|Banff National Park|
|IUCN Category II (National Park)|
|Nearest city||Calgary, Alberta|
|Area||6,641 km² (2,564 sq mi)|
|Visitors||3,927,557 (in 2004/05)|
|Governing body||Parks Canada|
Banff National Park (pronounced /ˈbæmf/) is Canada's oldest national park, established in 1885, in the Canadian Rockies. A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Calgary (ˈkælgəriː is the largest city in the Province of Alberta, Canada Parks Canada (French Parcs Canada) is a Government of Canada agency that is mandated to protect and present nationally significant examples of Canada's Moraine Lake is a glacially fed Lake in Banff National Park, 14 kilometres outside the Village of Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada. Valley of the Ten Peaks is a Valley in Banff National Park that is crowned by ten notable peaks and also includes Moraine Lake. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page History 1885 - Banff National Park established Canada's first National Park The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. The park, located 110-180 kilometres (70-110 mi) west of Calgary in the province of Alberta, encompasses 6,641 square kilometres (2,564 sq mi) of mountainous terrain, with numerous glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forest, and alpine landscapes. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States Calgary (ˈkælgəriː is the largest city in the Province of Alberta, Canada Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. An ice field (also spelled icefield) is an area less than 50000 km² (19305 mile²) of Ice often found in the colder climates and higher altitudes The Icefields Parkway extends from Lake Louise, connecting to Jasper National Park in the north. The Icefields Parkway ( French Promenade des Glaciers) also known as Highway 93 Lake Louise is a hamlet located in the Canadian province of Alberta in Banff National Park. Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning 10878 km² (4200 mi² Provincial forests and Yoho National Park are neighbours to the west, while Kootenay National Park is located to the south and Kananaskis Country to the southeast. Yoho National Park is located in the Canadian Rocky Mountains along the western slope of the Continental Divide in southeastern British Columbia. Kootenay National Park is located in southeastern British Columbia Canada covering 1406 km² (543 mi² in the Canadian Rockies and forms part of Kananaskis is an improvement district (a type of rural municipal administrative unit situated to the west of Calgary Alberta, The main commercial centre of the park is the town of Banff, in the Bow River valley. Banff is the largest town in Banff National Park, in Alberta's Rockies, Canada. The Bow River is a river in the Canadian province of Alberta.
The Canadian Pacific Railway was instrumental in Banff's early years, building the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise, and attracting tourists through extensive advertising. The Canadian Pacific Railway ( The Banff Springs Hotel is a former railway hotel constructed in Scottish Baronial style located The Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise is a Fairmont Hotel on the eastern shore of Lake Louise, near Banff Alberta. In the early 20th century, roads were built in Banff, at times by war internees, and through Great Depression-era public works projects. Since the 1960s, park accommodations have been open all year, with annual tourism visits to Banff increasing to over 5 million in the 1990s.  Millions more pass through the park on the Trans-Canada Highway. The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial Highway system that joins all ten provinces of Canada.  As Banff is one of the world's most visited national parks, the health of its ecosystem has been threatened. In the mid-1990s, Parks Canada responded by initiating a two-year study, which resulted in management recommendations, and new policies that aim to preserve ecological integrity. Parks Canada (French Parcs Canada) is a Government of Canada agency that is mandated to protect and present nationally significant examples of Canada's
Throughout its history, Banff National Park has been shaped by tension between conservation and development interests. The conservation movement also known as nature conservation is a political social and to some extent scientific movement that seeks to protect natural resources including Subdivision is the act of dividing land into pieces that are easier to sell or otherwise develop usually via a Plat. The park was established in 1885, in response to conflicting claims over who discovered hot springs there, and who had the right to develop the hot springs for commercial interests. A hot spring is a spring that is produced by the emergence of geothermally heated Groundwater from the earth's crust. Instead, prime minister John A. Macdonald set aside the hot springs as a small, protected reserve, which was later expanded to include Lake Louise and other areas extending north to the Columbia Icefield. Sir John Alexander Macdonald GCB, KCMG, PC ( January 11, 1815 – June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister Lake Louise is a Lake in Alberta, Canada. The Glacial lake is located in Banff National Park, from the hamlet of Lake Louise The Columbia Icefield is an Icefield located in the Canadian Rockies, astride the Continental Divide of North America.
Archaeological evidence found at Vermilion Lakes radiocarbon dates the first human activity in Banff to 10,300 B.P. Prior to European contact, aboriginals, including the Stoneys, Kootenay, Tsuu T'ina, Kainai, Peigans, and Siksika, were common in the region where they hunted bison and other game. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos The Vermilion Lakes are a series of Lakes located immediately west of Banff Alberta, in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Before Present (BP years are a time scale used in Archaeology, Geology, and other scientific disciplines to specify when events in the past occurred Aboriginal people in Canada, also known as Canadian aboriginal citizens, are people who belong to recognized indigenous groups in the Canadian Constitution Act The Nakoda (also known as Stoney) are a First Nation group indigenous to both Canada and the United States. The Kootenai (also spelled Kutenai) or Ktunaxa (pronounced in English as /k The Tsuu T'ina Nation (also Sarcee, Sarsi, Tsu T’ina, Tsuut’ina) is a First Nation in Canada. The Kainai Nation (or Káínawa or Blood Tribe is a First Nation in southern Alberta, Canada with a population of 7437 members in 2005 and had a population The Northern Peigans or Aapátohsipikáni are a First Nation, part of the ''Niitsítapi'' (Blackfoot Confederacy. The Siksika Nation is a First Nation in southern Alberta, Canada. This is an article about an animal For other uses see Bison (disambiguation. Game is any Animal hunted for Food or not normally domesticated (such as Venison) 
With the admission of British Columbia to Canada on July 20, 1871, Canada agreed to build a transcontinental railroad. Sir James Hector (March 16 1834 &ndash November 6 1907 was a Scottish Geologist, naturalist, and surgeon who accompanied the Palliser British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C Events 1304 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold Year 1871 ( MDCCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Transcontinental Railroad is a Railroad that crosses a Continent from "coast-to-coast" Construction of the railroad began in 1875, with Kicking Horse Pass chosen, over the more northerly Yellowhead Pass, as the route through the Canadian Rockies. Kicking Horse Pass (el 1627 m 5339 ft is a high Mountain pass across the Continental Divide of the Canadian Rockies on the Alberta / British Yellowhead Pass (el 1110 m is a Mountain pass across the Continental Divide of the Canadian Rockies.  Ten years later, the last spike was driven in Craigellachie, British Columbia. Craigellachie (krəˈɡɛləxi but /k/ or /h/ can be substituted for the /x/ is a locality in British Columbia, Canada, located several kilometres
With conflicting claims over discovery of hot springs in Banff, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald decided to set aside a small reserve of 26 square kilometres (10 sq mi) around the hot springs at Cave and Basin as a public park in 1885. The Cave and Basin National Historic Site of Canada is located in the town of Banff Alberta, at the site of natural sulphurous springs around which Banff National Park was first Under the Rocky Mountains Park Act, enacted on 23 June 1887, the park was expanded to 674 square kilometres (260 sq mi) and named Rocky Mountains Park. The Rocky Mountains Park Act was enacted on June 23, 1887 by the Parliament of Canada, establishing Banff National Park which was then known Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish Year 1887 ( MDCCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This was Canada's first national park, and the second established in North America, after Yellowstone National Park. History 1885 - Banff National Park established Canada's first National Park The Canadian Pacific Railway built the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise to attract tourists and increase the number of rail passengers. The Banff Springs Hotel is a former railway hotel constructed in Scottish Baronial style located The Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise is a Fairmont Hotel on the eastern shore of Lake Louise, near Banff Alberta.
