Irish and French, have a common ancestry with modern Basques that can be traced to inhabitants of the Basque areas of Spain and France based on Y-chromosome and mtDNA analysis. Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) is the DNA located in Organelles called mitochondria.  The originators of these genes are thought to have traveled up the Atlantic Coast in the Upper Palaeolithic and the Mesolithic period. The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe Africa The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age was a period in the development of human technology in between the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age and the Neolithic or New Stone Age
The English word "Basque" comes from French Basque (pronounced /bask/), which itself comes from Gascon Basco (pronounced /ˈbasku/) and Spanish Vasco (pronounced /ˈbasko/). French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Gascon (Gascon; French,) is a dialect of the Occitan language. These, in turn, come from Latin Vasco (pronounced /wasko/), plural Vascones (see History section below). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Latin labial-velar approximant /w/ generally evolved into the bilabials /b/ and /β̞/ in Gascon and Spanish, probably under the influence of Basque and Aquitanian, a language related to old Basque and spoken in Gascony in Antiquity (similarly the Latin /w/ evolved into /v/ in French, Italian and other languages). The voiced labiovelar (actually labialized velar) approximant is a type of Consonantal sound used in certain spoken Languages including In Historical linguistics, betacism is a Sound change in which (the Voiced bilabial plosive, like in bane) shifts to (the Voiced labiodental In Phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a Consonant articulated with both Lips The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet The Aquitanian language was spoken in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, the region later known as Gascony Gascony (Gascogne gaskɔɲ Gascon Occitan: Gasconha, pronounced) is an area of southwest France that constituted a province of France Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period) is a broad term for a long period of cultural History centered on the Mediterranean French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. This explains the Roman pun at the expense of the Aquitanians (ancestors of the Gascons): 'Beati Hispani quibus vivere bibere est", which translates as "Blessed (are the) Spaniards, for whom living is drinking'. A pun (or paronomasia) is a Phrase that deliberately exploits confusion between similar-sounding Words for humorous or Rhetorical The Romans considered the Aquitanians akin to the Spaniards.
Several coins from the 1st and 2nd centuries BC found in the north of Spain bear the inscription barscunes written in the Iberian alphabet. The 1st century BC started the first day of 100 BC and ended the last day of 1 BC. The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC. The Iberian scripts are the Paleohispanic scripts that were used to represent the extinct Iberian language. The place where they were minted is not certain but is thought to be somewhere near Pamplona in the heartland of the area that historians believe was inhabited by the Vascones. For other meanings see Pamplona (disambiguation. Pamplona ( Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre Some scholars have suggested a Celtic etymology based on bhar-s-, meaning "summit", "point" or "leaves", according to which barscunes may have meant "the mountain people", "the tall ones" or "the proud ones", while others have posited a relationship to a pre-Indo-European root *bar- meaning "border", "frontier", "march". 
Others suggest that Latin Vasco comes from a Basque and Aquitanian root used by these people to refer to themselves, eusk-, pronounced /ewsk/, which is rather similar to Latin /wasko/. The name of an Aquitanian people which the Romans recorded as Ausci (pronounced /awski/ in Latin) appears to represent from the same root. This article is for the French town For the bird see Great auk. The basque word for hand/grasp is similar to the root "eusk" in Basque as well, with the sense that other ethnic groups have also for self referral as "those who grasp(thought,word),those who understand (us)".
In modern Basque, Basques call themselves euskaldunak, singular euskaldun, formed from euskal- (i. e. "Basque (language)") and -dun (i. e. "one who has"); euskaldun literally means a Basque speaker. Not all Basques are Basque-speakers, and not all Basque speakers are Basques; foreigners who have learned Basque can also be called euskaldunak. Therefore the neologism euskotar, plural euskotarrak, was coined in the nineteenth century to mean an ethnically Basque person whether Basque-speaking or not. A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been These Basque words are all derived from euskara, the Basque name for the Basque language.
Alfonso Irigoyen claimed that the word euskara comes from an ancient Basque verb enautsi "to say" (cf. modern Basque esan) and the suffix -(k)ara ("way (of doing something)"). Thus euskara would literally mean "way of saying", "way of speaking". One item of evidence in favour of this hypothesis is found in the Spanish book Compendio Historial, written in 1571 by the Basque writer Esteban de Garibay, who records the native name of the Basque language as "enusquera". It may be however a writing mistake.
In the nineteenth century, the Basque nationalist activist Sabino Arana posited an original root euzko which, he thought, came from eguzkiko "of the sun" on the assumption of an original solar religion). Sabino Arana Goiri, self-styled as Arana ta Goiri'taŕ Sabin ( January 26, 1865 &ndash November 25, 1903) was a Basque "Sun god" redirects here For the Ramsey Lewis album see Sun Goddess (album. On the basis of this putative root Arana proposed the name Euzkadi for an independent Basque nation. Arana's etymology is discredited today, but his neologism Euzkadi, in the regularized spelling Euskadi, is still widely used in both Basque and Spanish, since it is now the official name of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been The Basque Country ( Basque Euskadi, Spanish País Vasco) is an autonomous community in northern Spain. An autonomous community is a first-level political division of the Kingdom of Spain, established in accordance with the Spanish Constitution. The Basque Country ( Basque Euskadi, Spanish País Vasco) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
In fact the root eusk- might come from the name of the aquitanian tribe Ausci that gave its name to the french city of Auch that was called before Elimberrum 'new town' (from basco-aquitanian ili-berri). This article is for the French town For the bird see Great auk. This article is for the French town For the bird see Great auk.
