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Baritone (or barytone; French: baryton; German: Bariton; Italian: baritono) is the type of male voice that lies between bass and tenor. A voice type is a particular kind of human Singing voice perceived as having certain identifying qualities or characteristics Human voices may be classified according to their vocal range &mdash the highest and lowest pitches that they can produce This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. The tenor is the highest male voice within the Modal register, just above the Baritone voice Coloratura has several meanings The word derives from the Italian colorare (to Colour; to heighten to enliven or colorazione (colouring coloration Chest voice is a term used within vocal music The use of this term varies widely within vocal pedagogical circles and there is currently no one consistent opinion among vocal music professionals Head voice is a term used within vocal music The use of this term varies widely within vocal pedagogical circles and there is currently no one consistent opinion among vocal music professionals Sprechgesang and Sprechstimme ( German for spoken-song and spoken-voice) are musical terms used to refer to an expressionist vocal A vocal register in the human voice is a particular series of tones produced in the same vibratory pattern of the Vocal folds and possessing the same quality Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of Phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. The tenor is the highest male voice within the Modal register, just above the Baritone voice Originally from the Greek βαρυτονος, meaning 'deep (or heavy) sounding', music for this voice is typically written in the range from the second A below middle C to the F above middle C (i. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly C or Do is the first Note of the fixed-Do Solfege. In Western Music, the expression " Middle C " refers to the note e. A2-F4) in choral music, and to G above middle C (i. e. A2 - G4) in operatic music, though it can be extended at either end.
The first use of the term "baritone" emerged as baritonans late in the 15th century, usually in French sacred polyphonic music. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Religious music (also sacred music) is Music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence In Music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent Melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice ( Monophony At this early stage it was frequently used as the lowest of the voices (including the bass), but in 17th century Italy the term was all-encompassing and used to describe the average male choral voice.
Baritones took roughly the range we know today at the beginning of the 18th century but they were still lumped in with their bass colleagues until well into the 19th century. Indeed, many operatic works of the 18th century have roles marked as bass that in reality are low baritone roles. Examples of this are to be found, for instance, in the operas and oratorios of George Frideric Handel. The greatest and most enduring parts for baritones in 18th-century operatic music were composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. They include Figaro and Count Almaviva in Le nozze di Figaro, Guglielmo in Cosi fan tutte, Papageno in Die Zauberflöte and Masetto and the Don in Don Giovanni. Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans The Marriage of Figaro or the Day of Madness) K Così fan tutte ossia La scuola degli amanti ( Thus Do They All or The School For Lovers) K The Magic Flute (German Die Zauberflöte, K 620 is an Opera in two acts composed in 1791 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Don Giovanni ( K527; complete title Il dissoluto punito ossia il Don Giovanni, literally "The Rake Punish'd or Don Giovanni 
The bel canto style of vocalism which arose in Italy in the early 19th century supplanted the castrato-dominated opera seria of the previous century. Victor Maurel ( June 17, 1848 in Marseilles - October 22, 1923 in New York City) was a French Baritone. Bel canto ( Bel-Canto) ( Italian, "beautiful singing" an Italian musical term refers to the art and science of vocal technique which originated in A castrato is a man with a singing voice equivalent to that of a Soprano, Mezzo-soprano, or Contralto voice produced either by Castration Opera seria (usually called dramma per musica or Melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious" It also led to the baritone being viewed as a separate voice category to the bass. Traditionally, basses in operas had been cast as authority figures such as a king or high priest; but with the advent of the more fluid baritone voice, the roles allotted by composers to lower male voices expanded in the direction of trusted companions or even romantic leads - normally the province of tenors. More often than not, however, baritones found themselves portraying villains.
The principal composers of bel canto opera are considered to be:
The prolific operas of these composers, plus the works of Verdi's maturity, such as Don Carlos, the revised Simon Boccanegra, Aida, Otello and Falstaff, blazed many new and rewarding performance pathways for baritones. This article refers to the opera Don Carlos ( Don Carlo when performed in Italian translation by Giuseppe Verdi Simon Boccanegra is an Opera with a prologue and three acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian Libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based This article is about the marketing term AIDA For other uses of the term see Aida (disambiguation. Otello is an Opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian Libretto by Arrigo Boito, based on Shakespeare 's play Falstaff is an Operatic commedia lirica in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi, adapted by Arrigo Boito from Shakespeare 's plays Figaro in Il barbiere is often called the first true baritone role and Donizetti and Verdi in their vocal writing went on to emphasise the top fifth of the baritone voice, rather than its lower notes - thus generating a more brilliant sound. Further pathways opened up when the musically complex and physically demanding operas of Richard Wagner also began to enter the mainstream repertory of the world's opera houses during the second half of the 19th century.