Early on, Banff was popular with wealthy European tourists, who arrived in Canada via trans-Atlantic luxury liner and continued westward on the railroad, as well as upper-class American and English tourists. An ocean liner is a ship designed to transport people from one Seaport to another along regular long-distance Maritime routes according to a schedule Some visitors participated in mountaineering activities, often hiring local guides. “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of A guide is a person who leads people through unknown or unmapped country or conducts travellers and tourists through a place of interest Tom Wilson, along with Jim and Bill Brewster, was among the first outfitters in Banff. The Alpine Club of Canada, established in 1906 by Arthur Oliver Wheeler and Elizabeth Parker, organized climbs and camps in the backcountry. Arthur Oliver Wheeler ( May 1, 1860 - May 20, 1945) was born in Ireland and immigrated to Canada in 1876 at the age Elizabeth Parker ( December 19, 1856, Colchester County – October 26, 1944, Winnipeg) was a Canadian journalist “Alpinist” redirects here See also Alpinist (magazine Mountaineering is the Sport, Hobby or Profession of
By 1911, Banff was accessible by automobile from Calgary. Beginning in 1916, the Brewsters offered motorcoach tours of Banff. In British English and Australian English, the term coach is used to refer to a large motor vehicle for conveying passengers  In 1920, access to Lake Louise by road was available, and the Banff-Windermere Road opened in 1923 to connect Banff with British Columbia. British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C 
In 1902, the park was expanded to cover 11,400 square kilometres (4,402 sq mi), encompassing areas around Lake Louise, and the Bow, Red Deer, Kananaskis, and Spray rivers. The Bow River is a river in the Canadian province of Alberta. Red Deer River is a River in Alberta, Canada. It is a major Tributary of the South Saskatchewan River. Kananaskis is an improvement district (a type of rural municipal administrative unit situated to the west of Calgary Alberta, Spray River is a short river in western Alberta, Canada. It is a tributary of the Bow River. Bowing to pressure from grazing and logging interests, the size of the park was reduced in 1911 to 4,663 square kilometres (1,800 sq mi), eliminating many foothills areas from the park. Grazing generally describes a type of Predation in which an Herbivore feeds on Plants (such as Grasses, or more broadly on a multicellular Logging is the process in which Trees are cut down for Forest management and Timber. Park boundaries changed several more times up until 1930, when the size of Banff was fixed at 6,697 square kilometres (2,586 sq mi), with the passage of the National Parks Act. The National Parks Act is a Canadian federal law that regulates protection of natural areas of national significance  The Act also renamed the park as Banff National Park, named for the Canadian Pacific Railway station, which in turn was named after the Banffshire region in Scotland. The Canadian Pacific Railway ( The County of Banff is a Registration county for property and Banffshire (ˈbæmfʃə ( Siorrachd Bhanbh in Gaelic) is a Lieutenancy area Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.  With the construction of a new east gate in 1933, Alberta transferred 0. 84 square kilometres (207. 5 acres) to the park. This, along with other minor changes in the park boundaries in 1949, set the area of the park at 6,641 square kilometres (2,564 sq mi). 
In 1887, local aboriginal tribes signed Treaty 7, which gave Canada rights to explore the land for resources. Aboriginal people in Canada, also known as Canadian aboriginal citizens, are people who belong to recognized indigenous groups in the Canadian Constitution Act Treaty 7 was an agreement between Queen Victoria and several mainly Blackfoot First Nations tribes in what is today the southern portion of Alberta At the beginning of the twentieth century, coal was mined near Lake Minnewanka in Banff. Coal mining is the extraction or removal of Coal from the Earth by Mining. Lake Minnewanka ("Water of the Spirits" in Nakota - the Stoney Indian language is a Glacial lake located in the eastern area of Banff National Park For a brief period, a mine operated at Anthracite, but was shut down in 1904. The Bankhead mine, at Cascade Mountain, was operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway from 1903 to 1922. Bankhead Alberta was a small Coal mining town that existed in the early twentieth century in Banff National Park, near the town of Banff Alberta. Cascade Mountain is a Mountain located in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park, adjacent to the town of Banff. In 1926, the town was dismantled, with many buildings moved to the town of Banff and elsewhere. 
During World War I, immigrants from Austria, Hungary, Germany, and Ukraine were sent to Banff to work in internment camps. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people commonly in large groups without trial The main camp was located at Castle Mountain, and was moved to Cave and Basin during winter. Castle Mountain is located within Banff National Park in the Canadian Rockies, approximately half-way between Banff and Lake Louise. Much early infrastructure and road construction was done by Slavic Canadian internees. The Ukrainian Canadian internment was part of the confinement of "enemy aliens" in Canada during and for 2 years after the end of World War I, lasting 
In 1931, the Government of Canada enacted the Unemployment and Farm Relief Act which provided public works projects in the national parks during the Great Depression. The Canadian Government, formally Her Majesty's Government in Canada, is the Federal government of Canada. The Unemployment and Farm Relief Act was enacted in July 1931 by the Parliament of Canada, enabling Public works projects to be set up in Canada 's Public works are the construction or engineering projects carried out by the State on behalf of the Community. A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution In Banff, workers constructed a new bathhouse and pool at Upper Hot Springs, to supplement Cave and Basin. Upper Hot Springs are commercially-developed Hot springs located in Banff National Park in Canada near the Banff townsite.  Other projects involved road building in the park, tasks around the Banff townsite, and construction of a highway connecting Banff and Jasper. Jasper is a specialized municipality in western Alberta, Canada.  In 1934, the Public Works Construction Act was passed, providing continued funding for the public works projects. The Public Works Construction Act was enacted in 1934 by the Parliament of Canada, provided $40 million in assistance during the Great Depression. New projects included construction of a new registration facility at Banff's east gate, and construction of an administrative building in Banff. By 1940, the Icefields Parkway reached the Columbia Icefield area of Banff, and connected Banff and Jasper. 