It is thought that Basques are a remnant of the early inhabitants of Western Europe, specifically those of the Franco-Cantabrian region. The Basque people (Euskaldunak are a group of people inhabiting adjacent areas of Spain and France. The Franco-Cantabrian region (also Franco-Cantabric region) is a term applied in Archaeology and History to refer to an area that stretches from Basque tribes were already mentioned in Roman times by Strabo and Pliny, including the Vascones, the Aquitani and others. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author The Vascones (Latin singular VASCO) were an ancient people who at the arrival of the Romans, inhabited the region of present day Navarre The Aquitani ( Latin for Aquitanians) were a people living in what is now southwestern France, between the Pyrenees and the Garonne There is enough evidence that they already spoke Basque in that time (see: Aquitanian language, Iruña-Veleia). The Aquitanian language was spoken in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, the region later known as Gascony Veleia was an ancient Roman town in the southern Basque Country.
In the Early Middle Ages the territory between the Ebro and Garonne rivers was known as Vasconia, being united under the Castillian noblesse. The Ebro ( Ebre) is Spain 's most voluminous river Its source is in Fontibre ( Cantabria) The Garonne (Garonne in Occitan, Catalan and Spanish: Garona; Garumna is a River in southwest France and northern After Muslim invasions and Frankish expansion under Charlemagne, the territory was fragmented and eventually the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Pamplona arose as the main states with basque population in the ninth century. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his The Kingdom of Navarre (Reino de Navarra Nafarroako Erresuma Royaume de Navarre originally the Kingdom of Pamplona, was a European kingdom which occupied lands on either
This state, later known as Navarre, experienced feudalization and was subjected to the influences of its vaster Aragonese, Castilian and French neighbours, with Castile annexing parts of it in the eleventh and twelfth century and from 1512 to 1521. Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain. Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. The remainder of Navarre would end up being united to France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Nevertheless the Basque provinces enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution in the North and the mainly religious wars named Carlist Wars in the South trying to establish a catholic theocratic monarchy. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European Civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne Since then, a violent fragment of Basque society has been attempting to establish a socialist State (see Basque nationalism) in spite of the actual self-government of the Basque Country settled by the Spanish Constitution. Basque nationalism is a movement with roots in the Carlism and the loss by the laws of 1839 and 1876 of the Ancien Régime relationship between the Basque provinces
The autonomous community (a concept established in the Spanish constitution of 1978) that is known as Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa or EAE in Basque, and as (la) Comunidad Autónoma Vasca or CAV in Spanish (in English: Basque Autonomous Community or BAC), is composed of the three Spanish provinces of Alava, Biscay and Guipuscoa. The Constitution of Spain is regarded as the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. Year 1978 ( MCMLXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar) Álava (Araba is a province of northern Spain in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. Population Of the 1133444 people who live in Biscay about 35% live in the capital Bilbao and 88% in its metropolitan area. Guipúzcoa ( Spanish) or Gipuzkoa ( Basque and official is a province of the Basque Country, in Spain. The corresponding Basque names of these territories are Araba, Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa and their Spanish name is Álava, Vizcaya and Guipúzcoa.
Although the BAC only includes three of the seven provinces of the currently called "historical territories", it is sometimes referred to simply as "the Basque Country" (or Euskadi), at times by writers only considering those three provinces, but also on occasions merely as a convenient abbreviation when this does not lead to confusion in the context; others reject this usage as inaccurate and are careful to specify the BAC (or an equivalent expression such as "the three provinces") when referring to this entity or region. Likewise, terms such as "the Basque Government" for "the government of the BAC" are commonly though not universally employed. In particular it should be noted that in common usage the French term Pays Basque ("Basque Country"), in the absence of further qualification, refers either to the whole of Euskal Herria or, not infrequently, to the northern (or "French") Basque Country specifically.
Under Spain's present constitution, Navarre (Nafarroa in actual Basque, Navarra historically in Spanish) constitutes a voluntarily separate entity, called in actual Basque Nafarroako Foru Erkidegoa, in Spanish Comunidad Foral de Navarra (the autonomous community of Navarre). The government of this autonomous community is the Government of Navarre. Note that in historical contexts Navarre may refer to a wider area, and that the present-day northern Basque province of Low Navarre may also be referred to as (part of) Nafarroa, to distinguish it from which the term "High Navarre" (Nafarroa Garaia in Basque, Alta Navarra in Spanish) is also encountered as a way of referring to the territory of the present-day autonomous community.
There are other three provinces claimed by the nationalist basque parties as parts of an expanded Basque Country: Labourd, Lower Navarre and Soule (Lapurdi, Nafarroa Beherea and Zuberoa in Basque; Labourd, Basse-Navarre and Soule in French), have no official status within France's present-day political and administrative territorial organization and there is only a marginal political support to the Spanish basque nationalists.
There are 2,123,000 people living in the Basque Autonomous Community (279,000 in Alava, 1,160,000 in Biscay and 684,000 in Gipuscoa). The most important cities in this region, which serve as the provinces' administrative centers, are Bilbao (Bilbo/Bilbao) (in Biscay), San Sebastian (Donostia/San Sebastián) (in Gipuscoa) and Vitoria (Gasteiz/Vitoria) (in Alava). Bilbao, (also Bilbo) in the North of Spain, is the largest city in the Basque Country and the capital of the province of Biscay (Basque Donostia-San Sebastián ( Basque: Donostia, IPA; Spanish: San Sebastián, known officially as Donostia-San Sebastián The official languages are Basque and Spanish. Knowledge of Spanish and Basque are equally compulsory according to the Spanish constitution, and virtually universal. Knowledge of Basque, after declining for many years during Franco's dictatorship owing to official persecution, is again on the rise due to favourable official language policies and popular support. Currently about 27 per cent of the BAC's population speaks Basque.