The major baritone of the first half of the 19th century was Antonio Tamburini (1800-1876). Antonio Tamburini ( March 28, 1800 - November 8, 1876) was an Italian Baritone. He was a famous Don Giovanni in Mozart's eponymous opera as well as being a Bellini and Donizetti specialist. Don Giovanni ( K527; complete title Il dissoluto punito ossia il Don Giovanni, literally "The Rake Punish'd or Don Giovanni Commentators praised his voice for its beauty, flexibility and smooth tonal emission - the hallmarks of a bel canto singer. The most important of Tamburini's immediate successors were: Giorgio Ronconi, who created the title role in Verdi's Nabucco; Felice Varesi, who created the title roles in Macbeth and Rigoletto and was the first Germont in La Traviata; Francesco Graziani, who created Don Carlo in Verdi's La forza del destino; and Leone Giraldoni, who created Renato in Verdi's Un ballo in maschera and was the first Simon Boccanegra. Giorgio Ronconi ( 6 August, 1810 - 8 January, 1890) was an Italian Baritone, the first singer of the title-role in Felice Varesi (born Calais, 1813 - died Milan 13 March, 1889) was an Italian Baritone. Macbeth is among the best-known of William Shakespeare 's plays, and is his shortest tragedy, believed to have been written some time between Rigoletto is an Opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi. The Italian Libretto was written by Francesco Maria Piave based La traviata is an Opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi set to an Italian Libretto by Francesco Maria Piave. La forza del destino ( The Force of Destiny) is an Italian Opera by Giuseppe Verdi. Leone Giraldoni (born circa 1824 Paris; died September 19 1897 Moscow) was a celebrated Italian Operatic Baritone. Un ballo in maschera (A Masked Ball, is an Opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi with text by Antonio Somma.
Luckily, the gramophone was invented early enough to capture on disc the voices of the top Italian Verdi and Donizetti baritones of the last two decades of the 19th century, whose operatic performances were characterized by re-creative freedom and technical finish. They included Mattia Battistini (known as the "King of Baritones"), Giuseppe Kaschmann (who, atypically for his kind, sang Wagner's Telramund and Amfortas in German at Bayreuth in the 1890s), Giuseppe Campanari, Antonio Magini-Coletti, Mario Ancona (the first Silvio in Pagliacci), Giuseppe Pacini and Antonio Scotti, (who came to the Met from Europe in 1899 and remained on the roster of singers until 1933!). Mattia Battistini, ( 27 February 1856 &ndash 7 November, 1928) was an Italian Operatic Baritone. Mario Ancona (1860-1931 was an Italian Baritone, born in Livorno, Tuscany to a Jewish family Pagliacci ( Players, or Clowns) is an Opera consisting of a prologue and two acts written and composed by Ruggero Leoncavallo. Antonio Scotti ( January 25, 1866 - February 26, 1936) was an Italian Baritone. Meanwhile, Antonio Pini-Corsi was the dominant Italian buffo (comic) baritone between the 1880s and WW1. Antonio Pini-Corsi (June 1859 - April 21, 1918) was an Italian Buffo Baritone of international renown The term Opera buffa (plural Opere buffe) was at first used as an informal description of Italian Comic operas variously classified by their authors as Notable among their contemporaries were the technically adroit French baritones Jean Lassalle (described as the "best schooled" baritone of his era), Victor Maurel (the creator of Iago, Falstaff and Tonio in Pagliacci) and Maurice Renaud (a compelling singing-actor) - each of whom enjoyed a career on either side of the Atlantic. Victor Maurel ( June 17, 1848 in Marseilles - October 22, 1923 in New York City) was a French Baritone. Maurice Renaud ( 24 July 1860 ? &ndash 16 October, 1933, was a French Operatic Baritone. They made valuable records, too. Three other significant Francophone baritones who left a legacy of early recordings are Leon Melchissedec and Jean Note of the Paris Opera and Gabriel Soulacroix of the Opera-Comique. The Quaker baritone David Bispham, who sang in London and New York between 1891 and 1903, was the leading American male singer of this period. David Scull Bispham ( January 5, 1857 – October 2, 1921) was the first American –born Operatic Baritone He, too, recorded for the gramophone.