Internment camps were once again set up in Banff during World War II, with camps stationed at Lake Louise, Stoney Creek, and Healy Creek. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Prison camps were largely composed of Mennonites from Saskatchewan. The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496&ndash1561 though his teachings were a relatively Saskatchewan (səˈskætʃəwən) is a prairie province in Canada, which has an area of 588276  Japanese internment camps were not stationed in Banff during World War II, but rather were located in Jasper National Park where their detainees worked on the Yellowhead Highway and other projects. The Japanese Canadian internment was the internment of more than 22000 Japanese Canadians during the Second World War by the Government of Canada. Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning 10878 km² (4200 mi² The Yellowhead Highway is a major east-west highway connecting the four western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan
Winter tourism in Banff began in February 1917, with the first Banff Winter Carnival. The carnival featured a large ice palace, which in 1917 was built by internees. Carnival events included cross-country skiing, ski jumping, curling, snowshoe, and skijoring. Cross-country skiing (also known as XC skiing) is a Winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields primarily Northern Europe, Ski jumping is a Sport in which skiers go down an "inrun" with a take-off ramp (the jump attempting to go as far as possible Curling is a team Sport with similarities to Bowls and Shuffle board, played by two teams of four players each on a rectangular sheet of carefully prepared Development of snowshoes Origins Before humanity built snowshoes nature provided examples Skijoring is a Winter sport where a person on skis is pulled by a horse a dog(or dogs or a motor vehicle  In the 1930s, the first downhill ski resort, Sunshine Village, was developed by the Brewsters. The downhill is an Alpine skiing discipline The rules for the downhill were originally developed by Sir Arnold Lunn for the 1921 British National Ski Championships Sunshine Village is a major North American Ski resort, located within the protected wilderness of Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Mount Norquay ski area was also developed during the 1930s, with the first chair lift installed there in 1948. Mount Norquay is a Mountain in Banff National Park, Canada that lies directly northwest of the Town of Banff. A chairlift (technically an elevated passenger ropeway is a type of Aerial lift, which consists of a continuously circulating Steel cable loop strung 
Since 1968, when the Banff Springs Hotel was winterized, Banff has been a year-round destination.  In the 1960s, the Trans-Canada Highway was constructed, providing another transportation corridor through the Bow Valley, in addition to the Bow Valley Parkway, making the park more accessible. Also in the 1960s, Calgary International Airport was built.
Canada launched several bids to host the Winter Olympics in Banff, with the first bid for the 1964 Winter Olympics which were eventually awarded to Innsbruck, Austria. The Winter Olympic Games are a winter Multi-sport event held every four years The 1964 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IX Olympic Winter Games, were a Winter Multi-sport event which was celebrated in Innsbruck Innsbruck is the capital city of the federal state of Tyrol in western Austria. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Canada narrowly lost a second bid, for the 1968 Winter Olympics, which were awarded to Grenoble, France. The 1968 Winter Olympics, officially known as the X Olympic Winter Games, were a Winter Multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1968 Grenoble is a city and commune in south-east France situated at the foot of the Alps where the Drac joins the Isère River. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Once again, Banff launched a bid to host the 1972 Winter Olympics, with plans to hold the Olympics at Lake Louise. The 1972 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XI Olympic Winter Games, were a Winter Multi-sport event which was celebrated from The 1972 bid was most controversial, as environmental lobby groups provided strong opposition to the bid, which had sponsorship from Imperial Oil. Imperial Oil Limited ( French: Compagnie Pétrolière Impériale Limitée) () is Canada 's largest Petroleum company  Bowing to pressure, Jean Chrétien, then the Minister of Environment, the government department responsible for Parks Canada, withdrew support for the bid, which was eventually lost to Sapporo, Japan. Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, (generally known as Jean Chrétien) (born January 11, 1934) is a Canadian politician who was the twentieth Prime is the fifth-largest city in Japan by population It is the capital of Hokkaidō Prefecture, located in Ishikari Subprefecture, and an For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The cross-country ski events were hosted at the Canmore Nordic Centre Provincial Park at Canmore, Alberta, located just outside the eastern gates of Banff National Park on the Trans-Canada Highway, when nearby Calgary, Alberta was awarded the 1988 Winter Olympics. Canmore Nordic Centre Provincial Park is a Provincial park in Alberta, Canada, located immediately west of Canmore, west of Calgary Canmore is a Town in Alberta, Canada, located in the Bow Valley with a permanent population of 12005 The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial Highway system that joins all ten provinces of Canada. Calgary (ˈkælgəriː is the largest city in the Province of Alberta, Canada Alberta (ælˈbɝtə is one of Canada's prairie provinces. It became a province on September 1 1905 The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games were a Winter Multi-sport event which was celebrated in Calgary
Since the original Rocky Mountains Park Act, subsequent acts and policies placed greater emphasis on conservation. With public sentiment tending towards environmentalism, Parks Canada issued major new policy in 1979, which emphasized conservation. Parks Canada (French Parcs Canada) is a Government of Canada agency that is mandated to protect and present nationally significant examples of Canada's The National Parks Act was amended in 1988, which made preserving ecological integrity the first priority in all park management decisions. Ecological health or ecological integrity or ecological damage is used to refer to symptoms of an Ecosystem 's pending loss of Carrying capacity The act also required each park to produce a management plan, with greater public participation. 
In 1984, Banff was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, together with the other national and provincial parks that form the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, for the mountain landscapes containing mountain peaks, glaciers, lakes, waterfalls, canyons and limestone caves as well as fossils found here. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16 A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex A provincial park (or territorial park) is a Park under the management of a provincial or territrorial government in Canada. The Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World Heritage Site is located in the Canadian Rockies. For the song see CANYONMID. For the band see Canyon (band. A canyon (rarely cañon) or gorge FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. With this designation came added obligations for conservation. 
During the 1980s, Parks Canada moved to privatize many park services such as golf courses, and added user fees for use of other facilities and services to help deal with budget cuts. In 1990, the Town of Banff was incorporated, giving local residents more say regarding any proposed developments. Banff is the largest town in Banff National Park, in Alberta's Rockies, Canada. A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to cities, counties, Towns 
In the 1990s, development plans for the park, including expansion at Sunshine Village, were under fire with lawsuits filed by Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS). The Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society ( CPAWS) was founded in 1963 to help protect Canada 's wilderness In the mid-1990s, the Banff-Bow Valley Study was initiated to find ways to better address environmental concerns, and issues relating to development in the park.