Navarre has a population of 601,000; its administrative capital and main city, also regarded by many nationalist Basques as the Basques' historical capital, is Pamplona (Iruñea in modern Basque). Although Spanish and Basque are official languages in this autonomous community, Basque language rights are only recognised by current legislation and language policy in the province's northern region, where most Basque-speaking Navarrese are concentrated.
Approximately a quarter of a million people live in the part of claimed French Basque Country. Nationalists politicians in Basque Country generally refer to this as the "north" (Iparralde), and therefore to the Spanish provinces as the "south" (Hegoalde). Much of this population lives in or near the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz (BAB) urban belt on the coast (in Basque these are Baiona, Angelu and Miarritze). The Basque language, which was traditionally spoken by most of the region's population outside the BAB urban zone, is today losing ground to French at a fast rate. Associated with the northern Basque Country's lack of self-government within the French state is the absence of official status for the Basque language throughout this region.
Large numbers of Basques have left the Basque Country for other parts of the world in different historical periods, often for economic or political reasons. See also Basque people The Basque Diaspora is the name given to describe people of Basque origin living outside their traditional homeland on the
A great many Basques emigrated to Argentina, where they represent about 10% of the national population, and substantial numbers settled elsewhere in North and South America, particularly in Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, and the United States, where Basque place names are to be found, such as New Biscay, now Durango (Mexico), Biscayne Bay, Jalapa (Guatemala), Aguerreberry or Aguereberry Point in the United States. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Durango (duˈɾaŋgo is one of the constituent States of Mexico. Biscayne Bay ( Bahía Vizcaina, in Spanish) is a Lagoon that is approximately 35 miles (56 km long and up to 8 miles (13 km wide located on the
In Mexico most Basques are concentrated in the Monterrey, Saltillo, Camargo, Jalisco, Durango, and the Mexican states of Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and Coahuila areas. This article is about the Mexican city for other uses see Monterrey (disambiguation. Jalisco is a state in Mexico. The capital of Jalisco is the city of Guadalajara. Durango (duˈɾaŋgo is one of the constituent States of Mexico. Nuevo León ( Spanish for "New León " after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in northeastern Mexico. Tamaulipas is one of the 31 states of Mexico, it is located in the northeast Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza is one of Mexico 's 31 component states. In Guatemala most Basques are concentrated in Jalapa Guatemala for six generations now, some have immigrated to the city of Guatemala. The largest of several important Basque communities in the United States is in the area around Boise, Idaho, home to the Basque Museum and Cultural Center, host to a Basque festival every year, as well as a festival for the entire Basque diaspora every five years. Boise (ˈbɔɪsi is the capital and most populous city of the U Reno, Nevada, where the Center for Basque Studies and the Basque Studies Library are located in the University of Nevada, is another significant nucleus of Basque population. The University of Nevada Reno ( Nevada) is a University located in Reno Nevada, USA and is known for its programs in agricultural research journalism There also exists a history of Basque culture in Chino, California. Chino is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. In Chino, there are two annual Basque festivals that celebrate the dance, cuisine, and culture of the peoples. In Winnemucca, Nevada there is an annual Basque festival that celebrates the dance, cuisine and cultures of the peoples, much like Chino. Winnemucca (Win-ah-muc-ah is the County seat of Humboldt County in the U In South Texas along the Mexican-Texan border of the Rio Grande Valley, many people are of Basque heritage or have Basque surnames. South Texas is a region of the US state of Texas that lies roughly south of or beginning at San Antonio. The Rio Grande Valley is an area located in the southernmost tip of Texas. Along this area are many ranches given to colonial Spanish settlers to New Spain which still exist today. The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de Nueva España was a name given to the Viceroy -ruled territories of the Spanish Empire in North America, Many people in Uruguay are of Basque heritage also. 
There are also many Basques and people of Basque ancestry living outside their homeland in Spain, France and other European countries.
The identifying language of the Basques is called Basque or Euskara, spoken today by 25%-30% of the region's population. Basque ( native name: euskara) is the Language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain Basque ( native name: euskara) is the Language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain An idea of the central place of the ethnic terms in Basque nationalist politicians is given by the fact that, in Basque, Basques identify themselves by the term euskaldun and their country as Euskal Herria, literally "Basque speaker" and "Country of the Basque Language" respectively. The use of the language as a political instrument has damaged the original culture of the Basque Country. Essentially an identity issue, the language has nonetheless been converted into a political issue by Spanish and French policies targeting its use and the widespread Basque response of teaching, speaking, writing and cultivating their heritage language with ever-increasing enthusiasm and success, as a way of maintaining, defending and symbolizing their survival as a people.
As a result of state persecution, school policies, the impact of mass media, and the effects of immigration, today virtually all Basques (except for some children below school age) can use and understand the official language of their state (Spanish or French), meaning that all Basque speakers except for little children are effectively bilingual. Spanish or French is also typically the first language learned by immigrants, many of whom do not learn Basque, although recent Basque Government policies aim to change this pattern. 