The oldest-born baritone known for sure to have made solo gramophone discs was the Englishman Sir Charles Santley (1834-1922). Sir Charles Santley ( February 28, 1834 - September 22, 1922) was an English Vocalist, who in his long career in opera Santley made his operatic debut in Italy in 1858 and was still giving critically acclaimed concerts in London in the 1890s. The composer of Faust, Charles Gounod, penned Valentine's aria "Even bravest heart" for him in 1864. Faust is an opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré from Carré's play Biography Gounod was born in Paris, the son of a pianist mother and a draftsman father A couple of primitive cylinder recordings dating from about 1900 have been attributed by collectors to the French baritone of the 1860s and 1870s, Jean-Baptiste Faure (1830-1914) - the creator of Posa in Verdi's Don Carlos. Jean-Baptiste Faure ( 15 January, 1830 - 9 November, 1914) was a celebrated French Baritone and Composer This attribution is not certain, however. A contemporary of Faure's, Antonio Cotogni, (1831-1918) - the foremost Italian baritone of his generation - can be heard, briefly and dimly, at the age of 77, on a duet recording with the tenor Francesco Marconi. Antonio Cotogni ( August 1, 1831, Rome - October 15, 1918, Rome) was an Italian Baritone, among the greatest (Cotogni and Marconi had sung together in the first London performance of Amilcare Ponchielli's La Gioconda in 1883, performing the roles of Barnaba and Enzo respectively. Amilcare Ponchielli ( August 31, 1834 &ndash January 16, 1886) was an Italian Composer, largely of Operas La Gioconda may be La Gioconda, alternate title of painting Mona Lisa ''La Gioconda'' (opera )
There are 19th century references to certain baritone sub-types. They include the tenorish baryton-Martin, named after French singer Jean-Blaise Martin (1768/69-1837), and the deeper, dramatic-voiced Heldenbariton of Wagnerian opera. Jean-Blaise Martin ( February 24, 1768, Paris - October 28, 1837, Tourzel-Ronzières) was a French Opera singer
Perhaps the most accomplished Heldenbaritons of Wagner's day were Franz Betz and Theodor Reichmann. The former created Hans Sachs in Die Meistersinger and undertook Wotan in the first Der Ring des Niebelungen cycle at Bayreuth, while the latter created Amfortas in Parsifal, also at Bayreuth. This article refers to the poet For other people of the same name see Hans Sachs (disambiguation. Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Mastersingers of Nuremberg) is an Opera in three acts written and composed by Richard Wagner Der Ring des Nibelungen ( The Ring of the Nibelung) is a cycle of four epic Music dramas by the German composer Bayreuth ( pronounced) is a City in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Frankish Alb Parsifal is an Opera, or Music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner. Lyric German baritones sang lighter Wagnerian roles such as Wolfram in Tannhauser, Kurwenal in Tristan und Isolde or Telramund in Lohengrin. Tannhäuser ( Middle High German: Tanhûser; died after 1265 was a German Minnesänger and Poet. Tristan und Isolde ( Tristan and Isolde, or Tristan and Isolda) is an Opera, or Music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner Lohengrin is a character in some German Arthurian literature The son of Parzival (Percival he is a knight of the Holy Grail sent in a They made large strides, too, in the performance of art song and oratorio, with Franz Schubert favouring several baritones for his music, in particular Johann Michael Vogl. Johann Michael Vogl ( August 10, 1768 in Steyr &ndash November 19, 1840 in Vienna) was an Austrian Baritone 
Nineteenth century operettas became the preserve of lightweight baritone voices. They were given comic parts in the tradition of the previous century's comic bass by Gilbert and Sullivan in many of their productions. Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of Librettist W This did not prevent the French master of operetta, Jacques Offenbach, from assigning the villain's role in Les Contes d'Hoffmann to a big-voiced baritone for the sake of dramatic effect. Jacques Offenbach (born Jacob Offenbach 20 June 1819 in Cologne &ndash 5 October 1880 in Paris) was a German Other 19th-century French composers like Meyerbeer, Hector Berlioz, Camille Saint-Saens, Georges Bizet and Jules Massenet wrote attractive parts for baritones, too. Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (/ʃaʁl kamij sɛ̃sɑ̃s/ (9 October 1835 &ndash 16 December 1921 was a French Composer, Organist, conductor, and Georges Bizet (25 October 1838 – 3 June 1875 was a French Composer and Pianist of the Romantic era Jules (Émile Frédéric Massenet ( May 12, 1842 – August 13, 1912) was a French composer best known for his Operas These included Nelusko in L'Africaine (Meyerbeer's last opera), Mephistopheles in La Damnation de Faust (a role also sung by basses), the Priest of Dagon in Samson et Dalila, Escamillo in Carmen, Zurga in Les pêcheurs de perles, Lescaut in Manon, Athanael in Thais and Herod in Herodiade. L'africaine ( The African Woman) is a Grand opera, the last work of the composer Giacomo Meyerbeer. La damnation de Faust (English The Damnation of Faust) is a work for Orchestra, voices and chorus written by Hector Berlioz (he Samson et Dalila ( English: Samson and Delilah) is a grand opera in three acts by Camille Saint-Saëns to a French Carmen is a French Opéra comique by Georges Bizet. The Libretto is by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based Les pêcheurs de perles ( The Pearl Fishers) is an Opera in three acts by Georges Bizet, to a Libretto by Eugène Cormon and Michel Manon is an Opéra comique in five acts by Jules Massenet to a French Libretto by Henri Meilhac and Philippe Gille, based Hérodiade is an Opera in four acts by Jules Massenet to a French Libretto by Paul Milliet and Henri Grémont, based on Russian composers also included substantial baritone parts in their operas. Witness the title roles in Peter Tchaikovsky's Eugene Onegin (which received its first production in 1879) and Alexander Borodin's Prince Igor (1890). Eugene Onegin ( Евгений Онегин, Yevgény Onégin is an Opera ("lyrical scenes" Opus 24 in 3 acts 7 scenes Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Александр Порфирьевич Бородин Aleksandr Porfir'evič Borodin) ( &ndash) was a Russian Composer Prince Igor ( Князь Игорь, Knyaz' Igor) is an Opera by Alexander Borodin, written in four acts with a prologue
Mozart continued to be sung throughout the 19th century although, generally speaking, his operas were not revered to the same extent that they are today by music critics and audiences. Back then, baritones rather than high basses normally sang Don Giovanni - arguably Mozart's greatest male operatic creation. Famous Dons of the late 19th/early 20th centuries included Scotti and Maurel (see the photograph accompanying this article), as well as Portugal's Francisco d'Andrade and Sweden's John Forsell.
