General view of the north-western part of Baghdad city across the Tigris, 2006.
The location of Baghdad within Iraq. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics.
|- Governor||Hussein Al Tahhan|
|- City||734 km² (283. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Baghdad Governorate (محافظة بغداد Muḥāfaẓät Baġdād in the nation of Iraq and contains the Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. Square Kilometre ( US spelling square kilometer) symbol km2, is a decimal multiple of the SI unit of 4 sq mi)|
|Elevation||34 m (112 ft)|
|- City||7. The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit 0 million|
|- Density||34,280/km² (88,784. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 8/sq mi)|
|- Metro||9. A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central 0 million|
|Time zone||GMT +3 (UTC)|
|- Summer (DST)||+4 (UTC)|
Baghdad (Arabic: بغداد Baġdād) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, which it is coterminous with. Greenwich Mean Time ( GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London Daylight saving time ( DST Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Baghdad Governorate (محافظة بغداد Muḥāfaẓät Baġdād in the nation of Iraq and contains the With a municipal population estimated at 7,000,000, it is the largest city in Iraq.  It is the second-largest city in the Arab World (after Cairo) and the second-largest city in southwest Asia (after Tehran). Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia (largely overlapping with the Middle East) is the southwestern portion of Asia. Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of
Located on the Tigris River, the city dates back to at least the 8th century, and probably to pre-Islamic times. The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Once the center of Dar al-salam, the Muslim world, Baghdad has been a center of violent conflict since 2003 because of the ongoing Iraq War. The house of divisions in Islam such as "Dar al-Islam" and "Dar al-Harb" does not appear in the Koran or the Hadith. The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign
Although there is no dispute over its Iranian origin, there have been several rival proposals as to its specific etymology. The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family and its subfamily Indo-Iranian. The most reliable and most widely accepted among these is that the name is a Middle Persian compound of Bag "god" + dād "given", translating to "god-given" or "God's gift", whence Modern Persian Baɣdād. Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language/ethnolect of Southwestern Iran that during Sassanid times (224-654 CE became a Prestige dialect Sanskrit bhaga is a term for "lord patron" but also for "wealth prosperity" Another leading proposal is that the name comes from Middle Persian Bāgh-dād "The Given Garden". The name is pre-Islamic and the origins are unclear, but it is related to previous settlements, which did not have any political or commercial power, making it a virtually new foundation in the time of the Abbasids . Mansur called the city “Madinat as-Salam”, or “City of Peace”, as a reference to paradise . Mansur Arabic منصور (also spelled Mansoor Mansour) is a Male Arabic and Persian Given name that means "victorious by divine aid" literally This was the official name on coins, weights, and other things.
Baghdad is a city within Iraq that is near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. This article documents the history of Baghdad. Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת In 764 CE, the caliph Abu Ja'far Al-Mansur founded the city . The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying, “This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, and where my descendants will reign afterward".  This transformation of Baghdad to the capital city contained all necessary conditions for the security and development of a political and economic capital, mostly because the location gave it control over strategic and commercial routes. Also, it was a trade route for the Khurasans where caravans met and traded. Also, one of its' first accomplishments was to pave their streets with a tar substance, in the year 800 CE. Tar is a viscous black Liquid derived from the Destructive distillation of organic matter Monthly fairs for trading were also held in this area. Another reason why Baghdad provided an excellent location was due to the abundance of water and its healthy climate. Water exists on both north and south ends of the city gates, allowing all households to have a plentiful supply, which was very uncommon during this time. Baghdad came into its prime about 800CE during the reign of the caliph Harun al-Rashid. Hārūn al-Rashīd (and Persian: هارون الرشيد) also spelled Harun ar-Rashid; English: Aaron the Upright, Aaron the
