|Baltimore and Ohio Railroad|
1876 B&O map
|Locale||New York City, New York via Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, D.C. to Chicago, Illinois and St. Louis, Missouri|
|Dates of operation||1830–1986|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8½ in (1435 mm) (standard gauge)|
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) was one of the oldest railroads in the United States and the first common carrier railroad, with an original line from the port of Baltimore, Maryland, west to the Ohio River at Wheeling and a few years later also to Parkersburg, West Virginia. A reporting mark is an identification assigned by the Association of American Railroads (AAR to rail carriers and other companies operating in North America. The City of New York Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. For the game see 1830 (board game. Year 1830 ( MDCCCXXX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to The standard gauge (also named the Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, or Normal gauge) is a widely-used Rail gauge. Several Railroads have been called the oldest in North America. The Ohio River is the largest Tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. Wheeling is a city in West Virginia, in the United States. Most of the city is in Ohio County, with a small It is now part of the CSX network, and includes the oldest operational railroad bridge in the world. The B&O also included the Leiper Railroad, the first permanent railroad in the U. A horse drawn Railroad that operated between 1810 and 1828 in what is now Nether Providence Township Pennsylvania -- it was replaced by a canal remnants of which are still S. In later years, B&O advertising carried the motto: "Linking 13 Great States with the Nation. " Part of the B&O Railroad's immortality has come from being one of the four featured railroads on the U. S. version of the board game Monopoly, but it is the only railroad on the board which did not serve Atlantic City, New Jersey, directly. Monopoly is a Board game published by Parker Brothers, a subsidiary of Hasbro.
When CSX Corp. established the B&O Railroad Museum as a separate entity from the corporation, some of the former B&O shops in Baltimore, including the Mt. The B&O Railroad Museum is the current name of a museum that opened in Baltimore Maryland on 4 July, 1953, as the Baltimore & Ohio Transportation Clare roundhouse, were donated to the Museum while the rest of the property was sold. A roundhouse is a building used by railroads for servicing Locomotives Roundhouses are large circular or semicircular structures that were traditionally located surrounding The B&O warehouse at the Camden Yards rail junction in Baltimore now dominates the view over the right-field wall at the Baltimore Orioles' current home, Oriole Park at Camden Yards. The B&O Warehouse is a building in Baltimore Maryland, adjacent to Oriole Park at Camden Yards. The Baltimore Orioles are a professional baseball team based in Baltimore, Maryland. Oriole Park at Camden Yards is a ballpark located in Baltimore Maryland, which was completed in 1992 to replace the aging Memorial Stadium.
Two men — Philip E. Thomas and George Brown — were the pioneers of the railroad. Philip Evan Thomas (1776-1861 was the first president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from 1827-1836 George Brown (1787-1859 was an Irish-American investment banker and railroad entrepreneur They spent the year 1826 investigating railway enterprises in England, which were at that time being tested in a comprehensive fashion as commercial ventures. Their investigation completed, they held an organizational meeting on February 12, 1827, including about twenty-five citizens, most of whom were Baltimore merchants or bankers. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1827 ( MDCCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Chapter 123 of the 1826 Session Laws of Maryland, passed February 28, 1827, and the Commonwealth of Virginia on March 8, 1827, chartered the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, with the task of building a railroad from the port of Baltimore, Maryland west to a suitable point on the Ohio River. Events 202 BC - coronation ceremony of Liu Bang as Emperor Gaozu of Han takes place initiating four centuries of the Han Dynasty 's rule Year 1827 ( MDCCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion. Year 1827 ( MDCCCXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The Ohio River is the largest Tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. The railroad, formally incorporated April 24, was intended to provide not only an alternative to, but also a faster route for Midwestern goods to reach the East Coast than the seven-year-old, hugely successful, but slow Erie Canal across upstate New York. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to The East Coast of the United States, also known as the "Eastern Seaboard" or "Atlantic Seaboard" refers to the easternmost coastal states in the central and northern The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes Upstate New York is the region of New York State north of the core of the New York metropolitan area. Thomas was elected as the first president and Brown the treasurer. The capital of the proposed company was fixed at five million dollars. 
