People's Republic of Bangladesh
|Anthem: Amar Shonar Bangla|
My Golden Bengal
(and largest city)
|Official languages||Bengali (or Bangla)|
|-||Chief Adviser||Fakhruddin Ahmed|
|-||Declared||March 26, 1971|
|-||Victory Day||December 16, 1971|
|-||Total||147,570 km² (94th)|
55,599 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||7. Origin The original flag was designed by painter Quamrul Hassan. The National Emblem of Bangladesh was adopted shortly after independence in 1971. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Amar Shonar Bangla (My Golden Bengal ( Bangla:আমার সোনার বাংলা is a 1906 song written and composed by the poet Rabindranath Bangladesh is ethnically homogeneous Indeed its name derives from the Bengali ethnic and linguistic group which comprises 98% of the population Dhaka (also known as Dacca ( Bangla: ঢাকা ɖʱaka is the Capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a People or the inhabitants of a place The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between Bangladesh and India) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a form of a Republic which operates under a Parliamentary system of government The President is the head of state, a largely ceremonial post elected by the parliament Iajuddin Ahmed ( ইয়াজউদ্দিন আহম্মেদ (born February 1, 1931) is the current President of Bangladesh and has been in The Prime Minister of Bangladesh is in practice the most powerful political position in Bangladesh. The caretaker government of Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশের তত্ত্বাবধায়ক সরকার is a form of government system in which the country Dr Fakhruddin Ahmed (ড ফখরুদ্দীন আহমেদ Fokhruddin Ahmed)(born May 1, 1940, in Bikrampur of Dhaka District History of Bengal Bangladesh became one of the last major nation states following its secession in 1971 from the nation of Pakistan which achieved its independence from the British Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Victory day (বিজয় দিবস Bijôe Dibôsh) is celebrated on December 16 in Bangladesh. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. M^2 redirects here For other uses see M². CM2 redirects here This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. In Mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a Fraction of 100 ( per cent meaning "per hundred" 0|
|-||2007 estimate||150,448,340 (7th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2008 IMF estimate|
|-||Total||$222. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume List of countries and dependencies by Population density in inhabitants/km² The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic 4 billion (48th)|
|-||Per capita||$1,374 (148th)|
|Gini (2000)||31. This list compares various sizes of positive Numbers including counts of things Dimensionless quantity and probabilities. There are three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head with Per meaning 'through' or 'by' This article includes three lists of Countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP at Purchasing power parity (PPP Per capita The Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion most prominently used as a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth 8 (medium)|
|HDI (2007)||▲ 0. The Human Development Index ( HDI) is an index combining normalized measures of Life expectancy, Literacy, Educational attainment, and GDP 547 (medium) (140th)|
|Time zone||BDT (UTC+6)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+6)|
|1||Adjusted population, p. This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Program 's Human Development Report 2007 A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The taka ( Bengali: টাকা ṭaka) is the Currency of Bangladesh. ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established Daylight saving time ( DST A country This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E 4, Population Census 2001, Preliminary Report. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2001-08).|
Bengali: বাংলাদেশ [ˈbaŋlad̪eʃ] Bangladesh), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (Bengali: গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ Gônoprojatontri Bangladesh) is a country in South Asia. In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. The Bay of Bengal is a bay that forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. Together with the Indian state of West Bengal, it makes up the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal. West Bengal ( Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo poʃtʃim bɔŋgo is a state in eastern India. Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang The name Bangladesh means "Country of Bengal" in the official Bengali language.(
The borders of present-day Bangladesh were established with the partition of Bengal and India in 1947, when the region became the eastern wing of the newly-formed Pakistan. The Partition of Bengal in 1947 part of the Partition of India, was a partition that divided Bengal into the two separate entities of West Bengal The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian Empire which led to the creation on August 14, 1947 and August 15, East Pakistan ( Bengali: পূর্ব পাকিস্তান Purbo Pakistan, Urdu: مشرقی پاکستان Mashriqi Pakistan) was Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and However, it was separated from the western wing by 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) across India. West Pakistan was the popular and sometimes official (1955&ndash1970 name of the western wing of Pakistan until 1971 when the eastern wing became independent Political and linguistic discrimination as well as economic neglect led to popular agitations against West Pakistan, which led to the war for independence in 1971 and the establishment of Bangladesh. West Pakistan was the popular and sometimes official (1955&ndash1970 name of the western wing of Pakistan until 1971 when the eastern wing became independent The Bangladesh Liberation War (i ( Bengali: মুক্তিযুদ্ধ Muktijuddho) was an armed conflict between West Pakistan (later However, the new state had to endure famines, natural disasters and widespread poverty, as well as political turmoil and military coups. Bangladesh has faced several Military coups since its independence from Pakistan in 1971. The restoration of democracy in 1991 has been followed by relative stability and economic progress.
Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world and has a high poverty rate. Geographically the country straddles the fertile Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta and is subject to annual monsoon floods and cyclones. The Ganges Delta (also Sunderban Delta or the Bengal Delta) is a River delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months In Meteorology, a cyclone refers to an area of closed circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. The government is a parliamentary democracy; however, civilian rule has been suspended under emergency law since 11 January 2007. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Bangladesh is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, SAARC, BIMSTEC, the OIC, and the D-8. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation ( SAARC) is an economic and political organization of eight countries in Southern Asia. Bay of Bengal Initiative for MultiSectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation ( BIMSTEC) is an international organisation involving a group of countries in South Asia The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC is an International organization with a permanent delegation to the United Nations. Preferential trade agreement Representatives of each of the eight developing countries except Bangladesh signed a Preferential Trade Agreement on May 14 As the World Bank notes in its July 2005 Country Brief, the country has made significant progress in human development in the areas of literacy, gender parity in schooling and reduction of population growth. traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write or the ability to use Language to read, write, listen, 
Remnants of civilisation in the greater Bengal region date back four thousand years, when the region was settled by Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, and Austro-Asiatic peoples. History of Bengal Bangladesh became one of the last major nation states following its secession in 1971 from the nation of Pakistan which achieved its independence from the British See also History of Bangladesh The history of Bengal (including Bangladesh and West Bengal) dates back four millennia A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements Etymology and ethnology The exact origin of the word Bangla or Bengal is unknown though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang Dravidian peoples refers to the peoples that natively speak languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. The Tibeto-Burman family of languages (often considered a sub-group of the Sino-Tibetan Language family) is spoken in various central and south Asian countries including The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large Language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. The exact origin of the word "Bangla" or "Bengal" is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from Bang, the Dravidian-speaking tribe that settled in the area around the year 1000 BC. 