Banff National Park is located on Alberta's western border with British Columbia. British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C Banff is about an hour and half driving distance from Calgary, and four hours from Edmonton. Calgary (ˈkælgəriː is the largest city in the Province of Alberta, Canada Edmonton (ˈɛdmɨntɨn is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta. Jasper National Park is located to the north, while Yoho National Park is to the west, and Kootenay National Park is to the south. Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning 10878 km² (4200 mi² Yoho National Park is located in the Canadian Rocky Mountains along the western slope of the Continental Divide in southeastern British Columbia. Kootenay National Park is located in southeastern British Columbia Canada covering 1406 km² (543 mi² in the Canadian Rockies and forms part of Kananaskis Country, which includes Bow Valley Wildland Provincial Park, Spray Valley Provincial Park, and Peter Lougheed Provincial Park, is located to the south and east of Banff. Kananaskis is an improvement district (a type of rural municipal administrative unit situated to the west of Calgary Alberta, Bow Valley Provincial Park is a Provincial park located in Alberta, Canada. Spray Valley Provincial Park is a Provincial park located east of the Rocky Mountains, along the Spray River in western Alberta, Canada Peter Lougheed Provincial Park is a Provincial park located in Alberta, Canada.
The Trans-Canada Highway passes through Banff National Park, from eastern boundary near Canmore, through the towns of Banff and Lake Louise, and into Yoho National Park in British Columbia. The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial Highway system that joins all ten provinces of Canada. Canmore is a Town in Alberta, Canada, located in the Bow Valley with a permanent population of 12005 Lake Louise is a hamlet located in the Canadian province of Alberta in Banff National Park. The Banff townsite is the main commercial center in the national park. The village of Lake Louise is located at the junction of the Trans-Canada Highway and the Icefields Parkway, which extends north to the Jasper townsite.
The Town of Banff, established in 1883, is the main commercial centre in Banff National Park, as well as a centre for cultural activities. Banff is the largest town in Banff National Park, in Alberta's Rockies, Canada. Banff is home to several cultural institutions, including the Banff Centre, the Whyte Museum, the Buffalo Nations Luxton Museum, Cave and Basin National Historic Site, and several art galleries. The Banff Centre is an Arts, Cultural, and Educational institution and conference facility located in Banff Alberta. The Whyte Museum of the Canadian Rockies is located in Banff, Alberta, Canada. The Cave and Basin National Historic Site of Canada is located in the town of Banff Alberta, at the site of natural sulphurous springs around which Banff National Park was first An art gallery or art museum is a space for the exhibition of art, usually Visual art. Throughout its history, Banff has hosted many annual events, including Banff Indian Days which began in 1889, and the Banff Winter Carnival. Since 1976, The Banff Center has organized the Banff Mountain Film Festival. The Banff Mountain Film Festival is an annual presentation of short films and documentaries about mountain culture sports and environment In 1990, the town was incorporated as a municipality of Alberta, though still subject to the National Parks Act and federal authority in regards to planning and development. The National Parks Act is a Canadian federal law that regulates protection of natural areas of national significance  As of the 2005 census, the Town of Banff has a population of 8,352, of which nearly 7,000 are permanent residents. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population  The Bow River flows through the town of Banff, with the Bow Falls located on the outskirts of town. Canada's Bow River thunders over Bow Falls just before the junction of the Bow and Spray Rivers The falls are located near the Banff Springs Hotel
Lake Louise, a small village located 54 kilometres (32 mi) west of the Banff townsite, is home to the landmark Chateau Lake Louise at the edge of Lake Louise. Lake Louise is a hamlet located in the Canadian province of Alberta in Banff National Park. The Fairmont Chateau Lake Louise is a Fairmont Hotel on the eastern shore of Lake Louise, near Banff Alberta. Located 15 kilometres (9. 3 mi) from Lake Louise, Moraine Lake provides a scenic vista of the Valley of the Ten Peaks. Moraine Lake is a glacially fed Lake in Banff National Park, 14 kilometres outside the Village of Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada. Valley of the Ten Peaks is a Valley in Banff National Park that is crowned by ten notable peaks and also includes Moraine Lake. This scene was pictured on the back of the $20 Canadian banknote, in the 1969–1979 ("Scenes of Canada") series. Canadian banknotes are the Banknotes of Canada, denominated in Canadian dollars (CAD The Lake Louise Mountain Resort is also located near the village. Lake Louise Mountain Resort is a Ski resort located in Banff National Park, in the village of Lake Louise, Alberta.
The Icefields Parkway extends 230 kilometres (143 miles), connecting Lake Louise to Jasper, Alberta. The Icefields Parkway ( French Promenade des Glaciers) also known as Highway 93 The Parkway originates at Lake Louise, and extends north up the Bow Valley, past Hector Lake, Bow Lake, and Peyto Lake. Hector Lake is a small Glacial lake in western Alberta, Canada. Bow Lake is a small Lake in western Alberta, Canada. It is located on the Bow River, in the Canadian Rockies, at an altitude of 1920 Peyto Lake (pea-toe is a Glacier -fed Lake located in Banff National Park in the Canadian Rockies. The Parkway then crosses a summit, and follows the Mistaya River to Saskatchewan Crossing, where it converges with the Howse and North Saskatchewan River. Mistaya River is a short river in western Alberta, Canada. It flows through the Canadian Rockies, and a section of the Icefield Parkway was built Saskatchewan River Crossing in Alberta Saskatchewan River Crossing Howse River is a short river in western Alberta, Canada. It is a tributary of the North Saskatchewan River. The North Saskatchewan River is a Glacier -fed River flowing east from the Canadian Rockies to central Saskatchewan.
The North Saskatchewan River flows east from Saskatchewan Crossing, out of Banff, into what is known as David Thompson country, and onto Edmonton. The North Saskatchewan River is a Glacier -fed River flowing east from the Canadian Rockies to central Saskatchewan. The David Thompson Highway follows the North Saskatchewan River, past the man-made Abraham Lake, and through David Thompson Country. Highway 11 is a major highway in central Alberta. It is known as the David Thompson Highway, and runs from Saskatchewan River Crossing in Abraham Lake is an artificial Lake on North Saskatchewan River in western Alberta, Canada. At Saskatchewan Crossing, basic services are available, including gasoline, cafeteria, a gift shop, and small motel.