The dawn of the 20th century opened up more opportunities for baritones than ever before as a taste for strenuously exciting vocalism and lurid, "slice-of-life" operatic plots took hold in Italy and spread elsewhere. The most prominent verismo baritones included such major singers in Europe and America as Giuseppe De Luca (the first Sharpless in Madama Butterfly), Mario Sammarco (the first Gerard in Andrea Chenier), Eugenio Giraldoni (the first Scarpia in Tosca), Pasquale Amato (the first Rance in La fanciulla del West), Riccardo Stracciari (noted for his richly attractive timbre) and Domenico Viglione-Borghesi, whose voice was exceeded in size only by that of the lion-voiced Titta Ruffo. Verismo (meaning "realism" from Italian vero, meaning "truth" was an Italian literary movement born approximately between 1875 and 1895 Giuseppe De Luca ( December 25 1876 &ndash August 26 1950) was an Italian Baritone. Giuseppe Mario Sammarco ( December 13, 1868, although some sources say 1867 - January 24, 1930) was an Italian operatic Andrea Chénier is an Opera in four acts by the Verismo composer Umberto Giordano, set to an Italian Libretto by Luigi Illica Eugenio Giraldoni ( May 20, 1871, Marseille - June 23, 1924, Helsinki) was an Italian operatic Baritone. Tosca is an Opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian Libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa, based on Pasquale Amato (21 March 1878 in Naples &ndash12 August 1942 in Jackson Heights) was an Italian Operatic Baritone. La fanciulla del West ( The Girl of the Golden West) is an Opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Guelfo Riccardo Stracciari ( June 26, 1875, Casalecchio di Reno - October 10, 1955, Rome) was an Italian Baritone particularly In Music, timbre (ˈtæm-bər' like timber, or, from Fr timbre tɛ̃bʁ is the quality of a Musical note or sound that distinguishes different Titta Ruffo ( June 9, 1877 - July 5, 1953) was an Italian opera singer generally regarded as the greatest Italian baritone of his generation Ruffo was the most commanding Italian baritone of his era or, arguably, any other era. He was at his prime from the early 1900s to the early 1920s and enjoyed success in Italy, England and America (in Chicago and later at the Met).
Between them, these baritones established the echt performance style for baritones undertaking roles in verismo operas. Verismo (meaning "realism" from Italian vero, meaning "truth" was an Italian literary movement born approximately between 1875 and 1895 The chief verismo composers were Giacomo Puccini, Ruggero Leoncavallo, Pietro Mascagni, Alberto Franchetti, Umberto Giordano and Francesco Cilea. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini ( December 22, 1858 Ruggero (Ruggiero Leoncavallo (23 April 1857- 9 August 1919 was an Italian Opera Composer. WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Pietro Mascagni ( December 7, 1863 &ndash August 2, Alberto Franchetti ( 18 September 1860, Turin - 4 August 1942, Viareggio) was an Italian Opera Umberto Menotti Maria Giordano ( August 28, 1867 &ndash November 12, 1948) was an Italian composer mainly of Opera. Francesco Cilea (also Cilèa ( July 23, 1866 &ndash November 20, 1950) was an Italian Composer. Verdi's works continued to remain popular, however, with audiences in Italy, the Spanish-speaking countries, the United States and the United Kingdom and, interestingly enough, Germany, where there was a major Verdi revival in Berlin between the Wars.