Construction began on July 4, 1828, when Charles Carroll of Carrollton did the groundbreaking, and the first section, from Baltimore west to Ellicott's Mills (now known as Ellicott City), opened on May 24, 1830. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples The year 1828 ( MDCCCXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Charles Carroll of Carrollton (September 19 1737 &ndash November 14 1832 was a delegate to the Continental Congress and later United States Ellicott City is an Unincorporated community and Census-designated place in Howard County, Maryland, United States. Events 1218 - The Fifth Crusade leaves Acre for Egypt. 1276 - Magnus Ladulås is crowned For the game see 1830 (board game. Year 1830 ( MDCCCXXX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display It was decided to follow the Patapsco River to a point near Parr's Ridge where the railroad would cross the fall line and descend into the valley of the Monocacy and Potomac Rivers. The Patapsco is a River in central Maryland which flows into the Chesapeake Bay in Baltimore Maryland. In Geomorphology, a fall line (at times referred to as a fall zone) marks the area where an upland region (continental Bedrock) and a Coastal plain The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid- Atlantic coast of the United States. Further extensions opened to Frederick (including the short Frederick Branch) December 1, 1831, Point of Rocks April 2, 1832, Sandy Hook December 1, 1834 (the connection to the Winchester and Potomac Railroad at Harpers Ferry opening in 1837), Martinsburg May 1842, Hancock June 1842, Cumberland November 5, 1842, Piedmont July 21, 1851, Fairmont June 22, 1852, and its terminus at Wheeling, West Virginia (then part of Virginia) on January 1, 1853. Frederick is the County seat of Frederick County Maryland, United States. The Frederick Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad runs from Frederick Junction on the west side of the Monocacy River to its terminus at South Street Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1831 ( MDCCCXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Point of Rocks is a community in Frederick County Maryland. It is named for the striking rock formation on the adjacent Catoctin Mountain, which were formed by the Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 1832 ( MDCCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1834 ( MDCCCXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Harpers Ferry redirects here For other uses see Harpers Ferry (disambiguation. Martinsburg is a city in Berkeley County, West Virginia, United States. Year 1842 ( MDCCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Hancock is an unincorporated hamlet in Morgan County in the U Year 1842 ( MDCCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The City of Cumberland is the county seat of Allegany County Maryland, United States, and a regional business and commercial center for Western Maryland Events 1499 - Publication of the Catholicon in Treguier ( Brittany) Year 1842 ( MDCCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Piedmont is a town in Mineral County, West Virginia, United States. Events 356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World 1851 ( MDCCCLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Fairmont is a city in Marion County, West Virginia, United States. Events 217 BC - Battle of Raphia: Ptolemy IV of Egypt defeats Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. Year 1852 ( MDCCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Wheeling is a city in West Virginia, in the United States. Most of the city is in Ohio County, with a small The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1853 ( MDCCCLIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common
The state of Maryland granted the B&O a charter to build a line from Baltimore to Washington, D.C., in 1831, and the Washington Branch was opened in 1835. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The Capital Subdivision is a Railroad line owned and operated by CSX Transportation in the U This line joined to the original mainline at Relay, Maryland, crossing the Patapsco on the Thomas Viaduct, which remains one of the B&O's signature structures. Arbutus is a Unincorporated community and a Census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States. The Thomas Viaduct spans the Patapsco River and Patapsco Valley between Relay and Elkridge Maryland, USA This line was partially funded by the state, and was operated separately until the 1870s, with the state taking a 25% cut of gross passenger receipts. This line was built in stone, much like the original mainline; by this time, however, strap rail was no longer used for new construction. Most of the stone bridges on the Old Main Line did not last long, being washed out by the periodic flooding of the Patapsco River and replaced at first by Bollman Truss Bridges. The Old Main Line Subdivision is a Railroad line owned and operated by CSX Transportation in the U The Patapsco is a River in central Maryland which flows into the Chesapeake Bay in Baltimore Maryland. The Bollman Truss Railroad Bridge at Savage Maryland is the sole surviving example of a revolutionary design in the history of American bridge engineering The Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad to Annapolis connected to this line at Annapolis Junction, Maryland, in 1840. The Washington Baltimore and Annapolis Electric Railway (WB&A now defunct was an American Railroad of central Maryland and Washington DC Annapolis is the capital of the US state of Maryland, as well as the County seat of Anne Arundel County. As an unwritten condition for the charter, it was understood that the state would not charter any competing line between Baltimore and Washington.