The Basque language is thought to be a genetic language isolate. Genetic, in Linguistics, means due to descent from a common ancestor language rather than borrowing at some time in the past between languages that were not necessarily descended A language isolate, in the absolute sense is a Natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic" relationship with other living languages that is Thus Basque contrasts with other European languages, almost all of which belong to the large Indo-European language family. Another peculiarity of Basque is that it has been spoken continuously in situ, in and around its present territorial location, for longer than other modern European languages, which have all been introduced in historical or prehistorical times through population migrations or other processes of cultural transmission. 
However, popular stereotypes characterizing Basque as "the oldest language in Europe" and "unique among the world's languages" may be misunderstood and lead to erroneous assumptions.  Over the centuries, Basque has remained in constant contact with neighboring languages in its western European surroundings, with which it has come to share numerous lexical items and typological features; it is therefore misleading to exaggerate the "outlandish" character of Basque. Basque is also a modern language, and nowadays firmly established as a written and printed medium, also used in present-day forms of publication and communication, as well as a language spoken and used in a very wide range of social and cultural contexts, styles, and registers.
Basques have a close attachment to their home (etxe(a)or 'eche' 'house, home'), especially when this consists of the traditional self-sufficient, family-run farm or baserri(a). Home in this context is synonymous with family roots. Old baserri names, themselves typically expressing short-range geographical orientations or other locally meaningful identifying features, have transmuted into modern Basque surnames, thereby providing even Basques whose families may have left the land generations ago with an important link to their rural family origins: Bengoetxea "the house of further down", Goikoetxea "the house above", Landaburu "top of the field", Errekondo "next to the stream", Elizalde "by the church", Mendizabal "wide hill", Usetxe "house of birds" Ibarretxe "house in the valley", Etxeberria "the new house", etc. Basque surnames on the whole are easily identifiable reasonably well documented and follow a small number of set patterns 
A widespread belief that Basque society was originally matriarchal seems to conflict with the clearly patrilinear character of known family inheritance structures. Matriarchy is a term which is applied to gynocentric form of Society, in which the leading role is by the Female and especially by the Mothers Patrilineality (aka agnatic kinship) is a system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage it generally involves the Inheritance of property names or titles There have been attempts to reconcile these points by assuming that the latter represents an innovation. In any case, the social position of women in both traditional and modern Basque society is somewhat better than in neighbouring cultures, and women have a substantial influence in decisions about the domestic economy. In the past, some women participated in collective magical ceremonies, and were key participants in a rich folklore, today largely forgotten.
In contrast to surrounding regions, ancient Basque inheritance patterns, recognised in the fueros, favour survival of the unity of inherited land holdings which generally fall to a single male heir, usually the oldest son. Fuero ( Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and conceptThe word comes from Latin forum, an open space used as market tribunal This system forced the other siblings to find other sources of sustenance, and before the advent of industrialisation resulted in the emigration of many rural Basques to Spain, France or the Americas. This system, harsh by modern standards, was no doubt responsible for sending out into the world a great many enterprising personalities of Basque origin, from Spanish conquistadors such as Lope de Aguirre to world-renowned saints of the Catholic church such as Francis Xavier. This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Lope de Aguirre (c 1510 Oñati &ndash 27 October 1561) was a Spanish Basque Conquistador in South Saint Francis Xavier ( Konkani / Konknni: Sam Fransisku Xavier/ Sanv Fransisk Xavier Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa Spanish: San Francisco
Basque cuisine is at the heart of Basque culture, influenced by the neighboring communities and the excellent produce from the sea and the land. Basque cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients of the cuisine of the Basque people. Basque cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients of the cuisine of the Basque people. A twentieth-century feature of Basque culture is the phenomenon of gastronomical societies (txoko, "corner" in Biscay), food clubs where men gather to cook and enjoy their own food. Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between Culture and Food. Until recently, women were only allowed one day in the year. Sagardotegiak or cider houses are popular restaurants in Gipuzkoa open for a few months while the cider is in season.
Despite ETA and the crisis of heavy industries, the Basque economic condition has recovered remarkably in recent years, emerging from persecution during the Franco regime with a strong and vibrant language and culture. eu '''Euskadi Ta Askatasuna''' or ETA ( Basque for "Basque Homeland and Freedom" ˈɛːta is an illegal armed Basque nationalist Separatist Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid The Basque language is expanding geographically led by large increases in the major urban centers of Pamplona, Bilbao, and Bayonne, where only a few decades ago the Basque language had all but disappeared.