Outside the field of Italian opera, an important addition to the Austro-German repertory occurred in 1905. This was the premiere of Richard Strauss's Salome, with the pivotal part of John the Baptist assigned to a baritone. Richard Georg Strauss (11 June 1864 &ndash 8 September 1949 was a German Composer of the late Romantic era and early modern era particularly noted Salome is an Opera in one act by Richard Strauss to a German Libretto by the composer based on Hedwig Lachmann ’s German (The enomous-voiced Dutch baritone Anton van Rooy - a Wagner specialist - sang John when the opera reached the Met in 1907). Anton van Rooy ( January 1, 1870 - November 28, 1932) was a Dutch Baritone. Then, in 1925, Germany's Leo Schützendorf created the title baritone role in Alban Berg's harrowing Wozzeck. Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9 1885 &ndash December 24 1935 was an Austrian Composer. Wozzeck is the first Opera by the Austrian composer Alban Berg. . In a separate development, the French composer Claude Debussy's post-Wagnerian masterpiece Pelleas et Melisande featured not one but two lead baritones at its 1902 premiere. Achille-Claude Debussy (aʃil klod dəbysi (August 22 1862 &ndash March 25 1918 was a French Composer. These two baritones, Jean Perier and Hector Dufranne, possessed contrasting voices. Hector Dufranne ( October 25, 1870, Mons - May 4, 1951, Paris) was a Belgian Bass-baritone. (Dufranne had a darker, more powerful instrument than Perier, who was a true baryton-Martin. )
Characteristic of the Wagnerian baritones of the 20th century was a general progression of individual singers from higher-lying baritone parts to lower-pitched ones. This was the case with Germany's Hans Hotter. Hans Hotter ( 19 January 1909 &ndash 6 December 2003) was a German Operatic Bass-baritone, admired internationally Hotter made his debut in 1929. As a young singer he appeared in Verdi and created the Commandant in Richard Strauss's Friedenstag and Olivier in Capriccio. Friedenstag ( Peace Day) is an Opera in one act by Richard Strauss, his Opus 81 to a German libretto by Joseph Gregor. Capriccio is the final Opera by German composer Richard Strauss, subtitled "A Conversation Piece for Music" By the 1950s, however, he was being hailed as the top Wagnerian bass-baritone in the world. His Wotan was especially praised by critics for its muscianship. Other major Wagnerian baritones have included Hotter's predecessors Leopold Demuth, Anton van Rooy, Hermann Weil, Clarence Whitehill, Friedrich Schorr, Rudolf Bockelmann and Hans Hermann Nissen. Anton van Rooy ( January 1, 1870 - November 28, 1932) was a Dutch Baritone. Clarence Whitehill ( November 5, 1871, Marengo Iowa - December 18, 1932, New York New York) was an American Bass-baritone WikipediaWikiProject Opera#Infoboxes --> Friedrich Schorr ( September 2, 1888, Oradea ( Nagyvarad Demuth, van Rooy, Weil and Whitehill were at their peak in the late 1800s and early 1900s while Schorr, Bockelmann and Nissen were stars of the 1920s and 1930s.
In addition to their heavyweight Wagnerian cousins, there was a plethora of baritones with more lyrical voices active in Germany and Austria during the period between the outbreak of WW1 in 1914 and the end of WW2 in 1945. Among them were Joseph Schwarz, Heinrich Schlusnus, Herbert Janssen, Willi Domgraf-Fassbaender, Karl Schmidt-Walter and Gerhard Hüsch. Heinrich Schlusnus ( August 6, 1888 - June 18, 1952) was Germany's foremost lyric Baritone of the period between World War One Herbert Janssen ( Cologne, September 22 1892 &ndash June 3 1965 in New York) was a German Baritone Willi Domgraf-Fassbaender ( February 19, 1897, Aachen - February 13, 1978, Nuremberg) was a German Baritone, Gerhard Heinrich Wilhelm Fritz Hüsch ( Hanover, February 2, 1901 - Munich, November 23, 1984) was one of the most important Their abundant inter-war Italian counterparts included, among others, Carlo Galeffi, Giuseppe Danise, Enrico Molinari, Umberto Urbano, Cesare Formichi, Luigi Montesanto, Apollo Granforte, Benvenuto Franci, Renato Zanelli (who switched to tenor roles in 1924), Mario Basiola, Giovanni Inghilleri, Carlo Morelli (the Chilean-born younger brother of Renato Zanelli) and Carlo Tagliabue. Carlo Galeffi ( June 4, 1882, Malamocco ( Venice) - September 22, 1961, Rome) was an Italian Baritone, particularly Cesare Formichi ( April 15, 1883, Rome - July 21, 1949, Rome) was an Italian operatic Baritone, particularly Renato Zanelli ( April 1, 1892, Valparaiso - March 25, 1935, Santiago) was a Chilean operatic Baritone and later Carlo Tagliabue ( Mariano Comense, January 13, 1898 – Monza, April 5, 1978) was an Italian Baritone (The last named baritone did not retire until 1958. )
