The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, Basiliké Stoà, Royal Stoa), was originally used to describe a Roman public building (as in Greece, mainly a tribunal), usually located in the forum of a Roman town. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Basileios Stoa (also Basiliké Stoà or Royal Stoa) was a Stoa constructed in the 5th century BC. Stoa (plural stoae or stoæ) in Ancient Greek architecture; covered walkways or Porticos commonly for public usage Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία Tribunal is a generic term for any body acting judicially whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title The Forum was the public space in the middle of a Roman city It had a great social importance and was often the scene of diverse activities including political discussions In Hellenistic cities, public basilicas appeared in the 2nd century BC. This article focuses on the cultural aspects of the Hellenistic age for the historical aspects see Hellenistic period. The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC.
After the Roman Empire became officially Christian, the term came by extension to refer to a large and important church that has been given special ceremonial rites by the Pope. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Thus the word retains two senses today, one architectural and the other ecclesiastical.
In architecture, the Roman basilica was a large roofed hall erected for transacting business and disposing of legal matters. Such buildings usually contained interior colonnades that divided the space, giving aisles or arcaded spaces at one or both sides, with an apse at one end (or less often at each end), where the magistrates sat, often on a slightly raised dais. In Classical architecture, a colonnade denotes a long sequence of Columns joined by their Entablature, often free-standing as in the famous elliptically APSE standing for Ada Programming Support Environment is a program or set of programs to support Software development in the Ada programming language. The central aisle tended to be wide and was higher than the flanking aisles, so that light could penetrate through the clerestory windows. Clerestory (ˈklɪə(rstɔəri lit clear storey, also clearstory, clearstorey, or overstorey) is an architectural term denoting
The oldest known basilica, the Basilica Porcia, was built in Rome in 184 BC by Cato the Elder during the time he was censor. Events By place Roman Republic Cato the Elder, along with his colleague Lucius Valerius Flaccus, are elected censors Marcus Porcius Cato ( Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO (234 BC Tusculum &ndash149 BC was a Roman statesman surnamed the Censor A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. Other early examples include the one at Pompeii (late 2nd century BC). The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC.
Probably the most splendid Roman basilica (see below) is the one constructed for traditional purposes during the reign of the pagan emperor Maxentius and finished by Constantine after 313. Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius (c 278 - 28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312 Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine As early as the time of Augustus, a public basilica for transacting business had been part of any settlement that considered itself a city, used like the late medieval covered markethouses of northern Europe (where the meeting room, for lack of urban space, was set above the arcades).
In the early Imperial period, a basilica for large audiences also became a feature in the palaces. Events By place Roman Republic Cato the Elder, along with his colleague Lucius Valerius Flaccus, are elected censors Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Byzantine Greek form τριβούνος) was a title shared by 2–3 elected magistracies in the The Basilica Aemilia was a civil Basilica in the Roman forum, in Rome, Italy. Events By place Roman Republic Tiberius Gracchus Major goes to Hispania as Roman governor to deal with uprisings there The Basilica Julia, was a large ornate public building used for meetings and other official business during the early Roman Empire Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was For other temples to her see Concordia (Roman goddess#Temples. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus ( Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS (168 BC-133 BC was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC and brother The Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine (sometimes known as the Basilica Nova 'new Basilica ' or Basilica Maxentius) was the largest building in Events By Place Roman Empire November 11 — The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire the Events By Place Roman Empire February — Conference at Milan Constantine issues the Edict of Milan, ending all persecution In the 3rd century AD, the governing elite appeared less easily in the forums. The 3rd century is the period from 201 to 300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. "They now tended to dominate their cities from opulent palaces and country villas, set a little apart from traditional centers of public life. Rather than retreats from public life, however, these residences were the forum made private. " (Peter Brown, in Paul Veyne, 1987). Seated in the tribune of his basilica the great man would meet his dependent clientes early every morning.
A private basilica excavated at Bulla Regia (Tunisia), in the "House of the Hunt," dates from the first half of the 4th century. Bulla Regia is a Roman city now in northwestern Tunisia, near the modern city of Jendouba. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century Its reception or audience hall is a long rectangular nave-like space, flanked by dependent rooms that mostly also open into one another, ending in a circular apse, with matching transept spaces. The "crossing" of the two axes was emphasized with clustered columns.