After the arrival of Indo-Aryans, the kingdom of Gangaridai was formed from at least the seventh century BC, which later united with Bihar under the Magadha and Maurya Empires. Gangaridai was the name of a kingdom in 300 BC in what is now the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent. Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. Magadha (मगध formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas ( Sanskrit, "great countries" or regions in ancient India. The Maurya Empire ( 322 – 185 BCE) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military Bengal was later part of the Gupta Empire from the third to the sixth centuries CE. The Gupta Empire ( Hindi: गुप्त राजवंश was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 320 to 550 C Following its collapse, a dynamic Bengali named Shashanka founded an impressive yet short-lived kingdom. Shashanka (শশাঙ্ক Shôshangko) Shashanka the first important king of ancient Bengal, occupies a prominent place in history of the region Shashanka is considered as the first independent king in the history of Bangladesh. After a period of anarchy, the Buddhist Pala dynasty ruled the region for four hundred years, followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena dynasty. Anarchy (from αναρχία anarchía, "without ruler " may refer to any of the following "Absence of government a state of lawlessness Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The Pala Empire was a dynasty in control of the northern and eastern Indian subcontinent, mainly the Bengal and Bihar regions from the 8th to A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical The Sena dynasty ( Bengali সেন Shen) ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. Islam was introduced to Bengal in the twelfth century by Sufi missionaries, and subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region. Sufism ( تصوّف - taṣawwuf, Persian: صوفیگری sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf, Urdu: تصوف For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.  Bakhtiar Khilji, a Turkish general, defeated Lakshman Sen of the Sena dynasty and conquered large parts of Bengal. Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji ( Bengali ইখতিয়ার উদ্দিন মুহম্মদ বখতিয়ার খলজী Persian Lakshman Sen (c 1178-1206 AD ( Bangla: লক্ষ্মণ সেন was the third king of the Sen dynasty who ruled for about 28 years The region was ruled by dynasties of Sultans and feudal lords for the next few hundred years. Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings By the 16th century, the Mughal Empire controlled Bengal, and Dhaka became an important provincial centre of Mughal administration. The Mughal Empire ( Persian and self-designation گورکانی; مغلیہ سلطنت) was an Islamic imperial power which ruled most
European traders arrived late in the 15th century, and their influence grew until the British East India Company gained control of Bengal following the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The Honourable East India Company ( HEIC) referred to most commonly as the East India Company, also historically and colloquially as John Company, or The Battle of Plassey (পলাশীর যুদ্ধ Pôlashir Juddho) was a decisive British East India Company victory over the Nawab of Bengal  The bloody rebellion of 1857, known as the Sepoy Mutiny, resulted in transfer of authority to the crown, with a British viceroy running the administration. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of Sepoys of British East India Company 's army on the 10th of May 1857 in the town of Meerut, TalkCommonewalth realm.--> The monarchy A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch.  During colonial rule, famine racked the Indian subcontinent many times, including the Great Bengal famine of 1943 that claimed 3 million lives. The Bengal famine of 1943 is one amongst the several Famines that occurred in British administered Bengal. 
Between 1905 and 1911, an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones, with Dhaka being the capital of the eastern zone. The Partition of Bengal in 1905, was made on 16 October by then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.  When India was partitioned in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines, with the western part going to India and the eastern part joining Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan), with its capital at Dhaka. The Partition of Bengal in 1947 part of the Partition of India, was a partition that divided Bengal into the two separate entities of West Bengal Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and East Bengal ( Bengali: পূর্ববঙ্গ Purbobôngo) was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly corresponded 
In 1950, land reform was accomplished in East Bengal with the abolishment of the feudal zamindari system. Zamindar ( Devanagari: ज़मींदार zamīndār, Urdu: زمیندار zamīndār, Eastern Nagari: জমিদার  However, despite the economic and demographic weight of the east, Pakistan's government and military were largely dominated by the upper classes from the west. The Bengali Language Movement of 1952 was the first sign of friction between the two wings of Pakistan. The Bengali Language Movement, also known as the Language Movement (ভাষা আন্দোলন Bhasha Andolon) was a political effort in Bangladesh  Dissatisfaction with the central government over economic and cultural issues continued to rise through the next decade, during which the Awami League emerged as the political voice of the Bengali-speaking population. The Bangladesh Awami League ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ also translated Bangladesh People's League) is the mainstream It agitated for autonomy in the 1960s, and in 1966, its president Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was jailed; he was released in 1969 after an unprecedented popular uprising. The 6 Point Movement was a Bengali nationalist movement in East Pakistan spearheaded by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, which eventually led to the
In 1970, a massive cyclone devastated the coast of East Pakistan, and the central government responded poorly. The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a devastating Tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and India 's West Bengal on The Bengali population's anger was compounded when Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, whose Awami League won a majority in Parliament in the 1970 elections, was blocked from taking office. The Bangladesh Awami League ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ also translated Bangladesh People's League) is the mainstream After staging compromise talks with Mujib, President Yahya Khan arrested him on the early hours of March 26, 1971, and launched Operation Searchlight, a sustained military assault on East Pakistan. Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan ( February 4 1917 &ndash August 10 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971 following the resignation Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor. Operation Searchlight was a planned military pacification carried out by the Pakistan Army to curb the Bengali nationalist movement in erstwhile East Pakistan Yahya's methods were extremely bloody, and the violence of the war resulted in many civilian deaths . Chief targets included intellectuals and Hindus, and about ten million refugees fled to neighbouring India (LaPorte, p. An intellectual (from the adjective meaning "involving thought and reason" is a person who tries to use his or her Intelligence and analytical thinking, According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race 103). Estimates of those massacred throughout the war range from three hundred thousand to 3 million. 