Operation of the railroad was hampered by its partial government ownership. The Thomas Viaduct spans the Patapsco River and Patapsco Valley between Relay and Elkridge Maryland, USA Arbutus is a Unincorporated community and a Census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States. Of the thirty members on its board of directors, twelve were elected by shareholders while the other eighteen were appointed either by Maryland or the Baltimore city council.  These had conflicting interests, the directors appointed by the state and city desired low fares and all construction funded from corporate revenues while the directors elected by shareholders desired greater profits and dividends. A fare is the Fee paid by a traveler allowing him or her to make use of a Public transport system rail, Bus, taxi, etc Dividends are payments made by a Corporation to its Shareholder members These conflicts became more intense in the 1850s after the completion of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, which brought additional competition to the B&O for transport services. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, abbreviated as the C&O Canal, and occasionally referred to as the " Grand Old Ditch," operated from 1836 until 1924 parallel In 1858, after being nominated by large shareholder and director Johns Hopkins, John W. Garrett became president of the B&O, a position he would hold until his death in 1884. Johns Hopkins ( May 19, 1795, Anne Arundel County, Maryland &ndash December 24, 1873 John Work Garrett ( July 31, 1820 &ndash September 26, 1884) was an American Banker, Philanthropist, and president  In the first year of his presidency, corporate operating costs were reduced from 65% of revenues to 46%, and the railroad began distributing profits to its shareholders. operating cost are the recurring expenses which are related to the operation of a business or to the operation of a device component piece of equipment or facility
Abolitionists stopped a train during John Brown's raid on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virgina (later part of West Virginia). Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies John Brown may refer to Politicians American (Listed in alphabetical order by state office John Y The Harpers Ferry Armory, more formally the United States Armory and Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, located in Harpers Ferry West Virginia (then part of Virginia Harpers Ferry redirects here For other uses see Harpers Ferry (disambiguation. Garrett telegraphed the Secretary of War, and a B&O train carried federal troops led by Robert E. Lee to capture the abolitionists and John Brown. Robert Edward Lee (January 19 1807 &ndash October 12 1870 was a career United States Army officer, an Engineer, and among the most celebrated .
Although many Marylanders had Southern sympathies, Garrett and Hopkins supported the Union. See also American Civil War, Origins of the American Civil War, Heart of the Civil War Heritage Area Maryland, a Slave state, was The B&O was instrumental in supporting the Federal government during the Civil War, as it was the main rail connection between Washington, D. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South C. , and the northern states. As a result, several raids and battles during the war involved the B&O Railroad.
The B&O and Garrett are particularly remembered for their part in the Battle of Monocacy. McNeill's Rangers was an independent irregular Confederate military company commissioned under the Partisan Ranger Act by the Confederate Congress during Harpers Ferry redirects here For other uses see Harpers Ferry (disambiguation. Background Reacting to Early's raid Union General-in-Chief Lt Agents of the railroad began reporting Confederate troop movements eleven days prior to the battle, and Garrett had their intelligence passed to authorities in the War Department and to Major General Lew Wallace, who commanded the department that would be responsible for defense of the area. Lewis "Lew" Wallace ( April 10, 1827 February 15, 1905) was a lawyer governor Union general in the American Civil As preparations for the battle progressed, the B&O provided transport for federal troops and munitions, and on two occasions Garrett was contacted directly by President Abraham Lincoln for further information. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal Though Union forces lost this battle, the delay allowed Ulysses S. Grant to successfully repel the Confederate attack on Washington at the Battle of Fort Stevens two days later. Ulysses S Grant, born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27 1822 &ndash July 23 1885 was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States Background In June 1864 Gen Jubal Early was dispatched by Gen After the battle, Lincoln paid tribute to Garrett as "The right arm of the Federal Government in the aid he rendered the authorities in preventing the Confederates from seizing Washington and securing its retention as the Capital of the Loyal States. "
A steel and stone bridge was built across the Ohio River between Bellaire and Wheeling in 1871, connecting the B&O to the Central Ohio Railroad, which the B&O had leased starting in 1866. The Ohio River is the largest Tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. Bellaire is a village in Belmont County, Ohio, United States. The Central Ohio Railroad was the third railroad to enter Columbus Ohio, and the first to connect Columbus with the east coast This provided a direct rail connection to Columbus, Ohio, and the lease marked the beginning of a series of expansions to the west and north. Columbus is the Capital and the largest city of the US state of Ohio.