One of the pieces found in the Roman town of Veleia is interpreted as the oldest representation of the Calvary ever found. The strict classification of Basque music remains a controversial issue complicated in part by the growing diversification of such music but by and large it may be argued that it is made in Veleia was an ancient Roman town in the southern Basque Country. "Golgotha" redirects here For other uses see Golgotha (disambiguation. If confirmed, this could advance the date of the diffusion of Christianity in the Basque Country, at least in the valleys. Traditionally Basques have been mostly Roman Catholics. In the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth, Basques as a group remained notably devout and churchgoing. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on In recent years church attendance has fallen off, as in most of Western Europe. The region has been a source of missionaries like Francis Xavier and Michel Garicoïts. Saint Francis Xavier ( Konkani / Konknni: Sam Fransisku Xavier/ Sanv Fransisk Xavier Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa Spanish: San Francisco Saint Michael Garicoits (Garicoïts ( April 15, 1797 — May 14, 1863 was a Basque Saint. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus, was a Basque. Saint Ignatius redirects here for other Saints see Ignatius. Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Íñigo Oñaz López de Loyola The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order
A sprout of Protestantism in the continental Basque Country produced the first translation of the new Testament into Basque by Joanes Leizarraga. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Joanes Leizarraga (1506-1601 was a 16th century Basque priest After the king of Navarre converted to Catholicism to be king of France, Protestantism almost disappeared. Henry IV (Henri IV ( 13 December 1553 &ndash 14 May 1610) ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and as Henry III
Bayonne held a Jewish community composed mainly of Sephardi Jews fleeing from the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions. Bayonne ( French: Bayonne bajɔn Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest Sephardi Jews ( Hebrew: ספרדי, Standard Səfardi Tiberian Səp̄arədî; plural The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain The Portuguese Inquisition was formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of the King of Portugal, João III. There were also important Jewish and Muslim communities in Navarre before the Castilian invasion of 1512-21. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion
Nowadays only slightly more than 50% of Basques show some kind of belief in God, while the rest are either agnostic or atheist. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the Atheism The number of religious skeptics increases noticeably for the younger generations, while the older ones are more religious. 
Christianisation of the Basque Country has been the topic of some discussion. The Mythology of the ancient Basques largely did not survive the albeit late arrival of Christianity in the Basque Country between the 4th and 12th There are broadly speaking two views. According to one, Christianity arrived in the Basque Country during the 4th and 5th century but according to the other, it did not take place until the 12th and 13th century. The main issue lies in the different interpretations of what is considered Christianisation. Early traces of Christianity can be found in the major urban areas from the 4th century onwards, a bishopric from 589 in Pamplona and three hermit cave concentrations (two in Álava, one in Navarre) were in use from the 6th century onwards. In this sense, Christianity arrived "early".
Pre-Christian belief seems to have centered around a female goddess called Mari. Mari, Mari Urraca, Anbotoko Mari ("the lady of Anboto " and the possibly distinct Murumendiko Dama ("lady of Murumendi A number of place-names contain her name and would suggest these places were related to worship of her such as Anbotoko Mari who appears to have been related to the weather. Mari, Mari Urraca, Anbotoko Mari ("the lady of Anboto " and the possibly distinct Murumendiko Dama ("lady of Murumendi According to one tradition, she traveled every seven years between a cave on Mount Anboto and one on another mountain (the stories vary); the weather would be wet when she was in Anboto, dry when she was in Aloña, or Supelegor, or Gorbea. Anboto (1331 m is a Limestone mountain of the Western Basque Country, the highest peak of the Urkiola range and not far from the pass of Gorbea or Gorbeia is a mountain and Massif, the highest in Biscay and Alava ( Basque Country, Spain) with a height of 1481 One of her names, Mari Urraca possibly ties here to a historical Navarrese princess of the 11th and 12th century, with other legends giving her a brother or cousin who was a Roman Catholic priest. So far the discussions about whether the name Mari is original and just happened to coincide closely with the Christian name María or if Mari is an early Basque attempt to give a Christian veneer to pagan worship have remained speculative.
Mari's consort is Sugaar. In Basque mythology, Sugaar (other names Sugar, Sugoi, Maju) is the male half of a pre- Christian Basque Deity This chthonic couple seem to bear the superior ethical power and also the power of creation and destruction. Chthonic (from Greek χθόνιος khthonios "of the earth" from khthōn "earth" pertaining to the Earth; earthy subterranean It's said that when they gathered in the high caves of the sacred peaks, they engendered the storms. These meetings typically happened on Friday nights, the day of historical akelarre or coven. Akelarre is the Basque term meaning sabbat or ritual meeting of Witches It is also found in Spanish with the spelling aquelarre. Coven or covan was originally a late medieval Scots word (c1500 meaning a gathering of any kind according to the Oxford English Dictionary Mari was said to reside in Mount Anboto; periodically she crossed the skies as a bright light to reach her other home at mount Txindoki. Anboto (1331 m is a Limestone mountain of the Western Basque Country, the highest peak of the Urkiola range and not far from the pass of Txindoki (IPA) or Larrunarri is an iconic mountain (1346 m located in the region of Goierri, Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Autonomous Community
Legends also speak of many and abundant genies, like jentilak (equivalent to giants), lamiak (equivalent to nymphs), mairuak (builders of the cromlechs or stone circles, literally Moors), iratxoak (imps), sorginak (witches, priestess of Mari), etc. The jentil (or jentilak with the basque plural were a race of giants in the Basque mythology. The Mythology and Legends of many different Cultures include monsters of human appearance but prodigious size and strength In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of mythological entities in human female form Mairu (or mairuak with the Basque plural also called intxisu (ak in the Bidasoa valley were in Basque mythology, giants who built The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent An imp is a mythological being similar to a Fairy or Demon, frequently described in Folklore and Superstition. Sorginak (radical sorgin, sing (nom int sorgina) are the assistants of the goddess Mari in Basque mythology. Witchcraft, in various historical anthropological religious and mythological contexts is the use of certain kinds of Supernatural or magical powers Basajaun is a Basque version of the Woodwose. In Basque mythology, the basajaun (plural basajaunak were an ancient human race of stout hairy wild men who were megalith builders The Woodwose ( Old English: wuduwasa) or Wildman of the Woods is a mythological figure that appears in the artwork and literature of medieval Europe There is a trickster named San Martin Txiki ("St Martin the Lesser"). In Mythology, and in the study of Folklore and Religion, a trickster is a God, Goddess, spirit, man woman or anthropomorphic San Martin Txiki ("Little Saint Martin" is the Trickster figure from Basque mythology. It has been shown that some of these stories have entered Basque culture in recent centuries or as part of Roman superstitio. It is unclear whether neolithic stone structures called dolmens have a religious significance or were built to house animals or resting shepherds. The Neolithic (from Greek νεολιθικός — neolithikos from νέος neos, "new" + λίθος lithos A dolmen (also known as cromlech, anta, Hünengrab, Hunebed, Goindol, quoit, and portal dolmen) is a type of Some of the dolmens and cromlechs are burial sites serving as well as border markers. Cromlech is a Brythonic word ( Breton / Welsh) used to describe Prehistoric Megalithic structures where crom means "bent"
The jentilak ('Giants'), on the other hand, are a legendary people which explains the disappearance of a people of Stone Age culture that used to live in the high lands and with no knowledge of the iron. The Mythology and Legends of many different Cultures include monsters of human appearance but prodigious size and strength The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric time period during which Humans widely used stone for toolmaking Many legends about them tell that they were bigger and taller, with a great force, but were displaced by the ferrons, or workers of ironworks foundries, until their total fade-out. They were pagans, but one of them, Olentzero, accepted Christianity and became a sort of Basque Santa Claus. Olentzero is a Basque Christmas tradition According to Basque traditions Olentzero comes to town late at night on the 24th of December to drop off Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Father Christmas, Kris Kringle, or simply " Santa " is the They gave name to several toponyms, as Jentilbaratza.