One of the best known Italian Verdi baritones of the 1920s and 1930s, Mariano Stabile, sang Iago and Rigoletto and Falstaff (at La Scala) under the baton of Arturo Toscanini. Mariano Stabile ( May 12, 1888, Palermo Italy - January 11, 1968, Milan Italy) was an Italian Baritone, particularly The Teatro alla Scala (or La Scala, as it is known in Milan, Italy, is one of the world's most famous Opera houses The theatre was WikipediaWikiProject Classical music#Biographical_infoboxes --> Arturo Toscanini (ɑrˈturɔ ˌtɔskɑˈnini (March 25 1867 &ndash January Stabile appeared also in London, Chicago and Salzburg. He was noted more for his histrionic skills than for his voice, however. Stabile was followed by Tito Gobbi - a versatile singing-actor capable of unforgettable comic and tragic performances during the years of his prime in the 1940s, '50s and early '60s. Tito Gobbi ( October 24, 1913 &ndash March 5, 1984) was an Italian Baritone. He learned more than 100 roles in his lifetime and was mostly known for his roles in Verdi and Puccini operas, including appearances as Scarpia opposite soprano Maria Callas as Tosca at Covent Garden. WikipediaWikiProject Opera --> The Royal Opera House is an Opera house and major performing
Gobbi's competitors included Gino Bechi, Giuseppe Valdengo, Paolo Silveri, Giuseppe Taddei, Ettore Bastianini and Giangiacomo Guelfi. Gino Bechi (16 October 1913 - 2 February 1993 was an Italian operatic baritone particularly associated with the Italian repertory especially in Verdi roles Giuseppe Valdengo ( May 24, 1914, Turin - October 3, 2007, Aosta) was an Italian operatic Baritone. Paolo Silveri (born on December 28 1913 in L'Aquila and died on March 7 2001 in Rome) was an Italian Baritone, particularly associated with the Italian Giuseppe Taddei (born June 26, 1916) is an Italian Baritone who enjoyed a long and distinguished career particularly in operas by Wolfgang Ettore Bastianini ( September 24, 1922 &ndash January 25, 1967) was an Italian Opera singer who began his professional career Giangiacomo Guelfi (born on December 21, 1924) is an Italian operatic Baritone, particularly associated with Verdi and Puccini roles Another of Gobbi's contemporaries was the Welshman Geraint Evans, who famously sang Falstaff at Glyndebourne and created the roles of Mr. Flint and Mountjoy in works by Benjamin Britten. Sir Geraint Llewellyn Evans, ( 16 February 1922 – 19 September 1992) was a Welsh Baritone, noted for operatic roles including This article is about the Glyndebourne opera festival See Glyndebourne for details of the Country house and opera house Glyndebourne Festival Billy Budd is an Opera by Benjamin Britten, first performed at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, London on 1 December Gloriana is an Opera in three acts by Benjamin Britten to an English Libretto by William Plomer, based on Elizabeth and Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor, Some considered his best role to have been Wozzeck. The next significant Welsh baritone was Bryn Terfel, who made his premiere at Glyndebourne in 1990 and has gone on to build an international career as Falstaff and, more generally, in the operas of Mozart and Wagner. Bryn Terfel Jones CBE (brɨn ˈtɛrvɛl born November 9, 1965) is a Welsh Bass-baritone opera and concert singer 
An outstanding group of virile-voiced American baritones appeared in the 1920s. This group were still active down into the 1960s. Outstanding among its members were the Met-based Verdians Lawrence Tibbett (a singing-actor), Richard Bonelli, John Charles Thomas, Leonard Warren and Robert Merrill. Lawrence Mervil Tibbett ( November 16, 1896 - July 15, 1960) was an American opera singer movie actor radio personality and recording artist John Charles Thomas ( Meyersdale, Pennsylvania, September 6, 1891 - Apple Valley, California, December 13, The American Opera singer Leonard Warren ( April 21, 1911 - March 4, 1960) was a famous Baritone Robert Merrill ( June 4, 1917 &ndash October 23, 2004) was an American Operatic Baritone. They were exponents of French opera, too - as was the Paris-based American baritone of the 1920s and '30s, Arthur Endreze.
Also to be found singing Verdi roles at the Met, Covent Garden and the Vienna Opera during the late 1930s and the 1940s was the large-voiced Hungarian baritone, Sandor (Alexander) Sved.