Other railroads included in the B&O were:
(This list omits certain short lines. )
The Chicago and Alton Railroad was purchased by the B&O in 1931 and renamed the Alton Railroad. The Alton Railroad was the final name of a Railroad linking Chicago to Alton Illinois, St The Alton Railroad was the final name of a Railroad linking Chicago to Alton Illinois, St It was always operated separately and was eventually bought by the Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroad after receivership in 1942. The Gulf Mobile and Ohio was a railroad carrier in the central United States, with its primary routes from Chicago to Mobile Alabama and
As a result of poor national economic conditions in the mid-1870s following the Panic of 1873, the B&O attempted to reduce its worker's wages. The Panic of 1873 was the start of the Long Depression, a severe nationwide economic depression in the United States that lasted until 1879 After a second reduction in wages was announced in the same year, workers began the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began on July 14 in Martinsburg West Virginia, United States and ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local The strike spread to Cumberland, and when the governor of Maryland on July 20 attempted to put down the strike by sending the state militia from Baltimore, riots broke out resulting in 11 deaths, the burning of parts of Camden station, and damage to several engines and cars.  The next day workers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, staged a sympathy strike that was also met with an assault by the state militia; Pittsburgh then erupted into widespread rioting. A sympathy strike is a Strike action that is initiated by workers in one industry and supported by workers in a separate but related industry or profession The strike ended after federal troops and state militias restored order.
In 1866 the B&O began constructing the Metropolitan Branch west out of Washington, and was completed in 1873 after years of erratic effort. The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid- Atlantic coast of the United States. Harpers Ferry redirects here For other uses see Harpers Ferry (disambiguation. Before this line was laid, rail traffic west of Washington had to travel first to Relay or Baltimore before joining the main line. The line cut a more or less straight line from Washington to Point of Rocks, Maryland, with many grades and large bridges. Point of Rocks is a community in Frederick County Maryland. It is named for the striking rock formation on the adjacent Catoctin Mountain, which were formed by the Upon the opening of this line, through passenger traffic was rerouted through Washington, and the old main line from Point of Rocks to Relay was reduced to secondary status as far as passenger service was concerned. Rebuilding in the early 1900s and double tracking in 1928 increased capacity; the "branches" became the de facto mainline, though the Old Main Line was retained as relief route.
Meanwhile the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) outmaneuvered the B&O to acquire the B&O's northern connection, the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad in the early 1880s, cutting off the B&O's access to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and New York. The Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Railroad, founded in 1846 The Philadelphia Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad was the Pennsylvania Railroad 's main line from Philadelphia Pennsylvania southwest to Baltimore Maryland Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The state of Maryland had stayed true to its implicit promise not to grant competing charters for the Baltimore/Washington line, but when a charter was granted in 1860 to build a line from Baltimore to Pope's Creek in southern Maryland, lawyers for the Pennsylvania RR picked up on a clause in the unfulfilled charter allowing branches up to twenty miles long, from any point and in any direction. For Pope's Creek in Westmoreland County, Virginia, see Pope's Creek Virginia. The projected route, passing through what is now Bowie, Maryland, could have a "branch" constructed that would allow service into Washington. Bowie (ˈbuːi is a city in Prince George's County Maryland, United States. The Pennsylvania picked up the charter through the agency of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad and in 1872 service between Baltimore and Washington began. The Baltimore and Potomac Rail Road was part of the Pennsylvania Railroad 's main line from Baltimore Maryland southwest to Washington DC. At the same time the PRR outmaneuvered the B&O and took control of the Long Bridge, B&O's connections to southern lines.