North of Saskatchewan Crossing, the Icefields Parkway follows the North Saskatchewan River up to the Columbia Icefield. The Columbia Icefield is an Icefield located in the Canadian Rockies, astride the Continental Divide of North America. The Parkway crosses into Jasper National Park at Sunwapta Pass at 2,023 metres (6,635 ft) in elevation, and continues on from there to the Jasper townsite. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit
The Canadian Rockies consist of several northwest-southeast trending ranges. Closely following the continental divide, the Main Ranges form the backbone of the Canadian Rockies. A continental divide is a line of elevated Terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that Water falling on one side of the line eventually The Front Ranges are located east of the Main Ranges. Banff National Park extends eastward from the continental divide and includes the eastern slope of the Main Ranges and much of the Front Ranges. The latter include the mountains around the Banff townsite. The foothills are located to the east of the Park, between Calgary and Canmore. On the other side of the Park, the Western Ranges pass through Yoho and Kootenay National Parks. Still farther west is the Rocky Mountain Trench, the western boundary of the Canadian Rockies region in British Columbia. The Rocky Mountain Trench, also called "the valley of a thousand peaks" is a physiographic feature extending ~1600 km (995 mi from Flathead Lake, Montana British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C
The Canadian Rockies are composed of sedimentary rock, including shale, sandstone, limestone, and quartzite, that originated as deposits in a shallow inland sea. Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock types (the others being igneous and Metamorphic rock) Shale (also called mudstone) is a fine-grained Sedimentary rock whose original constituents were Clay minerals or Muds It is characterized by Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Quartzite (from German Quarzit) not to be confused with the Mineral Quartz, is a hard Metamorphic rock which was originally The geologic formations in Banff range in age from Precambrian eon to the Jurassic period. The Precambrian ( Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the Geologic timescale that came before the current The Jurassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about Ma (million years ago to  Ma that is from the end of the Triassic to the beginning The mountains were formed 80–120 million years ago, as a product of thrust faults. A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side against the other in which a lower stratigraphic position is pushed up 
Over the past 80 million years, erosion has taken its toll on the landscape, with more extensive erosion occurring in the foothills and Front Range than in the Main Range. Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind  Banff's mountains exhibit several different shapes that have been influenced by the composition of rock deposits, layers, and their structure. Numerous mountains in Banff are carved out of sedimentary layers that slope at 50–60 degree angles.  Such dip slope mountains have one side with a steep face, and the other with a more gradual slope that follows the layering of the rock formations, e. A dip slope is a geological formation often created by Erosion of tilted strata. g. , Mount Rundle, near the Banff townsite. Mount Rundle is a Mountain in Banff National Park overlooking the town of Banff Alberta.
Other types of mountains in Banff include complex, irregular, anticlinal, synclinal, castellate, dogtooth, and sawback mountains. In Structural geology, an anticline is a fold that is convex up and has its oldest beds at its core In Structural geology, a syncline is a downward-curving fold, with layers that dip toward the center of the structure  Castle Mountain exemplifies a castellate shape, with steep slopes and cliffs. Castle Mountain is located within Banff National Park in the Canadian Rockies, approximately half-way between Banff and Lake Louise. The top section of Castle Mountain is composed of a layer of Paleozoic-era shale, sandwiched between two limestone layers. The Paleozoic or Palaeozoic Era (from the Greek palaio (παλαιο "old" and zoe (ζωη "life" meaning "ancient life" Dogtooth mountains, such as Mount Louis, exhibit sharp, jagged slopes. Mount Louis is a Mountain located in southeast Banff National Park in Alberta Canada. The Sawback Range, which consists of dipping sedimentary layers, has been eroded by cross gullies. The Sawback Range is a Mountain range of the Canadian Rockies that stretches from the Bow Valley in Alberta into southeastern Banff National This article refers to the landform For other uses see Gully (disambiguation. Scree deposits are common toward the bottom of many mountains and cliffs. Scree, also called talus and detritic cone, is a term given to broken rock that appears at the bottom of Crags mountain Cliffs or
Banff's landscape has also been marked by glacial erosion, with deep U-shaped valleys and many hanging valleys that often form waterfalls. In Geology, a valley (also called a vale, dale, glen or strath and near or in Appalachia, a draw) is In Geology, a valley (also called a vale, dale, glen or strath and near or in Appalachia, a draw) is A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water often in the form of a Stream, flowing over an Erosion -resistant rock Matterhorn-type mountains, such as Mount Assiniboine, have been shaped by glacial erosion that has left a sharp peak. Mount Assiniboine, also known as Assiniboine Mountain, is a Mountain located on the Continental Divide, on the British Columbia / Alberta A number of small gorges also exist, including Mistaya Canyon and Johnston Canyon. For the song see CANYONMID. For the band see Canyon (band. A canyon (rarely cañon) or gorge Mistaya Canyon is a Canyon in the western part of the Alberta Province of Canada. Johnston Creek is a tributary of the Bow River in western Alberta, Canada.
Banff National Park has numerous large glaciers and icefields, many of which are easily accessed from the Icefields Parkway. Small cirque glaciers are fairly common in the Main Ranges, situated in depressions on the side of many mountains. A corrie glacier is formed in a corrie, bowl-shaped depressions on the side of mountains As with the majority of mountain glaciers around the world, the glaciers in Banff are retreating. Photographic evidence alone provides testimony to this retreat and the trend has become alarming enough that glaciologists have commenced researching the glaciers in the park more thoroughly, and have been analyzing the impact that reduced glacier ice may have on water supplies to streams and rivers. Glaciology (from Middle French dialect (Franco-Provençal glace, "ice" or Latin glacies, "frost ice" and Greek λόγος The largest glaciated areas include the Waputik and Wapta Icefields, which both lie on the Banff-Yoho National Park border. The Waputik Icefield is located on the Continental divide in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta The Wapta Icefield is located on the Continental Divide in the Canadian Rockies, in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. Wapta Icefield covers approximately 80 square kilometres (30. 9 sq mi) in area.  Outlets of Wapta Icefield on the Banff side of the continental divide include Peyto, Bow, and Vulture Glaciers. Peyto Glacier is located in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, approximately 90 km (56 miles northwest of the town of Banff, and Bow Glacier is located in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, approximately 37 km (23 miles northwest of Lake Louise, and can be Vulture Glacier is located in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, northwest of Lake Louise, and can be viewed from the Icefields Parkway Bow Glacier retreated an estimated 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) between the years 1850 and 1953, and since that period, there has been further retreat which has left a newly formed lake at the terminal moraine. Moraine refers to any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (soil and rock which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions such as those Peyto Glacier has retreated approximately 2,000 metres (6,561 ft) since 1880, and is at risk of disappearing entirely within the next 30 to 40 years.  Both Crowfoot and Hector Glaciers are also easily visible from the Icefields Parkway, yet they are singular glaciers and are not affiliated with any major icesheets. Crowfoot Glacier is located in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, 32 km (20 miles northwest of Lake Louise, and can be viewed from Hector Glacier is located in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.