In the 4th century, Christians were prepared to build larger and more handsome edifices for worship than the furtive meeting places they had been using. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century Architectural formulas for temples were unsuitable, not simply for their pagan associations, but because pagan cult and sacrifices occurred outdoors under the open sky in the sight of the gods, with the temple, housing the cult figures and the treasury, as a backdrop. The usable model at hand, when Constantine wanted to memorialize his imperial piety, was the familiar conventional architecture of the basilicas . These had a center nave with one aisle at each side and an apse at one end: on this raised platform sat the bishop and priests. Constantine built a basilica of this type in his palace complex at Trier, later very easily adopted for use as a church. Trier (Trèves Luxembourgish: Tréier; Augusta Treverorum is a City in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. It is a long rectangle two stories high, with ranks of arch-headed windows one above the other, without aisles (no mercantile exchange in this imperial basilica) and at the far end, beyond a huge arch, the apse in which Constantine held state. Exchange the throne for an altar, as was done at Trier, and you had a church. Basilicas of this type were built not only in Western Europe but in Greece, Syria, Egypt, and Palestine. Good early examples of the architectural basilica are the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem (6th century), the church of St Elias at Thessalonica (5th century), and the two great basilicas at Ravenna. Church_of_the_nativity_bethjpg|thumb|200px|View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square]]The Church of the Nativity ( كنيسة المهد) in Bethlehem The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. Ravenna is a City and Comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.
Thus a Christian symbolic theme was applied quite naturally to form borrowed from civil semi-public precedents. In the later 4th century other Christian basilicas were built in Rome: Santa Sabina, St John Lateran and St Paul's-outside-the-Walls (4th century), and later San Clemente (6th century). Santa Sabina all'Aventino is a Basilica in Rome, the center of the Dominican order. The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
A Christian basilica of the 4th or 5th century stood behind its entirely enclosed forecourt ringed with a colonnade or arcade, like the stoa or peristyle that was its ancestor or like the cloister that was its descendant. Stoa (plural stoae or stoæ) in Ancient Greek architecture; covered walkways or Porticos commonly for public usage In Greek and Roman architecture a peristyle is a Columned Porch or open Colonnade in a Building that surrounds a court A cloister (from Latin claustrum) is a part of Cathedral, Monastic and Abbey architecture This forecourt was entered from outside through a range of buildings along the public street. This was the architectural groundplan of St Peter's Basilica in Rome, until first the forecourt, then all of it was swept away in the 15th century to make way for a great modern church on a new plan. The Basilica of Saint Peter (Basilica Sancti Petri officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St
In most basilicas the central nave is taller than the aisles, forming a row of windows called a clerestory. The Cathedral - Minor basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec ( Our Lady of Quebec City) located at 20 rue de Buade Quebec Quebec, is the Clerestory (ˈklɪə(rstɔəri lit clear storey, also clearstory, clearstorey, or overstorey) is an architectural term denoting Some basilicas in the Caucasus, particularly those of Georgia and Armenia, have a central nave only slightly higher than the two aisles and a single pitched roof covering all three. The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani The result is a much darker interior. This plan is known as the "oriental basilica. "
Famous existing examples of churches constructed in the ancient basilica style include:
Gradually in the early Middle Ages there emerged the massive Romanesque churches, which still retained the fundamental plan of the basilica. Regional characteristics of Romanesque architecture|Romanesque art Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Middle Ages Europe which
The Early Christian purpose-built basilica was the cathedral basilica of the bishop, on the model of the semi-public secular basilicas, and its growth in size and importance signalled the gradual transfer of civic power into episcopal hands, underway in the fifth century. St Stephen's Basilica ( Hungarian: Szent István-bazilika) is an Ecclesiastic Basilica in Budapest, Hungary. Budapest ( also /ˈbʊ-/) is the capital city of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary it serves as the country's principal Political, Fátima ( ˈfatimɐ is a city in Portugal famous for the religious visions that took place there in 1917 This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight Basilicas in this sense are divided into classes, the major ("greater"), and the minor basilicas, i. e. , three other patriarchal and several pontifical minor basilicas in Italy, and over 1,400 lesser basilicas on all continents. Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a Pater familias over an extended family
As of March 26, 2006, there were 1,476 basilicas, of which the majority are in Europe (526 in Italy alone, including all those of elevated status; 166 in France; 96 in Poland; 94 in Spain; 69 in Germany; 27 in Austria; 23 in Belgium; 13 in the Czech Republic; 12 in Hungary; 11 in the Netherlands; and less than ten in many other countries), many in the Americas (58 in the U. Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. S. ; 47 in Brazil; 41 in Argentina; 27 in Mexico; 25 in Colombia; 21 in Canada; 13 in Venezuela; 12 in Peru; etc), and fewer in Asia (14 in India; 12 in the Philippines; nine in Israel; and some other countries one or two), Africa (several countries one or two) and Australasia (Australia 5 and Guam one). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics.