The leading Italian Verdi baritones of the 1970s and 1980s were Italy's Renato Bruson and Piero Cappuccilli, America's Sherill Milnes and Sweden's Ingvar Wixell. WikipediaWikiProject Opera#Infoboxes --> Renato Bruson (born January 13, 1936) is an Italian Operatic Piero Cappuccilli ( November 9, 1929 - July 12, 2005) was an Italian operatic Baritone Sherrill Milnes (born January 10, 1935) is an American operatic Baritone most famous for his Verdi roles Ingvar Wixell (born May 7, 1931 in Luleå) is a Swedish Baritone Opera singer At the same time, Britain's Sir Thomas Allen was considered to be the most versatile baritone of his generation in regards to repertoire, which ranged from Mozart to Verdi, through French and Russian opera, to modern English music. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Sir Thomas Allen, CBE, (born September 10, 1944) is an English Baritone Opera singer from Seaham Harbour Another British baritone, Norman Bailey, established himself internationally as a memorable Wotan and Hans Sachs. Norman Bailey (born 23 March 1933) is an Operatic Bass-baritone; born in Birmingham, he emigrated to South Africa with his parents He had, however, a distinguished if lighter-voiced Wagnerian rival during the 1960s and 1970s in the person of Thomas Stewart of America. Thomas Stewart was an illegitimate son of King Robert II of Scotland. Other notable post-War Wagnerian baritones have been Canada's George London, Germany's Hermann Uhde and, more recently, America's James Morris. George London may be George London (bass-baritone (1920&ndash1985 Canadian operatic bass-baritone George London (landscape architect (1681&ndash1714 Hermann Uhde ( July 20 1914 – October 10 1965 was a German Wagnerian Baritone. James Morris is an American Opera singer boasting a stentorian bass voice best known for his role as Wotan in performances of Richard Wagner 's opera cycle
Among the late 20th century baritones noted throughout the opera world for their Verdi performances was Vladimir Chernov, who emerged from the former USSR to sing at the Met. Vladimir Chernov (born September 22, 1953) is a Russian Baritone, particularly associated with the Russian and Italian Opera repertories The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Chernov followed in the footsteps of such richly endowed East European baritones as Joachim Tartakov, Oskar Kamionsky (called the "Russian Battistini"), Waclaw Brzezinski (called the "Polish Battistini"), Georgy Baklanov and, during a career lasting from 1935 to 1966, the Bolshoi's Pavel Lisitsian. Pavel Lisitsian (Павел Герасимович Лисициан ( November 6, 1911 - July 6, 2004) was an outstanding Soviet Dmitri Hvorostovsky and Sergei Leiferkus are two other first-rate Russian baritones of the modern era who appear in the West. Dmitri Aleksandrovich Hvorostovsky (Дмитрий Александрович Хворостовский born October 16, 1962) is a Baritone Opera Sergei Leiferkus (born April 4, 1946) is an Operatic Baritone from Russia, known for his dramatic technique and powerful voice particularly They sing Verdi and the works of their native composers, including Tchaikovsky (Eugene Onegin, The Queen of Spades).
In the realm of French song, the bass-baritone Jose van Dam and the lighter-voiced Gérard Souzay have been notable. A bass-baritone is a high-lying bass that shares certain qualities with the Baritone Voice type. Joseph Baron van Damme (born August 25, 1940) known under the Pseudonym José van Dam, is a Belgian Bass-baritone. Gérard Souzay ( December 8, 1918 &ndash August 17, 2004) was a French Baritone singer regarded as one of the best interpreters of Souzay's repertoire extended from the Baroque works of Jean-Baptiste Lully to 20th century composers such as Francis Poulenc. Jean-Baptiste de Lully ( Giovanni Battista di Lulli) (ʒɑ̃batist də lyˈli in French (November 28 1632 &ndash March 22 1687 was a French Composer of Italian See also, Rhône-Poulenc Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (fʀɑ̃sis ʒɑ̃ maʀsɛl pulɛ̃k January 7, 1899 – January 30, Pierre Bernac, Souzay's teacher, was an interpreter of Poulenc's songs in the previous generation. Pierre Bernac (born as Pierre Bertin on 12 January, 1899 in Paris - died 17 October, 1979 in Villeneuve-les-Avignon) was Older baritones identified with this style include France's Dinh Gilly and Charles Panzera and Australia's John Brownlee. Charles Panzéra was a Swiss Operatic and concert Baritone, born in Geneva, February 16, 1896; died in Paris, John Brownlee may refer to John Edward Brownlee politician and former Premier of Alberta Canada John Brownlee (baritone famous opera singer Another Australian, Peter Dawson, made a small but precious legacy of benchmark Handel recordings during the 1920s and 1930s. Peter Dawson ( 31 January 1882 - 27 September 1961) was an Australian Bass-baritone who gained worldwide renown and (Dawson, incidentally, acquired his Handelian technique from Sir Charles Santley. ) Yet another Australian baritone of distinction between the wars was Harold Williams, who was based in the United Kingdom. Harold Williams is the name of Harold Williams (geologist (born 1934 Canadian geologist Harold Williams (linguist (1876-1928 New Zealand Important British-born baritones of the 1930s and 1940s were Dennis Noble, who sang Italian and English operatic roles, and the Mozartian Roy Henderson. Roy Galbraith Henderson CBE ( July 4, 1899 &ndash March 16, 2000) was a leading English Baritone in the 1920s Both appeared often at Covent Garden.