The Columbia Icefield, at the northern end of Banff, straddles the Banff and Jasper National Park border and extends into British Columbia. The Columbia Icefield is an Icefield located in the Canadian Rockies, astride the Continental Divide of North America. Snow Dome, in the Columbia Icefields, forms a hydrological apex of North America, with water flowing from this point in to the Pacific via the Columbia, the Arctic Ocean via the Athabasca River, and into the Hudson Bay and ultimately into the Atlantic Ocean, via the North Saskatchewan River. Snow Dome is a Mountain located on the Continental Divide in the Columbia Icefield, at the intersection of Banff National Park, and Jasper The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions The Columbia River (known as The Arctic Ocean, located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major The Athabasca River (French rivière Athabasca) originates from the Columbia Glacier of the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park in Alberta The North Saskatchewan River is a Glacier -fed River flowing east from the Canadian Rockies to central Saskatchewan.  Saskatchewan Glacier, which is approximately 13 kilometers (8 mi) in length and 30 square kilometres (11. 11727471W 5219759Ngif|240px|thumb|right|In this animated gif of the Columbia Icefield, glaciated areas in 1990 are compared to 2000 6 sq mi) in area, is the major outlet of the Columbia Icefield that flows into Banff. Between the years 1893 and 1953, Saskatchewan Glacier had retreated a distance of 1,364 metres (4,474 ft), with the rate of retreat between the years 1948 and 1953 averaging 55 meters (180 ft) per year.  Overall, the glaciers of the Canadian Rockies lost 25% of their mass during the 20th century. 
Located on the eastern side of the Continental Divide, Banff National Park receives 472 millimetres (19 in) of precipitation annually. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches.  This is considerably less than received in Yoho National Park on the western side of the divide in British Columbia, with 884 millimetres (35 in) annual precipitation at Wapta Lake and 616 millimetres (26. Wapta Lake is a Glacial Lake in the Canadian Rockies of eastern British Columbia, Canada. 3 in) at Boulder Creek.  234 centimetres (92 in) of snow falls on average falls each winter in the Banff townsite, while 290 centimetres (114 in) falls in Lake Louise.
During winter months, temperatures in Banff are moderated, compared to Edmonton and other areas of central and northern Alberta, due to Chinook winds and other influences from British Columbia. Chinook winds, often just called chinooks commonly refers to Foehn winds ref> in the interior West of North America, where the Canadian Prairies and The mean low temperature during January is −15 °C (6 °F), and the mean high temperature is −5 °C (24 °F) for the Town of Banff. The Celsius Temperature scale was previously known as the centigrade scale. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724  Weather conditions during summer months are pleasant, with high temperatures during July averaging 22 °C (71 °F), and daily low temperatures averaging 7 °C (45 °F). 
Banff National Park spans three ecoregions, including montane, subalpine, and alpine. An ecoregion ( ecological region) sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area smaller than a "realm" or " Montane is a biogeographic term which refers to highland areas located below the Subalpine zone The term subalpine refers to the biotic zone immediately below Tree line around the world For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see Climate of the Alps. The subalpine ecoregion, which consists mainly of dense forest, comprises 53% of Banff's area. 27% of the park is located above the tree line, in the alpine ecoregion. The tree line or timberline is the edge of the habitat at which Trees are capable of growing  The tree line in Banff lies approximately at 2,300 meters (7,544 ft), with open meadows at alpine regions and some areas covered by glaciers. A meadow is a field vegetated primarily by Grass and other non- Woody plants. A small portion (3%) of the park, located at lower elevations, is in the montane ecoregion.  Lodgepole pine forests dominate the montane region of Banff, with Englemann spruce, willow, aspen, occasional Douglas-fir and a few Douglas maple interspersed. Lodgepole Pine ( Pinus contorta) is a common Tree in western North America. Picea engelmannii ( Engelmann Spruce) is a species of Spruce native to western North America, from central British Columbia and Willows, sallows and osiers form the Genus Salix, around 400 species of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs found primarily Aspens are Trees of the willow family and comprise a section of the Poplar genus Populus sect Douglas-fir is the common name applied to coniferous Trees of the Genus Pseudotsuga in the family Pinaceae. Acer glabrum is a species of Maple native to western North America, from southeastern Alaska, British Columbia and western Englemann spruce are more common in the subalpine regions of Banff, with some areas of lodgepole pine, and subalpine fir. The Subalpine Fir or Rocky Mountain Fir ( Abies lasiocarpa) is a western North American Fir, native to the Mountains of Yukon  The montane areas, which tend to be the preferred habitat for wildlife, have been subjected to significant human development over the years.
The park has 56 mammal species that have been recorded. The elk, or wapiti ( Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest Species of Deer in the world and one of the largest Mammals in Grizzly and Black bears inhabit the forested regions. The Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis, also known as the Silvertip Bear, is a Subspecies of Brown bear (Ursus arctos that lives The American Black Bear ( Ursus americanus) is the most common Bear Species native to North America. Cougar, Lynx, Wolverine, weasel, Northern River Otter and wolves are the primary predatory mammals. The cougar ( Puma concolor) also puma, mountain lion, or panther, depending on region is a Mammal of the Felidae family A lynx is any of four medium-sized wild cats. All are members of the Genus Lynx, but there is considerable confusion about the best way to classify Weasels are Mammals in the genus Mustela of the Mustelidae family. The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora Elk, Mule Deer, and White-tailed Deer are common in the valleys of the park, including around (and sometimes in) the Banff townsite, while Moose tend to be more elusive, sticking primarily to wetland areas and near streams. The elk, or wapiti ( Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest Species of Deer in the world and one of the largest Mammals in The mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) is a Deer whose habitat is in the western half of North America. The White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) also known as the Virginia deer, or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized Deer found throughout The moose (North America or elk (Europe Alces alces, is the largest extant Species in the Deer family. In the alpine regions, Mountain Goats, Bighorn Sheep, marmots and pika are widespread. The Mountain Goat ( Oreamnos americanus) also known as the Rocky Mountain Goat, is a large-hoofed mammal found only in North America. Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis) is a species of sheep in North America and Siberia with large horns which can weigh up to. Marmots are members of the Genus Marmota, in the Rodent family Sciuridae (squirrels Pikas are small hamster-like animals with short limbs rounded ears and short tails Other mammals such as Beaver, Porcupine, squirrel, chipmunks are the more commonly observed smaller mammals. Beavers are two primarily nocturnal semi-aquatic species of Rodent, one native to North America and one to Europe Porcupines are Rodents with a coat of sharp spines or quills that defend them from predators A squirrel is one of the many small or medium-sized Rodents in the family Sciuridae. Chipmunk is the common name for any small Squirrel -like Rodent species of the genus Tamias in the family Sciuridae.  In 2005, a total of 5 caribou were counted, making this species one of the rarest mammals found in the park. 