Most of the Awami League leaders fled and set up a government-in-exile in Calcutta, India. The Bangladesh Liberation War lasted for nine months. The guerrilla Mukti Bahini and Bengali regulars eventually received support from the Indian Armed Forces in December 1971. Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc Mukti Bahini (মুক্তি বাহিনী "Liberation Army" also termed as the "Freedom Fighters" or FFs collectively refers to the armed organizations Organization and command structure The headquarters of the Indian Armed Forces is in New Delhi, the capital city. The Indian army, under the command of Lt. General J.S. Aurora, achieved a decisive victory over Pakistan on 16 December, 1971, taking over 90,000 prisoners of war in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora ( February 13, 1916 May 3, 2005) was the commander of the Indian army in the Eastern front in Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a major military conflict between India and Pakistan.
After its independence, Bangladesh became a parliamentary democracy, with Mujib as the Prime Minister. In the 1973 parliamentary elections, the Awami League gained an absolute majority. A nationwide famine occurred during 1973 and 1974, and in early 1975, Mujib initiated a one-party socialist rule with his newly formed BAKSAL. The Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League (বাংলাদেশ কৃষক শ্রমিক আওয়ামী লীগ Bangladesh Krishôk Sromik Aoami Lig) was On August 15, 1975, Mujib and his family were assassinated by mid-level military officers. Events 778 - The Battle of Roncevaux Pass, at which Roland is killed Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
A series of bloody coups and counter-coups in the following three months culminated in the ascent to power of General Ziaur Rahman, who reinstated multi-party politics and founded the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). Ziaur Rahman (জিয়াউর রহমান Ziaur Rôhman) (January 19 1936 &ndash May 30 1981 was the President of Bangladesh and the founder Bangladesh Nationalist Party ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dôl, BNP is the immediate Zia's rule ended when he was assassinated in 1981 by elements of the military.  Bangladesh's next major ruler was General Hossain Mohammad Ershad, who gained power in a bloodless coup in 1982 and ruled until 1990, when he was forced to resign under western donor pressure in a major shift in international policy after the end of communism when anti-communist dictators were no longer felt necessary. Hossain Mohammad Ershad (হুসেইন মুহাম্মাদ এরশাদ Husein Muhammad Ershad) (b Since then, Bangladesh has reverted to a parliamentary democracy. Zia's widow, Khaleda Zia, led the Bangladesh Nationalist Party to parliamentary victory at the general election in 1991 and became the first female Prime Minister in Bangladesh's history. Khaleda Zia ( খালেদা জিয়া (born 15 August 1945) was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1991 to 1996 the first woman However, the Awami League, headed by Sheikh Hasina, one of Mujib's surviving daughters, clinched power at the next election in 1996 but lost to the Bangladesh Nationalist Party again in 2001. Sheikh Hasina Wazed (শেখ হাসিনা ওয়াজেদ Shekh Hasina Oajed) (born September 28 1947 was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1996 These two female ex-prime ministers are now in imprisonment in a sub-jail due to their suspected attachment with corruption.
In 11 January of 2007, following widespread violence, a caretaker government was appointed to administer the next general election. The country had suffered from extensive corruption, disorder and political violence. The new caretaker government has made it a priority to root out corruption from all levels of government. To this end, many notable politicians and officials, along with large numbers of lesser officials and party members, have been arrested on corruption charges. The caretaker government claims to be paving the way for free and fair elections to be held before the end of 2008.
|Anthem||Amar Shonar Bangla|
|Animal||Royal Bengal Tiger|
|Bird||Oriental Magpie Robin|
|Flower||White Water Lily|
Bangladesh is a parliamentary democracy with Islam as the state religion. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Direct elections involving all citizens over the age 18 are held every five years for the unicameral parliament known as Jatia Sangsad. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or Parliamentary chamber TalkParliament#Screen-size. -->A  parliament is a Legislature, especially in those The parliament building is known as the Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban designed by architect Louis Kahn and currently has 345 members including 45 reserved seats for women, elected from single-member constituencies. Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban ( Bengali: জাতীয় সংসদ ভবন Jatio Shôngshod Bhôbon) is the National Assembly Building of Bangladesh, located Louis Isadore Kahn (born Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky) ( February 20, 1901 or 1902 &ndash March 17, 1974) was a world-renowned The Prime Minister, as the head of government, forms the cabinet and runs the day-to-day affairs of state. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. This article focuses on the cases where the Head of Government is a separate office from the Head of State A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of Government, typically representing the executive branch. While the Prime Minister is formally appointed by the President, he or she must be an MP who commands the confidence of the majority of parliament. The President is the head of state, a largely ceremonial post elected by the parliament A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a Parliament. The President is the head of state, a largely ceremonial post elected by the parliament. Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state 
However the President's powers are substantially expanded during the tenure of a caretaker government, which is responsible for the conduct of elections and transfer of power. In Politics, a caretaker government rules temporarily A caretaker government is often set up following a War until stable Democratic rule can be restored The officers of the caretaker government must be non-partisan and are given three months to complete their task. This transitional arrangement is an innovation that was pioneered by Bangladesh in its 1991 election and then institutionalised in 1996 through its 13th constitutional amendment. 
The Constitution of Bangladesh was drafted in 1972 and has undergone fourteen amendments. The constitution of Bangladesh is the supreme law in Bangladesh.  The highest judicial body is the Supreme Court. In Law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of Courts which administer Justice in the name of the sovereign or State The Supreme Court of Bangladesh is the highest court of law in Bangladesh. Justices are appointed by the President. The judicial and law enforcement institutions are weak.  Separation of powers, judicial from executive was finally implemented on the 1st of November, 2007. It is expected that this separation will make the judiciary stronger and impartial. Laws are loosely based on English common law, but family laws such as marriage and inheritance are based on religious scripts, and therefore differ between religious communities. English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of Common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countriesand the
The two major parties in Bangladesh are the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) and the Bangladesh Awami League. This article lists political parties in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has a fading Two-party system, which means that there are two dominant political Bangladesh Nationalist Party ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dôl, BNP is the immediate The Bangladesh Awami League ( Bengali: বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ also translated Bangladesh People's League) is the mainstream BNP is led by Khaleda Zia and finds its allies among Islamist parties like Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh and Islami Oikya Jot, while Sheikh Hasina's Awami League aligns with leftist and secularist parties. Khaleda Zia ( খালেদা জিয়া (born 15 August 1945) was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1991 to 1996 the first woman Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (aka 'Jamaat' is the largest Islamist Political party in Bangladesh. The Islami Oikya Jote ( Bengali: Islami Oikko Joţ, "Islamic Unity Front" is a Political party in Bangladesh. Sheikh Hasina Wazed (শেখ হাসিনা ওয়াজেদ Shekh Hasina Oajed) (born September 28 1947 was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1996 Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs Hasina and Zia are bitter rivals who have dominated politics for 15 years; both are women and each is related to one of the leaders of the independence movement. Another important player is the Jatiya Party, headed by former military ruler Ershad. The Jatiya Party (Ershad ( National Party (Ershad) is a Political party in Bangladesh. The Awami League-BNP rivalry has been bitter and punctuated by protests, violence and murder. Student politics is particularly strong in Bangladesh, a legacy from the liberation movement era. Almost all parties have highly active student wings, and students have been elected to the Parliament.