Prior to World War 2, Germany's Heinrich Schlusnus, Gerhard Hüsch and Herbert Janssen were celebrated for their beautifully sung lieder recitals as well as for their mellifluous operatic performances in Verdi, Mozart and Wagner respectively. After the war's conclusion, Hermann Prey and Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau appeared on the scene to take their place. Hermann Prey ( July 11, 1929 &ndash July 22, 1998) was a German Baritone. The German Baritone Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (born 28 May 1925 is a German singer and conductor of Classical music, one of the most famous In addition to his interpretations of lieder and the works of Mozart, Prey sang in Strauss operas and tackled lighter Wagner roles such as Wolfram. Fischer-Dieskau sang parts in 'fringe' operas by the likes of Ferruccio Busoni and Paul Hindemith as well as appearing in standard works by Verdi and Wagner. Ferruccio Dante Michelangiolo Benvenuto Busoni (April 1 1866 &ndash July 27 1924 was an Italian Composer, Pianist, musical educator and conductor. Paul Hindemith (16 November 1895 &ndash 28 December 1963 was a German Composer, Violist, violinist teacher music theorist and conductor. He earned his principal renown, however, as a lieder singer. Talented German and Austrian lieder singers of a younger generation include Olaf Bär, Matthias Goerne, Wolfgang Holzmair (who also performs regularly in opera), Thomas Quasthoff, Stephan Genz and Christian Gerhaher. Olaf Bär (born December 19 1957 in Dresden) is a German Operatic Baritone. Matthias Goerne (born 1967 is a German Baritone. Born in Weimar, he studied with Hans-Joachim Beyer Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau and Elisabeth Thomas Quasthoff (born in Hildesheim, Germany, November 9, 1959) is a German Bass-baritone generally regarded as one of Well-known non-Germanic baritones of recent times have included the Italians Giorgio Zancanaro and Leo Nucci, the Frenchman Francois le Roux, the Canadian Gerald Finley and the versatile American Thomas Hampson. Giorgio Zancanaro ( May 9, 1939) is an Italian Baritone, particularly associated with the Italian repertory especially Verdi. Leo Nucci (born April 16, 1942, Castiglione dei Pepoli, near Bologna) is an Italian operatic Baritone, one of the leading baritones Gerald Finley (born 30 January 1960) is a Canadian Bass-baritone Opera singer
Note: Its ambitus is greater than the lyric baritone's. The Barber of Seville or The Useless Precaution ( Il barbiere di Siviglia ossia L'inutile precauzione) is an Opera buffa in two acts by La Cenerentola ossia La bontà in trionfo ( Cinderella or Goodness Triumphant) is an Operatic Dramma giocoso in two acts by Gioacchino L'elisir d'amore ( The Elixir of Love) is a Melodramma giocoso in two acts by the Italian composer Gaetano Donizetti. Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 &ndash 8 April 1848 was an Italian composer from Bergamo, Lombardy. This article discusses the use of ambitus in the Middle Ages for other uses see Vocal range The ambitus of a Gregorian chant
|Common vocal ranges represented|
on a musical keyboard
In barbershop music, the baritone part sings in a similar but somewhat lower range to the lead (singing the melody), but has a specific and specialized role in the formation of the four-part harmony that characterizes the style. Iolanthe, or The Peer and the Peri, is a Comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W The Grand Duke, or The Statutory Duel, was the final Savoy Opera written by Librettist W The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W The Grand Duke, or The Statutory Duel, was the final Savoy Opera written by Librettist W Patience, or Bunthorne's Bride, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W The Grand Duke, or The Statutory Duel, was the final Savoy Opera written by Librettist W Ruddigore, or The Witch's Curse, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W Ruddigore, or The Witch's Curse, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W Iolanthe, or The Peer and the Peri, is a Comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W Iolanthe, or The Peer and the Peri, is a Comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W Barbershop Vocal harmony, as codified during the barbershop revival era (1940s-present is a style of A cappella, or unaccompanied Vocal music characterized Because barbershop singers can also be female, there is consequently such a singer (at least in barbershop singing) as a female baritone.
The baritone singer is often the one required to support or "fill" the bass sound (typically by singing the fifth above the bass root). The perfect fifth ( is the Musical interval between a note and the note seven Semitones above it on the musical scale On the other hand, the baritone will occasionally find himself harmonizing above the melody, which calls for a tenor-like quality.
In bluegrass music, the melody line is called the lead. Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and is a sub-genre of Country music. Tenor is sung an interval of a third above the lead. Baritone is the fifth of the scale that has the lead as a tonic, and may be sung below the lead, or even above the lead (and the tenor), in which case it is called "high baritone".