The privileges attached to the status of basilica, which is conferred by Papal Brief, include a certain precedence before other churches, the right of the conopaeum (a baldachin resembling an umbrella; also called umbraculum, ombrellino, papilio, sinicchio, etc. A privilege &mdashetymologically "private law" or law relating to a specific individual&mdashis a special Entitlement or immunity granted by a government The Papal Brief is a formal document emanating from the Pope, in a somewhat simpler and more modern form than a Papal Bull. The Umbraculum — Italian: Ombrellino (from Latin umbra 'shade' for a sun-umbrella—is an historic piece of the Papal regalia and insignia A baldachin, or baldaquin (Italian baldacchino or baldachino) is a canopy of state over an Altar or ) and the bell (tintinnabulum), which are carried side by side in procession at the head of the clergy on state occasions, and the cappa magna which is worn by the canons or secular members of the collegiate chapter when assisting at the Divine Office. A Tintinnabulum is a bell mounted on a pole placed in a Roman Catholic Basilica to signify the church's link with the Pope. The cope (Known in Latin as pluviale 'rain coat' or cappa 'cape' is a liturgical Vestment, which may conveniently be described as a very long mantle A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανωνικος 'relating to a rule' is a priest who is a member of certain bodies of the Chapter ( Latin capitulum) designates certain corporate ecclesiastical bodies in the Roman Catholic, Anglican and Nordic Lutheran This article refers to the Liturgy of the Hours as a specific manifestation of public prayer in the Roman Catholic Church.
Churches designated as patriarchal basilicas, in particular, possess a papal throne and a papal high altar from which no one may celebrate Mass without the pope's permission. This article is about royal thrones for the order of Angels by the same name see Thrones. An altar is any structure upon which Sacrifices or other offerings are made for religious purposes or some other sacred place where ceremonies take place
Numerous basilicas are notable shrines, often even receiving significant pilgrimages, especially among the many that were built above a Confession. A shrine, from the Latin scrinium (‘box’ also used as a desk like the French bureau) was originally a container usually made of precious materials used In Religion and Spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or Search of great Moral significance The confession of one's Sins is a religious practice important to many faiths e
To this class belong just four great papal churches of Rome, which among other distinctions have a special "holy door" and to which a visit is always prescribed as one of the conditions for gaining the Roman Jubilee. Each of the four patriarchal Basilicas in Rome has a Holy door (Porta santa in Italian and porta sancta in Latin The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of Sins and universal pardon Upon relinquishing the title of Patriarch of the West, Pope Benedict XVI renamed these basilicas from "Patriarchal Basilicas" to "Papal Basilicas". Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a Pater familias over an extended family Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger
These four papal or major basilicas were formerly known as "patriarchal basilicas". Together with the minor basilica of St Lawrence outside the Walls, they were by some associated with the five ancient patriarchal sees of Christendom (see Pentarchy). The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek, Basiliké Stoà, Royal Stoa) was originally used to describe a Roman The Basilica of San Lorenzo fuori le Mura &mdash also known in the English language as Saint Lawrence outside the Walls &mdash is one of the most important Originally a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a Pater familias over an extended family Pentarchy is a Greek -derived word meaning "rule by five" Thus St John Lateran was associated with Rome, St Peter's with Constantinople, St Paul's with Alexandria, St Mary Major with Antioch, and St Lawrence with Jerusalem.