Two radical Islamist parties, Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh (JMJB) and Jama'atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), were banned in February 2005. Jāgrātā Muslim Jānātā Bānglādesh (Awakened Muslim Masses of Bangladesh also known by the acronym JMJB, is an Islamist organisation based in Bangladesh Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen ( alternate spelling Jama'atul Mujahideen Bangladesh; abbreviated JMB) (জামাত-উল-মুজাহিদীন বাংলাদেশ Bomb attacks taking place since 1999 have been blamed on those groups, and hundreds of suspected members have been detained in numerous security operations, including the head of those two parties in 2006. The first recorded case of a suicide bomb attack in Bangladesh took place in November 2005.
The 22 January 2007 election was postponed indefinitely and emergency law declared in 11 January 2007 as Army backed caretaker government of Fakhruddin Ahmed aims to prepare a new voter list and crack down on corruption. Dr Fakhruddin Ahmed (ড ফখরুদ্দীন আহমেদ Fokhruddin Ahmed)(born May 1, 1940, in Bikrampur of Dhaka District The government aims to hold new elections by 2008 but a lack of coordination between the Election Commission and the Government and Politial Parties threatens to undermine this deadline. Recent activities of Government have created uncertainty about Election while Khaleda Zia and Sheikh Hasina, two leader of major Political parties BNP and Awami League who ruled the country for 15 years last, were detained and are facing criminal charges in court and the banned indoor politics is yet to be exercised.
Meanwhile the Bangladesh Military has expressed their interest in controlling the country with statements like "own brand of Democracy" and making changes in the constitution to allow military participation in politics.  They are also assisting the interim Government of Bangladesh in a drive against corruption which seems to be mostly targeted against the politicians and opponents. The military has also imposed censorship of the national media and closing down/hampering private TV stations.  Illegal detentions and torture to extract confessions have also become rampant. 
Bangladesh pursues a moderate foreign policy that places heavy reliance on multinational diplomacy, especially at the United Nations. Bangladesh pursues a moderate Foreign policy that places heavy reliance on multinational Diplomacy, especially at the United Nations. The military of Bangladesh constitutes of the Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy and the Bangladesh Air Force and are composed of regular In 1974 Bangladesh joined both the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations and has since been elected to serve two terms on the Security Council in 1978-1979 and 2000–2001. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security In the 1980s, Bangladesh played a lead role in founding the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) in order to expand relations with other South Asian states. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation ( SAARC) is an economic and political organization of eight countries in Southern Asia. Since the founding of SAARC 1985, a Bangladeshi has held the post of Secretary General on two occasions.
Bangladesh's most important and complex foreign relationships are with India and Pakistan. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and These relationships are informed by historical and cultural ties and form an important part of the domestic political discourse.
Bangladesh's relationship with India began on a positive note because of India's assistance in the independence war and reconstruction. The Bangladesh Liberation War (i ( Bengali: মুক্তিযুদ্ধ Muktijuddho) was an armed conflict between West Pakistan (later Throughout the years, relations between both countries have fluctuated for a number of reasons. The Washington Post reported on a major source of tension between Bangladesh and India, the Farakka Dam. In 1975, India constructed a dam on the Ganges River 11 miles (18 km) from the Bangladeshi border. Bangladesh alleges that the dam diverts much needed water from Bangladesh and adds a man-made disaster to the country already plagued by natural disasters. The dam also has terrible ecological consequences.  On the other hand, India has voiced concerns about anti-Indian separatists and Islamic militants allegedly being harboured across their 2,500-mile (4,000 km) border, as well as the flow of illegal migrants, and is building a fence along most of it. The Indo-Bangladeshi barrier is a 4000-kilometer fence that India is presently constructing to seal off the Indian-Bangladeshi international border from what was formerly  But at the 2007 SAARC meeting both nations pledged to work cooperatively on security, economic and border issues. 
The current strength of the army is around 200,000, the air force 7,000, and navy 14,950.  In addition to traditional defense roles, the military has been called on to provide support to civil authorities for disaster relief and internal security during periods of political unrest. Bangladesh is not currently active in any ongoing war, but it did contribute 2,300 troops to the coalition that fought in the 1991 Gulf War and Bangladesh is consistently a top contributor to UN peacekeeping forces around the world. As of May 2007, Bangladesh had major deployments in Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia, Sudan, Timor-Leste and Cote d'Ivoire. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire Sudan (officially the Republic of Sudan) ( السودان al-Sūdān is a country in northeastern Africa. East Timor, also known as Timor-Leste (officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) is a country in Southeast Asia. Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a 
Bangladesh enjoys relatively warm ties with the People's Republic of China which has, particularly in the past decade, increased economic cooperation with the South Asian nation. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Between 2006-07, trade between the two nations rose by 28. 5% and there have been agreements to grant various Bangladeshi commodities tariff-free access to the Chinese market. Military cooperation between the Military of Bangladesh and the People's Liberation Army is also increasing, with joint military agreements signed and Bangladesh procuring Chinese arms which range from small arms to large naval surface combatants such as the Chinese Type 053H1 Missile Frigate. The military of Bangladesh constitutes of the Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy and the Bangladesh Air Force and are composed of regular The People's Liberation Army ( PLA) ( is the unified Military organization of all land sea and air forces of the People's Republic of China. History In the 1950s the Soviets provided China with four Riga-class frigates (Jinan-class and four Gnevny-class (Anshan-class destroyers
Bangladesh is divided into six administrative divisions, each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Barisal (বরিশাল), Chittagong (চট্টগ্রাম), Dhaka (ঢাকা), Khulna (খুলনা), Rajshahi (রাজশাহী), and Sylhet (সিলেট). Dhaka (also known as Dacca ( Bangla: ঢাকা ɖʱaka is the Capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. |||} Bangladesh consists of a number of administrative areas called divisions ( bibhag), each named after its respective capital The divisions of Bangladesh are divided into 64 districts or zila ( Bengali: জেলা jela) |||} The districts of Bangladesh are divided into subdistricts or upazilas ( Bengali উপজেলা upojela) Barisāl (also spelt Barisal) is located in south-central Bangladesh. Chittagong Division (চট্টগ্রাম is one of the six administrative divisions of Bangladesh. Dhaka Division is an administrative division within Bangladesh. Khulna Division is one of the six divisions of Bangladesh and is located in the south-west of the country Rajshahi Division (রাজশাহী বিভাগ is one of the six administrative divisions of Bangladesh. Sylhet (Srihatta division (সিলেট বিভাগis the Northeastern division ( bibhag) of Bangladesh, named after its main city Sylhet
Divisions are subdivided into districts (zila). There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila (subdistricts) or thana ("police stations"). The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions, with each union consisting of multiple villages. In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into mahallas. There are no elected officials at the divisional, district or upazila levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials. Direct elections are held for each union (or ward), electing a chairperson and a number of members. In 1997, a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats (out of twelve) in every union for female candidates. 