Historically, Basque society can be described as being somewhat at odds with Roman and later Western European societal norms.
Strabo's account of the north of Spain in his Geographica (Strabo) makes a mention of 'a sort of woman-rule - not at all a mark of civilization' (Hadington 1992), a first mention of the - for the period - unusual position of women. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. The Geographica ( Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká) or Geography, is a 17-volume encyclopedia of geographical knowledge written “Women could inherit and control property as well as officiate in churches. Combined with the issue of lingering pagan beliefs, this enraged the leaders of the Spanish Inquisition, perhaps leading to one of its most savage witch-burnings in the Basque town of Logroño in 1610”. The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain The Basque witch trials of the 17th century represent the most ambitious attempt at rooting out Witchcraft ever undertaken by the Spanish Inquisition. Logroño is a city in northern Spain, on the Ebro River. It is the capital of the Autonomous community of La Rioja, formerly known as Logroño 
This equality existed well into the twentieth century: “. . . matrilineal inheritance laws, and agricultural work performed by women continued in Basque country until the early twentieth century. Matrilineality is a system in which lineage is traced through the mother and maternal ancestors For more than a century, scholars have widely discussed the high status of Basque women in law codes, as well as their positions as judges, inheritors, and arbitrators through pre-Roman, medieval, and modern times. The system of laws governing succession in the French Basque region reflected total equality between the sexes. Up until the eve of the French Revolution, the Basque woman was truly ‘the mistress of the house,’ hereditary guardian, and head of the lineage”. 
Although the kingdom of Navarre did adopt feudalism, most Basques also possessed unusual social institutions different from those of feudal Europe. Some aspects of this include the elizate tradition where local house-owners met in front of the church to elect a representative to send to the juntas and juntas generales (such as the Juntas Generales de Vizcaya or Guipúzcoa) which administered much larger areas. Elizate is a Basque term that refers to an early form of local government in the Basque Country which was particularly common in Biscay but also existed Another example was the fact that in the medieval period most land was owned by the farmers, not the Church or a king. 
The great family of ball games have their unique offsprings among Basque ball games, known generically as pilota (Spanish: pelota). Pelota in Spanish, pilota in Basque and Catalan, or pelote in French (from Latin pila) is a Pilota Valenciana or Valencian pilota ( pilota means ball in Valencian) is a traditional handball Sport played in the Valencian Some variants have been exported to the United States and Macau under the name of Jai Alai. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Macau topics. Jai alai (ˈhaɪəlaɪ in English and jaɪɑlaɪ or xaɪɑlaɪ in Basque
There are several sports derived by Basques from everyday chores. Basque rural sports, known as Herri Kirolak in Basque, is the term used for a number of sports competitions rooted in the traditional lifestyles of the Basque Heavy workers were challenged and bets placed upon them. Examples are:
The world-famous encierro (bull run) in Pamplona's fiestas Sanfermines started as a transport of bulls to the ring. The Running of the Bulls (in Spanish encierro, from the verb encerrar, to shut in to lock up is a practice that involves running in front of bulls For other meanings see Pamplona (disambiguation. Pamplona ( Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre The festival of San Fermín in the city of Pamplona ( Navarre, Spain) is a deeply-rooted celebration held annually from noon 6 July when the opening of These encierros, as well as other bull and bullock related activities are not exclusive to Pamplona but are traditional in many towns and villages of the Basque country.
While there is no independent Basque state, Spain's autonomous community of the Basque Country, made up of the provinces of Alava (Araba), Vizcaya (Bizkaia) and Guipúzcoa (Gipuzkoa), is primarily a historical consequence and an answer to the wide autonomy claim of the residents. The Basque Country national football team (officially in Basque, Euskal Herriko futbol selekzioa) is the official football team for Basque Country An autonomous community is a first-level political division of the Kingdom of Spain, established in accordance with the Spanish Constitution.