There are four "pontifical" (a word that in this context means "papal") basilicas in Italy:
The title "patriarchal" is officially given to two churches associated with Saint Francis of Assisi situated in or near his home town:
The description "patriarchal" also applies to basilicas associated with bishops who have the title of patriarch, such as the Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of St. Mark in Venice and the Patriarchal Basilica of Aquileia, which with its archaeological area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Pompei is a city in the Province of Naples ( Campania, Italy) The Basilica di San Nicola ( Basilica of Saint Nicholas) is a church in Bari, southern Italy, that holds wide religious significance throughout Bari ( Barium in Latin, Bàrion or Vàrion in Greek, Bare in Neapolitan The Basilica of Saint Anthony of Padua ( Italian: Sant'Antonio da Padova) is the largest church in Padua, Italy. Padua ( Padova 'padova Latin: Patavium, Padoa) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy. The Shrine of the Holy House ( Santuario della Santa Casa) is a Catholic place of Pilgrimage in Loreto, Italy. Loreto is a hilltown and Comune of the Italian Province of Ancona, in the Marche. For the opera by Olivier Messiaen see Saint-François d'Assise. The Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi in Assisi, Italy is the burial place of St Francis and the mother church of the Franciscan Order For other uses see Santa Maria degli Angeli. The Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli (Saint Mary of the Angels is a church situated in the Porziuncola, also called Portiuncula (in Latin or Porzioncula, is a small church in the Frazione of Santa Maria degli Angeli Saint Mark's Basilica ( Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia) the Cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the Aquileia (also called Aquilegia, Friulian Acuilee/Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in what is A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex
The lesser minor basilicas are the vast majority, including some cathedrals, many technically parish churches, some shrines, some abbatial or conventual churches. Some oratories, semi-private places of worship, have been raised to the status of minor basilica, such as Saint Joseph's Oratory in Canada. In Christianity, an oratory is a Room for Prayer, from the Latin orare, to pray Saint Joseph's Oratory of Mount Royal, (Oratoire Saint-Joseph du Mont-Royal is a Roman Catholic Basilica on the northern slope of Mount Royal in Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
Cathedral Basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec in Quebec City was the first basilica in North America, designated by Pope Pius IX in 1874. The Cathedral - Minor basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec ( Our Lady of Quebec City) located at 20 rue de Buade Quebec Quebec, is the Quebec City ( French: Ville de Québec, or simply Québec) (kwɨˈbɛk or /keˈbɛk/ is the Capital of the Canadian province Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13 1792 &ndash February 7 1878 born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was Pope from June 16 1846 until 1878 Year 1874 ( MDCCCLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common St. Adalbert's Basilica in Buffalo, New York was the first Basilica in the United States of America in 1907 by Pope Pius X. Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Saint Pius X ( Latin: Pius PP X) ( June 2, 1835 &mdash August 20, 1914) born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was the In Colombia, the Las Lajas Cathedral has been a minor basilica since 1954. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Las Lajas Cathedral or Las Lajas Sanctuary (in Spanish Cathedral de Las Lajas or Santuario de Las Lajas) is a Cathedral located in Year 1954 ( MCMLIV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar) Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro, in Cote d'Ivoire (West Africa) is reported slightly larger than St Peter's Basilica. There is a similarly named Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace in Honolulu.
There was a pronounced tendency in the twentieth century to add to their number of churches that were granted the title of minor basilica. Examples among the many are the church containing Generalissimo Franco's tomb and those of many others in the monumental Valley of the Fallen near Madrid, the Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, in Carmel, California (USA) and the Mission Basilica San Juan Capistrano. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid The Valle de los Caídos (in English Valley of the Fallen) is a monumental memorial in the municipality of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, erected at Cuelgamuros Valley Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, also known as the Carmel Mission, is a historic Roman Catholic mission church in Carmel-by-the-Sea California Carmel-by-the-Sea, usually called simply Carmel, is a small town endowed with a rich artistic history situated on the Monterey Peninsula in Monterey Mission Basilica San Juan Capistrano is Catholic a minor Basilica church in the city of San Juan Capistrano, California in the Diocese of Orange Towards the end of that century stricter rules were applied and it was decided, for instance, that since cathedrals outrank basilicas in any case, the title of minor basilica would no longer be granted to them.
The papal or major basilicas outrank in precedence all other churches. Other rankings put the cathedral (or co-cathedral) of a bishop ahead of all other churches in the same diocese, even if they have the title of basilica. This article is about the history and organisation of the cathedral If the cathedral is that of a suffragan diocese, it yields precedence to the cathedral of the metropolitan see. The cathedral of a primate is considered to rank higher than that of a metropolitan. Other classifications of churches include collegiate churches, which may or may not also be minor basilicas. In Christianity, a collegiate church is a church where the Daily office of worship is maintained by a College of canons; a non-monastic or