Dhaka is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. Dhaka (also known as Dacca ( Bangla: ঢাকা ɖʱaka is the Capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. Other major cities include Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, and Barisal. Chittagong ( Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম Chôţţogram) is Bangladesh 's main Seaport and its second-largest city Khulna is the third largest city in Bangladesh. It is located on the banks of the Rupsha and Bhairab rivers in Khulna District. Rajshahi ( Bangla: রাজশাহী is a city in Rajshahi District in northwestern Bangladesh. Barisal City is an old Port at the mouth of the River Ganges on the northern shore of the Bay of Bengal in southern Bangladesh. These metropolitan cities have mayoral elections, while other municipalities elect a chairperson. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "greater" is a modern title used in many countries for the highest ranking officer in a municipal government Mayors and chairpersons are elected for a span of five years.
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Bangladesh is located in the low-lying Ganges-Brahmaputra River Delta or Ganges Delta. Bangladesh is a low-lying Riverine country located in South Asia with a largely marshy jungle coastline of 710 kilometers (440 mi on the northern Littoral The Ganges (ˈgænʤiːz also Ganga, Devanāgarī: hi गंगा in most Indian languages) is the major river in the Indian subcontinent The Brahmaputra, also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra is a Trans-boundary river and one of the major Rivers of Asia. This delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The Ganges (ˈgænʤiːz also Ganga, Devanāgarī: hi गंगा in most Indian languages) is the major river in the Indian subcontinent The Padma ( Bangla: পদ্মা Pôdda) is a major Trans-boundary river in Bangladesh. The Brahmaputra, also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra is a Trans-boundary river and one of the major Rivers of Asia. Not to be confused with the Yamuna River The Jamuna River ( Bangla: যমুনা Jomuna) is one of the three main rivers The Meghna River (মেঘনা নদী is an important river in Bangladesh, one of the three that forms the Ganges Delta, the largest on earth fanning out The Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial soil deposited by these rivers has created some of the most fertile plains in the world. Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against" is Soil or Sediments deposited by a river or other running Bangladesh has 58 trans-boundary rivers, making water issues politically complicated to resolve - in most cases as the lower riparian state to India. A Trans-boundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border either a border within a nation or an International boundary. "Riparian" redirects here For the legal doctrine see " Riparian water rights.  Most parts of Bangladesh are less than 12 metres (39 ft) above the sea level, and it is believed that about 50% of the land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by a metre (3 ft). 
The highest point in Bangladesh is in Mowdok range at 1,052 metres (3,451 ft) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts to the southeast of the country. The Chittagong Hill Tracts ( Bengali: পার্বত্য চট্টগ্রাম Parbotto Chôṭṭogram) comprise an area of 13180 km2  A major part of the coastline comprises a marshy jungle, the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world and home to diverse flora and fauna, including the Royal Bengal Tiger. In Geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of Wetland which is subject Jungle usually refers to a dense Forest in a hot climate such as a Tropical rainforest. The Sundarbans (সুন্দরবন Shundorbôn) is the largest single block of tidal halophytic Mangrove forest in the world Mangroves (generally are Trees and Shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the Tropics and Subtropics. The Bengal tiger, or Royal Bengal tiger ( Panthera tigris tigris or Panthera tigris bengalensis) is a Subspecies of Tiger primarily In 1997, this region was declared endangered. 
Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladeshi climate is tropical with a mild winter from October to March, a hot, humid summer from March to June. For the novel by Henry Miller, see Tropic of Cancer (novel. The Tropic of Cancer, or Northern tropic, is one of five The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 A warm and humid monsoon season lasts from June to October and supplies most of the country's rainfall. Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores occur almost every year, combined with the effects of deforestation, soil degradation and erosion. Bangladesh is built over maree drew the Flood plains of four major rivers the Brahmaputra, Meghna, Wange and Ganges Rivers A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding A tornado is a violent rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a Cumulonimbus cloud or in rare cases the base of a Cumulus A tidal bore (or just bore, or eagre) is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave (or waves of water that travel Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland Soils retrogression and degradation in the French school of pedology are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable Soil Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind Cox's Bazar, south of the city of Chittagong, has a beach that stretches uninterrupted over 120 kilometres (75 mi). Cox's Bazar (কক্স বাজার Kôksho Bajar or Kôks Bazar) is a town a fishing Port and district headquarter in Bangladesh
In September 1998 Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding the modern world has seen. As the Brahmaputra, Ganges and Meghna spilt over and swallowed 300,000 houses, 6,000 miles (9,700 km) of road and 1,600 miles (2,600 km) of embankment 1,000 people were killed and 30 million more were made homeless with 135,000 cattle killed, 50 square kilometres of land destroyed and 11,000 kilometres of roads damaged or destroyed. Two-thirds of the country was underwater. There were several reasons for the severity of the flooding. Firstly, there were unusually high monsoon rains. A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months Secondly, the Himalayas shed off an equally unusually high amount of melt water that year. Trees that usually intercept rain water were cut down for firewood or to make space for animals. 