Due to the harsh winters, the park has few reptiles and amphibians with only one species of toad, three species of frog, one salamander species and two species of snakes that have been identified. Reptiles, or members of the class Reptilia are air-breathing Cold-blooded Vertebrates that have skin covered in scales as opposed to hair or feathers Prehistoric amphibian Amphibians (class Amphibia such as Frogs Toads Salamanders Newts Gymnophiona, Sirens and  At least 280 species of birds can be found in Banff including Bald and Golden Eagles, Red-tailed Hawk, Osprey, Falcon and Merlin, all of which are predatory species. The Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a Bird of prey found in North America that is most recognizable as the national bird and The Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere The Red-tailed Hawk ( Buteo jamaicensis) is a medium-sized Bird of prey, one of three species colloquially known in the United States as the " The Osprey (Pandion haliaetus, also called Sea Hawk, is a diurnal, fish-eating Bird of prey. A falcon (fɔlkən or fælkən is any Species of raptor in the Genus Falco. The Merlin ( Falco columbarius) is a smallish Falcon that breeds in northern North America, Europe and Asia. Additionally, commonly seen species such as the Gray Jay, American Three-toed Woodpecker, Mountain Bluebird, Clark's Nutcracker, Mountain Chickadee and pipit are frequently found in the lower elevations. The Gray Jay, Perisoreus canadensis, is a member of the crow and jay family ( Corvidae) found in the Boreal forests across North America The American Three-toed woodpecker, Picoides dorsalis is a medium-sized Woodpecker ( family Picidae) The Mountain Bluebird ( Sialia currucoides) is a medium-sized bird weighing about an ounce with a length from 15-20 cm (6-8 in) The Clark's Nutcracker ( Nucifraga columbiana) is a large Passerine bird in the family Corvidae. The Mountain Chickadee ( Poecile gambeli) is a small Songbird, a Passerine Bird in the tit family Paridae Anthus redirects here For the son of Autonous, see Anthus (mythology. The White-tailed Ptarmigan is a ground bird that is often seen in the alpine zones. The White-tailed Ptarmigan, Lagopus leucura,is the smallest bird in the Grouse family Rivers and lakes are frequented by over a hundred different species including loons, herons, and mallards who spend their summers in the park. The loons (eg North America or divers (eg UK/Ireland are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Eurasia The herons are wading Birds in the Ardeidae family Some are called Egrets or Bitterns instead of herons The Mallard ( Anas platyrhynchos) probably the best-known and most recognizable of all ducks is a Dabbling duck which breeds throughout the Temperate 
Endangered species in Banff include the Banff Springs Snail Physella johnsoni which is found in the hot springs of Banff. An endangered species is a population of an organism which is at risk of becoming Extinct because it is either few in numbers or threatened by changing environmental or predation The word snail is a Common name that can be used for almost all members of the Molluscan class Gastropoda which have coiled shells in the  Woodland caribou, found in Banff, are listed as a threatened species, as are grizzly bears. Threatened species are any species (including Animals Plants fungi, etc
Mountain pine beetles have caused a number of large-scale infestations in Banff National Park, feeding off of the phloem of mature lodgepole pines. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a species of Bark beetle native to the forests of western North America from Mexico to The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a species of Bark beetle native to the forests of western North America from Mexico to In Vascular plants phloem is the living tissue that carries organic Nutrients (known as photosynthate particularly Sucrose, a sugar to Alberta's first known outbreak occurred in 1940, infecting 43 square kilometres (17 sq mi) of forest in Banff.  A second major outbreak occurred in the late 1970s and early 1980s in Banff and the surrounding Rocky Mountains region.
Banff National Park is the most visited Alberta tourist destination and one of the most visited national parks in North America, with 3,927,557 visitors in 2004/2005.  During summer, 42% of park visitors are from Canada (23% from Alberta), while 35% are from the United States, and 20% from Europe. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  Tourism in Banff contributes an estimated C$6 billion annually to the economy. An economy is the realized social system of production exchange distribution and consumption of goods and services of a country or other area 
A park pass is required for stopping in the park and permit checks are common during the summer months, especially at Lake Louise and the start of the Icefields Parkway. A permit is not required if travelling straight through the park without stopping. Approximately 5 million people pass through Banff annually on the Trans-Canada Highway without stopping. 
Attractions in Banff include Upper Hot Springs, and a 27-hole golf course at Fairmont Banff Springs Hotel, and three ski resorts including Sunshine Village, Lake Louise Mountain Resort, and Mount Norquay ski resort. Upper Hot Springs are commercially-developed Hot springs located in Banff National Park in Canada near the Banff townsite. A golf course consists of a series of holes each consisting of a Teeing ground, Fairway, rough and other hazards and a green with a pin and cup all designed for Sunshine Village is a major North American Ski resort, located within the protected wilderness of Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Lake Louise Mountain Resort is a Ski resort located in Banff National Park, in the village of Lake Louise, Alberta. Ski Norquay is a Ski resort in the Canadian Rockies, near the town of Banff Alberta. Day hikes, such as the Cory Pass Loop, are popular with visitors. The Cory Pass Loop is a trail located in Banff National Park. Other activities include alpine and Nordic skiing, and horseback riding. For the Roman class see Equestrian (Roman Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving Horses This broad description
Backcountry activities in Banff include hiking, camping, climbing, and skiing. A backcountry area in general terms is a geographical region that is isolated remote undeveloped difficult to access The word 'hiking' is understood in all English-speaking countries but there are differences in usage Definition Camping describes a range of activities Survivalist campers set off with little more than their boots whereas Recreational vehicle travelers arrive equipped UserStan Shebs for a timetable --> Climbing is the activity of using one's hands and feet (or Snow skiing is a group of sports utilizing Skis as primary equipment Parks Canada requires those using backcountry campgrounds, Alpine Club of Canada huts, or other backcountry facilities to purchase a wilderness pass. Reservations for using the campgrounds are also required.
Banff National Park is managed by Parks Canada, under the National Parks Act which was passed in 1930. Parks Canada (French Parcs Canada) is a Government of Canada agency that is mandated to protect and present nationally significant examples of Canada's The National Parks Act is a Canadian federal law that regulates protection of natural areas of national significance Over time, park management policies have increasingly emphasized environmental protection over development. In 1964, a policy statement was issued that reiterated ideals of conservation laid out in the 1930 act. With the controversial bid for the 1972 Winter Olympics, environmental groups became more influential, leading Parks Canada to withdraw its support for the bid. The 1979 Beaver Book was a major new policy, which emphasized conservation. Conservation can be confused with Conversation and vice versa In 1988, the National Parks Act was amended, making the maintenance of ecological integrity the top priority. The amendment also paved the way for non-governmental organizations to challenge Parks Canada in court, for breaches in adhering to the act. In 1994, Parks Canada established revised "Guiding Principles and Operating Policies", which included a mandate for the Banff-Bow Valley Study to draft management recommendations.  As with other national parks, Banff is required to have a Park Management Plan. On a provincial level, the park area and the included communities (other than the Town of Banff which is an incorporated municipality) are administered by Alberta Municipal Affairs as Improvement District No. Counties and municipal districts of Alberta are administrative subdivisions of the province Alberta Municipal Affairs and Housing is a ministry of the Executive Council of Alberta. 9 (Banff). 