In response, the B&O chartered the Philadelphia Branch in Maryland and the Baltimore and Philadelphia Railroad in Delaware and Pennsylvania and built a parallel route, finished in 1886. The Baltimore and Philadelphia Railroad was the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 's line from Philadelphia Pennsylvania southwest to Baltimore Maryland The Baltimore and Philadelphia Railroad was the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 's line from Philadelphia Pennsylvania southwest to Baltimore Maryland The Baltimore Belt Line, opened in 1895, connected the main line to the Philadelphia Branch without the need for a car ferry across the Patapsco River, but the cost of constructing the Howard Street Tunnel drove the B&O to bankruptcy in 1896. The Baltimore Belt Line was constructed by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O in the 1890s to connect the railroad's newly constructed line to New York City with See also Merchant ship A train ferry is a Ship designed to carry railway vehicles The Patapsco is a River in central Maryland which flows into the Chesapeake Bay in Baltimore Maryland. The Baltimore Belt Line was constructed by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O in the 1890s to connect the railroad's newly constructed line to New York City with Two other lines were built in attempts to reconnect to the south. The Alexandria Branch was built in 1874, starting from Hyattsville, Maryland, and ending at a ferry operation at Shepherd's Landing. Hyattsville is a city in Prince George's County Maryland, United States. The Ferry operation continued until 1901 when the trackage rights agreement concluded as part of the construction of Washington Union Station saw the south end of the branch realigned to link to the PRR trackage in Anacostia, across the Anacostia River, into the Capitol Hill Tunnel, through Southwest Washington, D. Union Station is the grand ceremonial Train station designed to be the entrance to Washington D The Anacostia River is a River that flows about 84 mi (135 km) from Prince George's County in Maryland, USA and C. to Potomac Yard in Alexandria, Virginia. Potomac Yard was one of the busiest railroad yards on the Eastern Seaboard of the United States. Alexandria is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Alexandria Branch trackage to Shepherd's Landing was heavily used during World War II when traffic congestion on the Long Bridge caused the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to construct a bridge along the original plan of the B&O: Alexandria to Shepherd's Landing, Washington. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel Trains of empty freight cars were routed north and south over the structure, which was demolished after the end of World War II. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Before either connection was made, however, another branch was built around the west side of Washington. During the 1880s the B&O had organised a group of bankrupt railroads in Virginia into the Virginia Midland Railroad. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The VM track rack from Alexandria, Virginia, to Danville, Virginia. Alexandria is an Independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Danville is an Independent city in Virginia, bounded by Pittsylvania County Virginia and Caswell County North Carolina. The line projected west across the Potomac River was intended to cross the Potomac just north of the D. C. line, to continue southwest to a connection with the B&O-controlled Virginia Midland (VM) in Fairfax, Virginia (now Fairfax Station, Virginia, to distinguish it from what was Fairfax Court House, Virginia, and is now the City of Fairfax, Virginia), and if possible to a connection with the Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad in Quantico, Virginia. This article refers to the independent city of Fairfax Va For the surrounding unincorporated area of Fairfax County with a Fairfax postal address please see Fairfax County Virginia Fairfax Station is an Unincorporated community in Fairfax County, Virginia. This article refers to the independent city of Fairfax Va For the surrounding unincorporated area of Fairfax County with a Fairfax postal address please see Fairfax County Virginia The Richmond Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad was a Railroad connecting Richmond Virginia to Washington DC. Quantico Virginia lies in Prince William County, north-northeast of Fredericksburg Virginia, United States, near Dumfries and Stafford The branch was started in 1892 and reached Chevy Chase, Maryland, the same year. Chevy Chase is the name of both a Town and an unincorporated Census-Designated Place (CDP in Montgomery County Maryland. Financial problems in both the VM and B&O forced a halt to construction and led to the B&O's loss of control of the VM. Following bankruptcy, and control by the Pennsylvania Railroad, by the time the line was completed in 1910 there was no longer any point to the river crossing. The Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Railroad, founded in 1846 Thus, the renamed Georgetown Branch came to serve a wide range of customers in Maryland and in Georgetown, such as the Potomac Electric Power Company, the Washington Milling Company, and the U. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ( B&O) was one of the Oldest railroads in the United States and the first Common carrier railroad Georgetown is a Neighborhood located in the Northwest quadrant of Washington D The Potomac Electric Power Company (known as Pepco) is a Public utility supplying Electric power to the city of Washington D S. Government. The line cut directly across the various creeks, and as a result required a short tunnel (Dalecarlia Tunnel) and what was said to be the longest wood trestle on the railroad over Rock Creek. The Dalecarlia Tunnel is an abandoned Railroad tunnel in Brookmont, Maryland, near Washington D Rock Creek is a free-flowing Tributary of the Potomac River, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean via the Chesapeake Bay. The line was almost completely abandoned in 1986 by CSX and is presently used in part as the right-of-way for the Capital Crescent Trail. Capital Crescent Trail (CCT is an long shared-use Rail trail that runs from Georgetown in Washington D
Following its emergence from bankruptcy, control of the B&O was acquired by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1901. The Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Railroad, founded in 1846 A rising young PRR Vice President, Leonor F. Loree, was appointed President. Leonor Fresnel Loree ( April 23 1858 &ndash September 6 1940) was an executive of many Railroads in the United States Loree shared the Pennsy management's belief in infrastructure and the B&O at that time needed some of that. New classes of engines were built to haul longer, heavier trains faster. The Old Main Line was reworked, sections of the original right-of-way cut off by the straightening of curves and replacement of old, weight-restricted bridges with newer, heavier bridges. The Old Main Line Subdivision is a Railroad line owned and operated by CSX Transportation in the U Most of Loree's work on the B&O physical plant remains evident today. Many iron and steel bridges on the railroad were replaced with stone (Pennsy preferred stone to the preference of the Reading and Lackawanna Railroad for concrete). The Reading Company, usually called the Reading Railroad ( and officially known as the Philadelphia and Reading Rail Road and then the Philadelphia and The Delaware Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company ( DL&W or Lackawanna) was a Railroad connecting Pennsylvania 's Lackawanna Valley
Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad took control of the B&O in 1963, and incorporated it, along with the Western Maryland Railway, into the Chessie System in 1973. The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O was a Class I railroad formed in 1869 in Virginia from many smaller railroads begun in the 19th century The Western Maryland Railway was an American Class I railroad which operated in Maryland, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. The Chessie System was a Holding company that owned four American railroads the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O In 1980, the Chessie System merged with the Seaboard System Railroad to create CSX. The Seaboard System Railroad was a Railroad subsidiary of the CSX Corporation, created as an intermediate step in the mergers that would form CSX Transportation In 1986, the B&O finally went out of corporate existence when it formally merged with the C&O (which itself formally merged with CSX later that same year).
At the height of railroading's golden age, the B&O was one of several trunk lines uniting the northeast quadrant of the United States into an industrial zone. It marked the southern border and corresponded to the New York Central's marking of the northern border. The Pennsylvania Railroad controlled the center and smaller roads like the Lackawanna, Lehigh Valley, and the Erie survived largely through the Interstate Commerce Commission. The Lehigh Valley, also known as the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton PA-NJ metropolitan area, is an official metropolitan region consisting of Lehigh, Northampton The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a Regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 which was signed The corners of this map are Baltimore in the southeast, Boston in the northeast, Chicago in the northwest, and St. Louis in the southwest.