Despite continuous domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a developing nation.  Its per capita income in 2006 was US$2300 (adjusted by purchasing power parity) compared to the world average of $10,200. Per capita income means how much each individual receives in monetary terms of the yearly income generated in the country The purchasing power parity ( PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium Exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their Purchasing power. 
Jute was once the economic engine of the country. Jute is a long soft shiny Vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse strong threads Its share of the world export market peaked in the Second World War and the late 1940s at 80% and even in the early 1970s accounted for 70% of its export earnings. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including However, polypropylene products began to substitute for jute products worldwide and the jute industry started to decline. Polypropylene or polypropene ( PP) is a Thermoplastic Polymer, made by the Chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications Bangladesh grows very significant quantities of rice(chal), tea (Cha) and mustard. For the prepared condiment see Mustard (condiment. For other uses of the term "mustard" see Mustard. Although two-thirds of Bangladeshis are farmers, more than three quarters of Bangladesh’s export earnings come from the garment industry, which began attracting foreign investors in the 1980s due to cheap labour and low conversion cost. Textile manufacturing is one of the oldest human industries The oldest known Textiles date back to about 5000 B In 2002, the industry exported US$5 billion worth of products.  The industry now employs more than 3 million workers, 90% of whom are women.  A large part of foreign currency earnings also comes from the remittances sent by expatriates living in other countries. An expatriate (in abbreviated form expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing
Obstacles to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, mismanaged port facilities, a growth in the labour force that has outpaced jobs, inefficient use of energy resources (such as natural gas), insufficient power supplies, slow implementation of economic reforms, political infighting and corruption. ||-||-|-||-||-||-||-||-||-|} A port is a facility for receiving Ships and transferring cargo Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain According to the World Bank, "among Bangladesh’s most significant obstacles to growth are poor governance and weak public institutions. "
Despite these hurdles, the country has achieved an average annual growth rate of 5% since 1990, according to the World Bank. Bangladesh has seen expansion of its middle class, and its consumer industry has also grown. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. In December 2005, four years after its report on the emerging "BRIC" economies (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), Goldman Sachs named Bangladesh one of the "Next Eleven," along with Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan and seven other countries. In economics BRIC or BRICs is an acronym that refers to the fast growing developing economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES The Goldman Sachs Group Inc, or simply Goldman Sachs ( is a large global Bank holding company that engages in Investment banking securities The Next Eleven (or N-11) are eleven countries — Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Bangladesh has seen a dramatic increase in foreign direct investment. Foreign direct investment ( FDI) in its classic definition is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country A number of multinational corporations and local big business houses such as Beximco, Square, Ispahani, Navana Group, Habib Group, KDS Group and multinationals such as Unocal Corporation and Chevron, have made major investments, with the natural gas sector being a priority. Multinational corporation ( MNC) or transnational corporation ( TNC) is a Corporation or enterprise that manages Production or delivers Bangladesh Export Import Company (BEXIMCO is a Bangladeshi industrial conglomerate. Union Oil Company of California dba Unocal is a defunct company that was a major petroleum explorer and marketer in the late 19th century through the 20th century and into the early In December 2005, the Central Bank of Bangladesh projected GDP growth around 6. Bangladesh Bank is the Central bank of Bangladesh. History After the liberation war, and the eventual independence of Bangladesh 5%. 
One significant contributor to the development of the economy has been the widespread propagation of microcredit by Muhammad Yunus (awarded the Nobel peace prize in 2006) through the Grameen Bank. This article is specific to small loans For financial services to the poor see Microfinance. Muhammad Yunus (মুহাম্মদ ইউনুস pronounced bn-Latn ''Muhammôd Iunus'' (born 28 June 1940 is a Bangladeshi Banker and Economist The Nobel Prize (Nobelpriset (Nobelprisen is a Swedish prize established in the 1895 will of Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel; it was first awarded in Peace, Literature The Nobel Peace Prize ( Swedish, Danish and Nobels fredspris is one of five Nobel Prizes Bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor The Grameen Bank (গ্রামীণ ব্যাংক is a Microfinance organization and Community development bank started in Bangladesh that By the late 1990s, Grameen Bank had 2. 3 million members, along with 2. 5 million members of other similar organisations. 
In order to enhance economic growth, the government set up several export processing zones to attract foreign investment. These are managed by the Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority. The Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority (BEPZA is an agency of the Government of Bangladesh.
Recent (2005-2007) estimates of Bangladesh's population range from 142 to 159 million, making it the 7th most populous nation in the world. The educational system in Bangladesh is three-tiered and highly subsidized Bangladesh is ethnically homogeneous Indeed its name derives from the Bengali ethnic and linguistic group which comprises 98% of the population List of countries by population in 2005|List of countries by population in 1907This is a list of countries ordered according to Population. With a land area of 144,000 square kilometers, ranked 94th, the population density is remarkable. A striking comparison is offered by the fact that Russia's population is slightly smaller. Indeed Bangladesh has the highest population density in the world, excluding a handful of city-states. A city-state is a Region controlled exclusively by a City, usually having Sovereignty.  Bangladesh's population growth was among the highest in the world in the 1960s and 1970s, when the count grew from 50 to 90 million, but with the promotion of birth control in the 1980s, the growth rate slowed. Birth control, sometimes synonymous with contraception, is a regimen of one or more actions devices or Medications followed in order to deliberately prevent The total fertility rate is now 3. The total fertility rate ( TFR, sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate (PTFR or total 1 children per woman, compared with 6. 2 thirty years ago. The population is relatively young, with the 0–25 age group comprising 60%, while 3% are 65 or older. Life expectancy is 63 years for both males and females. Life expectancy is the average number of years of life remaining at a given age 
The majority ethnic group of Bangladesh are the Bengali people, comprising 98% of the population. The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between Bangladesh and India) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating The remainder are mostly Bihari migrants and indigenous tribal groups. There are thirteen tribal groups located in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the most populous of the tribes are the Chakmas. The Chakma (চাকমা also known as the Changma (চাংমা are a community inhabiting the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh, and The region has been a source for ethnic tension since the inception of Bangladesh.  The largest tribal groups outside the Hill Tracts are the Santhals and the Garos (Achiks). The Santals (also spelled as Santhal; formerly also Sonthal are the largest tribal community in India, found mainly in the states of West Bengal, The Garos are a tribe in Meghalaya, India, and greater Mymensingh, Bangladesh, who call themselves Achik-mande (literally "hill There are also Kaibartta, Mundas, Oraons, and Zomi ethnic groups. The Kaibartta are a people group located in South Asia, mainly in eastern India and Bangladesh. The Munda are a tribal (Adivasi people of the Jharkhand region which is spread over on five states of India ( Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal Zomi is the name of an Ethnic group of people that occupy Northwest Burma, Northeast India, and Northeast Bangladesh, and normally known Human trafficking has been a lingering problem in Bangladesh and illegal immigration has remained a cause of friction with Burma and India. Human trafficking is the recruitment transportation harbouring or receipt of people for the purposes of slavery forced labor (including bonded labor or debt bondage and servitude .