Navarre has a separate autonomy based in the historical fuero (charter), that has never been submitted to a referendum giving the possibility (always open) of incorporating itself to the Basque Autonomous Community, option rejected by many residents. Fuero ( Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and conceptThe word comes from Latin forum, an open space used as market tribunal
The Northern Basque Country has no autonomy whatsoever and it is just part of the French department of Pyrénées Atlantiques, centered in Bearn. The French Basque Country or Northern Basque Country (Pays basque français Iparralde constitutes the North-Eastern part of the Basque Country and the Western In the Terminology of Political geography and Historiography a National department (département departamento is an administrative Pyrénées-Atlantiques ( Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Basque: Pirinio-Atlantiarrak or Pirinio-Atlantikoak) is a department This article is about the former French province for the warship see French aircraft carrier Béarn Béarn ( Gascon: Bearn The claim of a separate Basque department has been large among a very minority of local elects of nationalist ideologies in the last decades but incompatible with the French Constitution. The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958.
Both Spanish and French governments have, at times, tried to suppress Basque linguistic and cultural identity. Basque ( native name: euskara) is the Language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain The French Republics, the epitome of the nation-state, have a long history of attempting the complete cultural absorption of ethnic minority groups. For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy Spain has, at most points in its history, granted some degree of linguistic, cultural, and even political autonomy to its Basques, but under the regime of Francisco Franco, the Spanish government reversed the advances of Basque nationalism, as it had fought in the opposite side of the Spanish Civil War: cultural activity in Basque was limited to folkloric issues and the Roman Catholic Church. The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of
Today, the Basque Country within Spain enjoys an extensive cultural and political autonomy. The majority of schools under the jurisdiction of the Basque education system use Basque as the primary medium of teaching. Education in the Basque Country is entirely free from the age of 3, and compulsory between 6 and 16 years
However, in Navarre, Basque has been declared an endangered language, since the conservative government of Unión del Pueblo Navarro opposes Basque nationalism and symbols of Basqueness, highlighting Navarre's own autonomy. Navarrese People's Union (in Spanish: Unión del Pueblo Navarro) is a conservative Political party active in the Navarre region of 
The situation of Basque is also delicate in the North, where lack of autonomy and monolingual public schooling in French exert great pressure on the native language.
Since the nineteenth century, Basque nationalism has demanded the right of self-determination and even independence. Basque nationalism is a movement with roots in the Carlism and the loss by the laws of 1839 and 1876 of the Ancien Régime relationship between the Basque provinces Self-determination is defined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion and especially as the freedom of the people of a given Territory to determine their Independence is the Self-government of a Nation, Country, or State by its residents and population or some portion thereof generally exercising The desire for independence is particularly common among leftist Basque nationalists. The right of self-determination was asserted by the Basque Parliament in 2002 and 2006. The Basque Parliament ( Basque: Eusko Legebiltzarra &ndash Spanish: Parlamento Vasco) is the legislative body of the Basque Country  Since self-determination is not recognized in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, a wide majority of Basques abstained and some even voted against it in the referendum of December 6 of that year. The Constitution of Spain is regarded as the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev However, it was approved by clear majority at the Spanish level, and simple majority at Navarrese and Basque levels. A majority, also known as a simple majority in the US, is a Subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group The derived autonomous regimes for the (Western) Basque Country was approved in later referendum but the autonomy of Navarre (amejoramiento del fuero: "improvement of the charter") was never subject to referendum but just approved by the Navarrese Cortes (parliament).
As with their language, the Basques are clearly a distinct ethnic group in their native region. eu '''Euskadi Ta Askatasuna''' or ETA ( Basque for "Basque Homeland and Freedom" ˈɛːta is an illegal armed Basque nationalist Separatist Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación (GAL Antiterrorist Liberation Groups were Death squads illegally set up by officials of the Spanish government to fight The Batallón Vasco Español ( Spanish for Basque Spanish Battalion was a Spanish right-wing paramilitary group active from 1975 to The Comandos Autónomos Anticapitalistas (CAA ( Komando Autonomo Antikapitalistak in Basque, Autonomous Anticapitalist Commandos in English were a Basque Iraultza, meaning Revolution in the Basque language, was a small Basque militant armed group of the Trotskyist tendency that may be remembered They are culturally and especially linguistically distinct from their surrounding neighbours. Some Basques, especially in Spain, are strongly, even violently, nationalist, identifying far more firmly as Basques than as citizens of any existing state. Many others are not, feeling as much Basque as they are Spanish, and have to suffer from the harassment of extreme Basque nationalists. Indeed, the only question would seem to be whether the term "ethnic group" is too weak, or whether one should favour the term "nation", advocated by many in Basque Country.
In modern times, as a European people living in a highly industrialized area, cultural differences from the rest of Europe are inevitably blurred, although a conscious cultural identity as a people or nation remains very strong, as does an identification with their homeland, even among many Basques who have emigrated to other parts of Spain or France, or to other parts of the world.
The strongest distinction between the Basques and their traditional neighbours is linguistic. Surrounded by Romance-language speakers, the Basques traditionally spoke (and many still speak) a language that was not only non-Romance but non-Indo-European. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all Although the evidence is open to question, the prevailing belief among Basques, and forming part of their national identity, is that their language has continuity to the people who were in this region not merely in pre-Roman times, but in pre-Celtic times, quite possibly before the great invasions of Europe by Asian tribes.