When construction began on the B&O in the 1820s, railroad engineering was in its infancy. Unsure exactly which materials would suffice, the B&O erred on the side of sturdiness and built many of its early structures of granite. Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. Even the track bed to which iron strap rail was affixed consisted of the stone. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26
Though the granite soon proved too unforgiving and expensive for track, most of the B&O's bridges have survived until the present, and many are still in active railroad use by CSX. Baltimore's Carrollton Viaduct, named in honor of Charles Carroll of Carrollton (who laid the cornerstone), was the B&O's first bridge, and is the world's oldest railroad bridge still in use. The Carrollton Viaduct, located over Gwynn's Falls near Carroll Park in Baltimore Maryland, is the first stone Masonry bridge built Charles Carroll of Carrollton (September 19 1737 &ndash November 14 1832 was a delegate to the Continental Congress and later United States The Thomas Viaduct in Relay, Maryland, was the longest bridge in the United States upon its completion in 1835, and remains in use as well. The Thomas Viaduct spans the Patapsco River and Patapsco Valley between Relay and Elkridge Maryland, USA Arbutus is a Unincorporated community and a Census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States. The B&O made extensive use of the Bollman iron truss bridge in the mid-1800s; its durability and ease of assembly aided faster railroad construction. The Bollman Truss Railroad Bridge at Savage Maryland is the sole surviving example of a revolutionary design in the history of American bridge engineering
As the B&O built west from Baltimore in 1830, it followed the banks of the Patapsco River upstream to the water's source at Parrs Spring near present-day Mount Airy, Maryland. The Patapsco is a River in central Maryland which flows into the Chesapeake Bay in Baltimore Maryland. Mount Airy is a town located on the border between Carroll, Howard, and Frederick Counties in Maryland, United States. At the time little data about the operation of steam locomotives was available, and consequently the B&O was uncertain if metal wheels would grip the metal rails sufficiently to pull a train up to the top of Parrs Ridge. The railroad decided to construct two inclined planes on each side of the ridge along which teams of horses, and perhaps steam-powered winches, would assist pulling the trains uphill. This article deals with the physical structure For related terms see Canal inclined plane, Cable railway, Funicular, or Fixed-wing The planes, about a mile long on each side of the ridge, quickly proved an operational bottleneck, and before the decade of the 1830s ended the B&O built a 5. Metaphorically a bottleneck is a section of a route with a carrying capacity substantially below that characterising other sections of the same route 5 mile long alternate route that became known as the Mount Airy Loop. The planes were quickly abandoned and forgotten, though some artifacts survive to the present.
See also Old Main Line Subdivision
The Mount Airy Branch is the surviving, in-use portion of the 1839-opened Mount Airy Loop. The Loop had been mainline track until superseded by the Mount Airy Cutoff and Tunnel in 1902.
The Frederick Branch was built because the city of Frederick would not pay the B&O the cost of routing the railroad through the rougher terrain into downtown Frederick. The Frederick Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad runs from Frederick Junction on the west side of the Monocacy River to its terminus at South Street The branch opened on December 1, 1831. Events 800 - Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican Year 1831 ( MDCCCXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a The continuation of the main line from Frederick Junction opened April 2, 1832. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 1832 ( MDCCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian
The Patuxent Branch was constructed in the 1880s and split off from the Washington Branch at Savage, Maryland to serve a mill, a quarry, and other small industry. Savage is a historic town located in Howard County, Maryland, about south of Baltimore and north of Washington D After 1925, the line was gradually cut back, and disconnected completely in 2005.
Originally intended as an extension of the railroad to a crossing of the Potomac River near the Chain Bridge, the agreement between the Pennsylvania Railroad and the B&O resulting from the rerouting of track for the Washington Union Station project put an end to the crossing and the branch settled down to being just a country railroad until the Washington, D.C. suburbs grew around it (Silver Spring, Chevy Chase, Bethesda). The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid- Atlantic coast of the United States. The Pennsylvania Railroad was an American Railroad, founded in 1846 Union Station is the grand ceremonial Train station designed to be the entrance to Washington D Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Silver Spring is an urbanized Unincorporated area in Montgomery County Maryland, USA Chevy Chase is the name of both a Town and an unincorporated Census-Designated Place (CDP in Montgomery County Maryland. Bethesda is an Unincorporated area in southern Montgomery County Maryland, just Northwest of Washington D
The B&O had decided against a direct line to Hagerstown, though the city had petitioned the Directors. Hagerstown (ˈheɪgɚztaʊn is the County seat of Washington County, Maryland, United States. Several north-south routes like the Cumberland Valley built through Hagerstown and the construction of the Western Maryland Railway to that city persuaded the B&O management to build a branch. The Cumberland Valley is a Geographic region that lies between South Mountain and the Ridge and Valley Province of central Pennsylvania and western The Western Maryland Railway was an American Class I railroad which operated in Maryland, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. It was decided that the branch would leave the mainline at Weverton and wind its way through the hills of Western Maryland to Hagerstown. Weverton is an unincorporated hamlet located in the southern tip of Washington County, Maryland, near the north shore of the Potomac River A station was constructed at the stub end of the line in downtown Hagerstown.