The official and most widely used language in Bangladesh, as in West Bengal, is Bangla or Bengali , an Indo-Aryan language of Sanskrit origin with its own script. West Bengal ( Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo poʃtʃim bɔŋgo is a state in eastern India. The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic) are a branch of the Indo-European language family Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical The Bengali script ( Bengali: বাংলা লিপি Bangla lipi) is a variant of the Eastern Nagari script also used for Assamese and English is used as second language among the middle and upper classes and in higher education. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Since a President Order in 1987, Bangla is used for all official correspondence except those that are to foreign recipients. 
Health and education levels have recently improved as poverty levels have decreased. Most Bangladeshis are rural, living on subsistence farming. Health problems abound, ranging from surface water contamination, to arsenic contamination of groundwater, and diseases including malaria, leptospirosis and dengue. For Water masses on the surface of the world ocean see Surface water (ocean. See also Water pollution Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a natural occurring high concentration of Arsenic in deeper levels of Groundwater Malaria is a vector -borne Infectious disease caused by Protozoan Parasites It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions including Leptospirosis (also known as Weil's disease, canicola fever, canefield fever, nanukayami fever, 7-day fever and many more is a The literacy rate in Bangladesh is approximately 41%.  There is gender disparity, though, as literacy rates are 50% among men and 31% among women, according to a 2004 UNICEF estimate.  Literacy has gone up due to many programmes introduced in the country. Among the most successful ones are the Food for education (FFE) programme introduced in 1993, and a stipend programme for women at the primary and secondary levels. 
The major religion practiced in Bangladesh is Islam (89. Islam is the largest religion of Bangladesh, the Muslim population is over 130 million (the fourth-largest muslim population in the world after 7%) and a sizable minority adheres to Hinduism (9. Hinduism is the second largest religious affiliation in Bangladesh, covering 9 2%).  About 96% of the Muslims are Sunni while over 3% are Shi'a and remainders are Ahmadis. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Ahmadiyya ( احمدیہ Ahmadiyya) is a movement that arose out of mainstream Islam towards the end of the 19th century Ethnic Biharis are predominantly Shia Muslims. Biharis ( Bhojpuri / Hindi: बिहारी Urdu: بِہاری) are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group originating from the state of Other religious groups include Buddhists (0. Buddhism is the third largest religion in Bangladesh with about 0 7%, mostly Theravada), Christians (0. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Christianity arrived in what is now Bangladesh during the late sixteenth to early seventeenth century AD through the Portuguese traders and missionaries 3%, mostly of the Roman Catholic denomination), and Animists (0. Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals 1%). Among Muslim-majority countries, Bangladesh ranks third after Indonesia and Pakistan by the number of Muslims. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and
A new state for an old nation, Bangladesh has a culture that encompasses elements both old and new. The culture of Bangladesh has a unique history dating back more than 2500 years ago Bangladesh has ten national holidays based on three separate calendars Gregorian (Christian calendar Islamic (Hijri calendar and Bengali calendars Sport in Bangladesh is popular and widespread The most popular sport in Bangladesh is Cricket, Bangladesh being the top 9th team in the world followed by Football The Bengali language boasts a rich literary heritage, which Bangladesh shares with the Indian state of West Bengal. The earliest literary text in Bangla is the eighth century Charyapada. The Charyapada ( Bangla: চর্যাপদ Assamese: চৰ্যাপদ is a collection of 8th-12th century Vajrayana Buddhist Caryagiti Bangla literature in the medieval age was often either religious (e. g. Chandidas), or adaptations from other languages (e. Chandidas ( Bangla: চন্ডীদাস (born 1408 CE refers to (possibly more than one medieval poet of Bengal. g. Alaol). Alaol ( Bangla: আলাওল (1607?-1680? CE was a medieval poet in Bengal. Bangla literature matured in the nineteenth century. Its greatest icons are the poets Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nazrul Islam. For the Bangladeshi politician see Syed Nazrul Islam Kazi Nazrul Islam (কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম Kazi Nozrul Islam Bangladesh also has a long tradition in folk literature, evidenced by Maimansingha Gitika, Thakurmar Jhuli or stories related to Gopal Bhar. Maimansingha gitika or Môemonshingha gitika is a collection of folk Ballads from the region of Mymensingh and around of Bangladesh Thakurmar Jhuli ( Tales my Grandmother Told Me) (ঠাকুরমার ঝুলি is a collection of Bengali folk tales and fairy tales Gopal Bhar (গোপাল ভাঁড় was a legendary court Jester in medieval Bengal.