Although they are genetically distinctive in some ways, the Basques are still very typically west European in terms of their Mt-DNA and Y-DNA sequences, and in terms of some other genetic loci. These same sequences are widespread throughout the western half of Europe, especially along the western fringe of the continent. The Sami people of northern Scandinavia show an especially high abundance of a Mt-DNA type found at 11% amongst Basques. The Sami people are the Indigenous people of northern Europe inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway Somewhat higher among neighbouring Cantabrians, the isolated Pasiegos have a Mt-DNA V haplogroup of wider microsatellite variation than Saami. The Cantabri were an ancient confederacy of eleven tribes either Celtic or pre-Indo European, that inhabited the north coast of Hispania in the whole  Autosomal genetic studies confirm that Basques have a very close relationship with other Europeans, especially with Spaniards - who have a common genetic identity of over 70% with Basques. The European peoples are the various Nations and Ethnic groups of Europe. 
It is thought that the Basque Country and neighbouring regions served as a refuge for palaeolithic humans during the last major glaciation when environments further north were too cold and dry for continuous habitation. When climate warmed into the present interglacial, populations would have rapidly spread north along the west European coast. Genetically, in terms of Y-chromosomes and Mt-DNA, inhabitants of Britain and Ireland are closely related to the Basques,  reflecting their common origin in this refugial area. Basques, along with Irish, show the highest frequency of the Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup R1b in Western Europe; some 98% of native Basque men have this haplogroup. In Human genetics, Haplogroup R1b is the most frequent Y-chromosome Haplogroup in Western Europe Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The rest is mainly I and a minimal presence of E3b that in some areas reaches up to 9% as on the French side of the Pyrenees. In Human genetics, Haplogroup I is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup F. In Human genetics, Y Haplogroup E1b1b (E-M215 is a Y-chromosome Haplogroup, a sub-group of Haplogroup E, which is defined by  The Y-chromosome and MtDNA relationship between Basques and people of Ireland and Wales is of equal ratios as to neighbouring areas of Spain, where similar ethnically "Spanish" people now live in close proximity to the Basques, although this genetic relationship is also very strong among Basques and other Spaniards. The Y chromosome is the sex-determining Chromosome in most Mammals including Humans In mammals it contains the gene SRY, which triggers Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) is the DNA located in Organelles called mitochondria. In fact, as Stephen Oppenheimer has stated in The Origins of the British (2006), although Basques have been more isolated than other Iberians, they are a population representative of south western Europe. As to the genetic relationship among Basques, Iberians and Britons, he also states (pages 375 and 378):
By far the majority of male gene types in the derive from Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal), ranging from a low of 59% in Fakenham, Norfolk to highs of 96% in Llangefni, north Wales and 93% Castlerea, Ireland. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. On average only 30% of gene types in England derive from north-west Europe. Even without dating the earlier waves of north-west European immigration, this invalidates the Anglo-Saxon wipeout theory. . . . . . 75-95% of British and Irish (genetic) matches derive from Iberia. . . Ireland, coastal Wales, and central and west-coast Scotland are almost entirely made up from Iberian founders, while the rest of the non-English parts of the Britain and Ireland have similarly high rates. England has rather lower rates of Iberian types with marked heterogeneity, but no English sample has less than 58% of Iberian samples. . .
In fact, according to a European wide study, the main components in the European genomes appear to derive from ancestors whose features were similar to those of modern Basques and Near Easterners, with average values greater than 35% for both these parental populations, regardless of whether or not molecular information is taken into account. The lowest degree of both Basque and Near Eastern admixture is found in Finland, whereas the highest values are, respectively, 70% ("Basque") in Spain and more than 60% ("Near Eastern") in the Balkans. B Syria - Belka Woman from Damascus Arab from Baghdadjpg|thumb|Inhabitants of the Near East late nineteenth century  
Before the development of modern Genetics based on DNA sequencing, Basques were noted as having the highest global apportion of Rh- blood type (35% phenotypically, 60% genetically). Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is The term Rhesus (Rh blood group system refers to the 5 main Rhesus Antigens (C c D E and e as well as the many other less frequent Rhesus antigens Additionally Basques also have virtually no B blood type (nor the related AB group). These differences are thought to reflect their long history of isolation, along with times when the population size of the Basques was small, allowing gene frequencies to drift over time. The history of isolation reflected in gene frequencies has presumably been key to the Basque people retaining their distinctive language, while more recently arrived Indo-European languages swamped other indigenous languages that were previously spoken in western Europe. In fact, in accordance with other genetic studies, a recent genetic piece of research from 2007 claims: "The Spanish and Basque groups are the furthest away from other continental groups (with more diversity within the same genetic groups) which is consistent with the suggestions that the Iberian peninsula holds the most ancient West European genetic ancestry. "
Among the most notable Basque people are Juan Sebastián de Elcano (led the first successful expedition to circumnavigate the globe after Magellan died mid-journey); Sancho III of Navarre; and Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier, founders of the Society of Jesus. This is a list of famous Basque people. It includes people born or resident in the Basque Country and people born elsewhere Juan Sebastián del Cano, then Elcano ( Getaria, in the Basque province of Guipúzcoa, former Kingdom of Castile, Spain Sancho III Garcés (late 10th century &ndash 18 October 1035) called the Great ( Spanish: el Mayor or el Grande) was Saint Ignatius redirects here for other Saints see Ignatius. Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Íñigo Oñaz López de Loyola Saint Francis Xavier ( Konkani / Konknni: Sam Fransisku Xavier/ Sanv Fransisk Xavier Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa Spanish: San Francisco The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order