|Balsam Woolly Adelgid|
Adult Balsam woolly adelgid
Balsam woolly adelgids are small wingless insects that infest and kill firs, especially Balsam Fir and Fraser Fir. Julius Theodor Christian Ratzeburg ( 16 February 1801 – 24 October 1871) was a German zoologist, botanist, Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Firs ( Abies) are a genus of between 45-55 species of Evergreen conifers in the family Pinaceae. The Balsam Fir ( Abies balsamea) is a North American Fir, native to most of eastern and central Canada ( Newfoundland west to central Abies fraseri ( Fraser Fir) is a species of Fir native to the mountains of the eastern United States. They are an invasive species from Europe introduced to the United States around 1900. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar
Because they are not native, the Fraser fir has not evolved any type of defense against this predator. These insects typically lay about one hundred eggs and have three generations per year. The adelgid attacks the tree by feeding in fissures within the bark of trees larger than about four centimeters in diameter at breast height. In Anatomy, fissure ( Latin fissura, Plural fissurae) is a groove natural division deep furrow cleft or tear in various parts of A centimetre ( American spelling: centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to one hundredth As it feeds, it releases toxins contained within its saliva. A toxin ( Greek:, toxikon, lit (poison for use on arrows is a Poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms that is active at very low For the band see Saliva (band; for the village in Azerbaijan see Səliva. These toxins reduce the conductance of sapwood being built, which causes water stress and kills the trees. For the NATO reporting name for the R-7 Semyorka intercontinental ballistic missile see SS-6 Sapwood.
The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, in North Carolina and Tennessee contains about 75% of all spruce-fir ecosystems. Great Smoky Mountains National Park is a United States National Park that straddles the ridgeline of the Great Smoky Mountains, part of the Blue Ridge Mountains Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( These ecosystems covered vast portions of the Southeast during the last ice age, when the climate was cool and moist. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets Since the retreat of the glaciers, this ecosystem has been confined to the higher elevations in the mountains of the Southeastern United States. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. The US Southeast is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, but the Census Bureau does not provide a standard definition of a "Southeast" region The spruce-fir forest has evolved as an island, away from any other ecosystems of its type. This has presented valuable research and a unique habitat. These forests have a very dense canopy and a moist understory. The canopy is one of the uppermost levels of a Forest, below the emergent layer, formed by the Tree crowns Canopy trees refers to the trees Understory (or understorey) is the term for the area of a Forest which grows in the shade of the emergent or forest canopy.
Since the invasion of the balsam woolly adelgid, discovered in 1957, Fraser fir mortality rates have been 90-99%. Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) Although some areas are being regenerated by young firs, there is much change in understory composition, including invasion by both woody and herbaceous species. A herbaceous plant (or in botanical use a Herb) is a Plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of Red Spruce, the spruce component of the spruce fir ecosystem, has also been suffering declines. Picea rubens ( Red Spruce) is a species of Spruce native to eastern North America. Some researchers attribute these declines to damage from wind, which is usually blocked by the firs. Balsam woolly adelgids have destroyed about 95% of the Fraser firs in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, creating "ghost forests". One concern is that acid rain and the deterioration of the ozone, among other pollutants are contributing to a weak immune system for the Fraser firs and making them more susceptible to the balsam woolly adelgids. Acid rain is Rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually Acidic It has harmful effects on plants aquatic animals and infastructure OZONE is an object oriented Operating system written in the C programming language. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in The Spruce-fir moss spider, which lives on moss mats below the forest canopy, is considered endangered due to the decline of the Fraser fir. The Spruce-fir moss spider ( Microhexura montivaga) is an Endangered species of Spider found at high elevations in the southern Appalachian Mountains
The Balsam woolly adelgid also has a significant impact on Pacific Northwest forests. Specifically, grand fir, silver fir and subalpine fir in Washington and Oregon all can serve as a host. Grand Fir or Giant Fir ( Abies grandis) is a Fir native to the Pacific Northwest of North America, occurring at altitudes of sea For the tree known as Silver Fir in western North America see Abies concolor. The Subalpine Fir or Rocky Mountain Fir ( Abies lasiocarpa) is a western North American Fir, native to the Mountains of Yukon Washington ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Extensive mortality due to this pest in the Cascade Mountain range was recorded during the 1950s and 1960s. Land area affected by the adelgid in the Pacific Northwest has increased from 83,325 acres (337 km²) in 2004 to 108,128 acres (438 km²) in 2005.