The musical tradition of Bangladesh is lyrics-based (Baniprodhan), with minimal instrumental accompaniment. The Baul tradition is a unique heritage of Bangla folk music, and there are numerous other musical traditions in Bangladesh, which vary from one region to the other. Bauls (বাউল are a group of mystic Minstrels from Bengal, which comprises Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal Gombhira, Bhatiali, Bhawaiya are a few of the better-known musical forms. Gambhira ( Bangla: গম্ভীরা is a type of song (originating in Chapai Nawabganj in the Northern region of Bangladesh) Bhatiali is a form of Folk music in Bangladesh. It mostly is sung in the Mymensingh District along the Brahmaputra River or the Bhati Bhawaiya (ভাওয়াইয়া is a musical form popular in Northern Bangladesh, especially Rangpur District and in North Bengal specially in Folk music of Bengal is often accompanied by the ektara, an instrument with only one string. Ektara (একতারা ਇਕ ਤਾਰ also called iktar, ektar or gopichand) is a one string instrument used in Pakistan, India Other instruments include the dotara, dhol, flute, and tabla. The dotara (or dotar) is a two or four stringed Musical instrument resembling a small Guitar. The dhol (ਢੋਲ ڈھول; ढोल ڈھول) dohol ( دهل) is a Drum (a percussion Musical instrument The flute is a Musical instrument of the Woodwind family Unlike other woodwind instruments a flute is a Reedless wind instrument that produces its This article is about the Indian drum For the drum with the same name in Arabic, see Goblet drum. Bangladesh also has an active heritage in North Indian classical music. Hindustani Classical Music ( Hindi: हिन्दुस्तानी शास्त्रीय संगीत Urdu: ہندوستانی شاستریے سنگیت Similarly, Bangladeshi dance forms draw from folk traditions, especially those of the tribal groups, as well as the broader Indian dance tradition.  Bangladesh produces about 80 films a year.  Mainstream Hindi films are also quite popular. Bollywood (बॉलीवूड بالی وڈ is the informal term popularly used for the Mumbai -based Hindi-language Film industry in India  Around 200 dailies are published in Bangladesh, along with more than 1800 periodicals. However, regular readership is low, nearly about 15% of the population.  Bangladeshis listen to a variety of local and national radio programmes from Bangladesh Betar, as well as Bangla services from the BBC and Voice of America. Bangladesh Betar (বাংলাদেশ বেতার is the state-owned radio broadcasting organisation of Bangladesh. Voice of America ( VOA) is the official external radio and Television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. There is a state-controlled television channel, but in the last few years, privately owned channels have grown considerably. Bangladesh Television (বাংলাদেশ টেলিভিশন also known by its acronym BTV, is the state-owned Television network in Bangladesh.
The culinary tradition of Bangladesh has close relations to Indian and Middle Eastern cuisine as well as having many unique traits. The term Middle Eastern cuisine refers to the various Cuisines of the Middle East. Rice and curry are traditional favourites. Bangladeshis make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products; some common ones are Rôshogolla, Chômchôm and Kalojam. Confectionery is a set of Food items that are rich in Sugar; modern usage may include substances rich in artificial sweeteners as well Rasgulla (Rasagolla রসগোল্লা Rôshogolla; Rasgulla is a syrupy Dessert of Orissa and Bengal.
The sari (shaŗi) is by far the most widely worn dress by Bangladeshi women. for the town in Nepal see Sari Nepal A sari or saree or shari is a female garment in the Indian subcontinent However, the salwar kameez (shaloar kamiz) is also quite popular, and in urban areas some women wear Western attire. Salwar kameez ( also spelled shalwar kameez or shalwar qameez) is a traditional dress worn by both women and men in Southern Asia. Among men, European dressing has greater acceptance. Men also use the kurta-paejama combination, often on religious occasions. A kurta ( Persian / Urdu: کرتا, Hindi: कुरता কুর্তা also called a panjabi in Bengali (or kurti The lungi, a kind of long skirt, is widely worn by Bangladeshi men. The lungi ( Bengali: লুঙ্গি) is a Garment worn around the waist in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar
The two Eids, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha are the largest festivals in the Islamic calendar. Eid ul-Fitr or Id-ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiṭr) often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim Holiday that marks the end of Eid al-Adha ( Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd ul-’Aḍḥā, Urdu: بقرعید or the Festival of Sacrifice is a religious festival celebrated The day before Eid ul-Fitr is called Chãd Rat (the night of the Moon), and is often marked by firecrackers. Other Muslim holidays are also observed. Muslim holidays are mostly based around the life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Qur'an. Major Hindu festivals are Durga Puja and Saraswati Puja. In Hinduism, Durga ("the inaccessible" or "the invincible" or Maa Durga (Mother Durga is a form of Devi, the supreme Goddess This article is about Hinduism. Puja or "pooja" may also refer to certain devotional practices performed by Balmikis Buddhists (see Saraswati (pronounced as; Sanskrit: sa सरस्वती sarasvatī; Malay: Saraswati Thai: สุรัสวดี is the Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, is one of the most important Buddhist festivals while Christmas, called Bôŗodin (Great day) in Bangla is celebrated by the minority Christian population. Vesak is an annual holiday observed by practicing Buddhists in many Asian countries like Thailand, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder The most important secular festival is Pohela Baishakh or Bengali New Year, the beginning of the Bengali calendar. Bengali New Year ( Bengali: নববর্ষ Nôbobôrsho) or Pohela Boishakh (পহেলা বৈশাখ Pôhela Boishakh or পয়লা Other festivities include Nobanno, Poush parbon (festival of Poush) and observance of national days like Shohid Dibosh. Nobanno ( Bangla: নবান্ন is the festival of harvest in Bengal. Poush ( Bangla: পৌষ is the 9th month of both the Bangla calendar and the Nepali Calendar.
Cricket is one of the most popular sports in Bangladesh. Cricket is a bat-and-ball team Sport that originated in England and is now played in more than 100 countries Sport in Bangladesh is popular and widespread The most popular sport in Bangladesh is Cricket, Bangladesh being the top 9th team in the world followed by Football In 2000, the Bangladesh cricket team was granted Test cricket status and joined the elite league of national teams permitted by the International Cricket Council to play test matches. The Bangladeshi cricket team, also known as "The Tigers", is a national Cricket team representing Bangladesh. Test cricket is the longest form of the Sport of Cricket. It has long been considered the ultimate test of playing ability between cricketing nations The International Cricket Council (ICC is the international governing body of Cricket. Other popular sports include Association football, field hockey, tennis, badminton, handball, volleyball, chess, carom, and kabadi, a seven-a-side team-sport played without a ball or any other equipment, which is the national sport of Bangladesh. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Field hockey is a Team sport in which players attempt to score goals by hitting the Ball across the pitch with a stick Tennis is a sport played between two players ( singles) or between two teams of two players each ( doubles) Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players (singles or two opposing pairs (doubles who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court Handball (also known as team handball, European handball, or Olympic handball) is a Team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet Chess is a recreational and competitive Game played between two players. Carrom or carroms is a family of Tabletop games sharing a similarity in that their mechanics lie somewhere between Billiards and Table shuffleboard Kabaddi (sometimes written Kabbadi or Kabadi) (கபடி otherwise known as சடுகுடுకబడ్డీ ਕਬੱਡੀ कबड्डी कबड्डीکبڈی The Bangladesh Sports Control Board regulates twenty-nine different sporting federations. The Bangladesh Sports Control Board is the national overseer of the control authorities of 29 different sports in Bangladesh.
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