Since the nineteenth century, humans have impacted Banff's ecology through introduction of non-native species, controls on other species, and development in the Bow Valley, among other human activities. Lake Minnewanka ("Water of the Spirits" in Nakota - the Stoney Indian language is a Glacial lake located in the eastern area of Banff National Park An introduced species (also known as naturalized species or exotic species) is an Organism that is not indigenous to a given location but Bow Valley is a Valley located along the upper Bow River in Alberta, Canada Bison once lived in the valleys of Banff, but were hunted by indigenous people and the last bison was killed off in 1858. This is an article about an animal For other uses see Bison (disambiguation.  Elk are not indigenous to Banff, and were introduced in 1917 with 57 elk brought in from Yellowstone National Park.  The introduction of elk to Banff, combined with controls on coyote and wolves by Parks Canada beginning in the 1930s, has caused imbalance of the ecosystem. The coyote (kaɪˈoʊti ˈkaɪoʊt ( Canis latrans) also known as the prairie wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora  Other species that have been displaced from the Bow Valley include grizzly bears, cougars, lynx, wolverines, otter, and moose. Beginning in 1985, gray wolves were recolonizing areas in the Bow Valley.  However, the wolf population has struggled, with 32 wolf deaths along the Trans-Canada Highway between 1987 and 2000, leaving only 31 wolves in the area. 
The population of bull trout and other native species of fish in Banff's lakes has also dwindled, with the introduction of non-native species including brook trout, and rainbow trout. The brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, (sometimes called the eastern brook trout, Adirondack coaster lake trout) is a Species of Fish The rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a species of Salmonid native to tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America  Lake trout, Westslope cutthroat trout, and Chiselmouth are also rare native species, while Chinook salmon, White sturgeon, Pacific lamprey, and Banff longnose dace are likely extinct locally. Lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush) is a freshwater char living mainly in Lakes in northern North America. The Westslope cutthroat trout ( Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) also known as the blackspotted cutthroat, is a subspecies of the Cutthroat trout ( Oncorhynchus The chiselmouth is an unusual Cyprinid Fish of western North America. The white sturgeon ( Acipenser transmontanus, meaning "sturgeon beyond the mountains" also known as the Pacific sturgeon, Oregon sturgeon The Pacific lamprey is a fish Its scientific name is Lampetra tridentata, and it is also known as three tooth lamprey and tridentate lamprey The Banff longnose Dace, Rhinichthys cataractae smithi, was a diminutive version (about five cm  The Banff longnose dace, once only found in Banff, is now an extinct species. The Banff longnose Dace, Rhinichthys cataractae smithi, was a diminutive version (about five cm 
The Trans-Canada Highway, passing through Banff, has been problematic, posing hazards for wildlife due to vehicle traffic and as an impediment to wildlife migration. Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants animals and other organisms Traffic on Roads may consist of Pedestrians ridden or herded Animals Vehicles Streetcars and other Conveyances either singly Grizzly bears are among the species impacted by the highway, which together with other developments in Banff, has caused fragmentation of the landscape. Habitat fragmentation is a process of environmental change important in Evolution and Conservation biology. Grizzly bears prefer the montane habitat, which has been most impacted by development. Wildlife crossings, including a series of underpasses, and two wildlife overpasses, have been constructed at a number of points along the Trans-Canada Highway to help alleviate this problem. Roads and Habitat Fragmentation Habitat fragmentation occurs when human-made barriers such as roads railroads canals power lines and oil pipelines penetrate and A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon
Parks Canada management practices, notably fire suppression, since Banff National Park was established have impacted the park's ecosystem. Distinguish from a Firefight, which means a battle with firearms Since the early the 1980s, Parks Canada has adopted a strategy that employed prescribed burns, which helps to mimic effects of natural fires.
In 1978, expansion of Sunshine Village ski resort was approved, with added parking, hotel expansion, and development of Goat's Eye Mountain. Implementation of this development proposal was delayed through the 1980s, while environmental assessments were conducted. In 1989, Sunshine Village withdrew its development proposal, in light of government reservations, and submitted a revised proposal in 1992. This plan was approved by the government, pending environmental review. Subsequently, Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) filed a court injunction, which halted the development. The Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society ( CPAWS) was founded in 1963 to help protect Canada 's wilderness An injunction is an Equitable remedy in the form of a Court order, whereby a party is required to do or interact with in certain ways all right or to refrain from  CPAWS also put pressure on UNESCO to revoke Banff's World Heritage Site status, over concerns that developments were harming the park's ecological health. 
While the National Parks Act and the 1988 amendment emphasize ecological integrity, in practice Banff has suffered from inconsistent application of the policies.  In 1994, the Banff-Bow Valley Study was mandated by Sheila Copps, the minister responsible for Parks Canada, to provide recommendations on how to better manage human use and development, and maintain ecological integrity. Sheila Maureen Copps, PC (born November 27, 1952) is a Canadian Journalist and former Politician.  While the two-year Banff-Bow Valley Study was underway, development projects were halted, including the expansion of Sunshine Village, and the twinning of the Trans-Canada Highway between Castle Junction and Sunshine.
The panel issued over 500 recommendations, including limiting the growth of the Banff townsite, capping the town's population at 10,000, placing quotas for popular hiking trails, and curtailing development in the park.  Another recommendation was to fence off the townsite to reduce confrontations between people and elk. By fencing off the townsite, this measure was also intended to reduce access to this refuge for elk from predators, such as wolves that tended to avoid the townsite. Upon release of the report, Copps immediately moved to accept the proposal to cap the town population. She also ordered a small airstrip to be removed, along with a buffalo padlock, and cadet camp, that inhibited wildlife movement. An airport is a location where Aircraft such as airplanes, Helicopters and blimps take off and land
In response to concerns and recommendations raised by the Banff Bow Valley Study, a number of development plans were curtailed in the 1990s. Plans to add nine holes at the Banff Springs Golf Resort were withdrawn in 1996.
With the cap on growth in the Town of Banff, Canmore, located just outside the Banff boundary, has been growing rapidly to serve increasing demands of tourists. Canmore is a Town in Alberta, Canada, located in the Bow Valley with a permanent population of 12005 Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel Major developments proposals for Canmore have included the Three Sisters Golf Resorts, proposed in 1992, which has been subject of contentious debate, with environmental groups arguing that the development would fragment important wildlife corridors in the Bow Valley. A wildlife corridor or green corridor is a strip of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities (such as roads development or logging