Baghdad eclipsed Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persian Empire, which was located some 30 km (20 miles) to the southeast, which had been under Muslim control since 637, and which became quickly deserted after the foundation of Baghdad. For the Spanish saint see Ctesiphon of Vergium. Ctesiphon (قطسيفون تیسفون was one of the great cities of the Persian Empire The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The site of Babylon, which had been deserted since the 2nd century BC, lies some 90 km (55 miles) to the south. Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq
In its beginning years the city was known as a deliberate reminder of an expression in the Koran, when it refers to Paradise . In the year 758 CE, Mansur assembled engineers, surveyors, and art constructionists from around the world to come together and draw up plans for the city. Over 100,000 construction workers come to survey the plans; many were distributed salaries to start the building of the grand city. The construction started in July 23, 762 CE; the framework of the city itself is two large semicircles about twelve miles (19 km) in diameter. July was chosen as the starting time because two astronomers, Naubaknt and Mashallah, believed that the city should be built under the sign of the lion, Leo . Masha'allah ibn Atharī (c740-d815 AD was an eighth century Persian Jewish astrologer and astronomer from the city of Basra (now located in Leo is significant because he is the element of fire and symbolizes productivity, proud ness, and expansion. The bricks used to make the city were 18” on all four sides. Abu Hanifa was the counter of the bricks and he developed a canal, which brought water to the work site for the use of both human consumption and the manufacturing of the bricks. Al-Imam al-A'zam ( الامام الاعظم) "The Greatest Imam" Nu’man bin Thabit bin Zuta bin Mahan ( النعمان بن ثابت) better known by Also, throughout the city marble was used to make the buildings and marble steps led down to the river’s edge. Within the city there were many parks, gardens, villas, and beautiful promenades which gave the city an elegant and classy finish . The city was designed as a circle about 2 km in diameter, leading it to be known as the "Round City". The original design shows a ring of residential and commercial structures along the inside of the city walls, but the final construction added another ring, inside the first.  In the center of the city lay the mosque, as well as headquarters for guards. The purpose or use of the remaining space in the center is unknown. The circular design of the city was a direct reflection of the traditional Persian Sasanian urban design. The ancient Sasanian city of Gur/Firouzabad is nearly identical in its general circular design, radiating avenues, and the government buildings and temples at the center of the city. For the city in Uttar Pradesh, see Firozabad Firouzabad or Firuzabad ( Sassanid Middle Persian Ardasher-Khwarrah
The four surrounding walls of Baghdad were named Kufa, Basra, Khurasan, and Syria; these names were given to the gates because they granted access to these destinations . Kufa ( Arabic, ar الكوفة) is a city in modern Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. Basra ( BGN: AlBasrah also called Basorah Abillah and Uruk or IRAQ The name that British colony has adopted for Basra Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية The distance between these gates was a little less than a mile and a half. Each gate had double doors that were made of iron, because the doors were so heavy it took several men to open and close them. The wall, itself, was about 145 feet (44 m) thick at the base and about 39 feet (12 m) thick at the top. Also, the wall was 98 feet (30 m) high, which included the merlons, a solid part of an embattled parapet usually pierced by embrasures. This wall was surrounded by another impressive wall that consisted of 165 feet (50 m) and was extremely thick. The second wall had towers and rounded merlons, which surrounded the towers. This outer wall was protected by solid glacis, which is made out of bricks and quicklime. A glacis ( or) in Military Engineering is an artificial slope of earth used in late European fortresses so constructed as to keep any potential assailant Calcium oxide ( CaO) commonly known as burnt lime, lime or quicklime, is a widely used Chemical compound. Beyond the outer wall was a water filled moat .
In the middle of Baghdad, in the central square was the Golden Gate Palace. The Palace was the residence of the caliph and his family. In the central part of the building was a green dome that was 160 feet (49 m) high. On top of this dome was a horseman holding a lamp. This horseman was believed to have magical powers that leaving a mysterious presence to visitors of the caliph. Surrounding the palace was an esplanade, a waterside building, in which only the caliph could come riding on horseback. An esplanade is a long open level area usually next to a river or large body of water where people may walk In addition, the palace was near other mansions and officer’s residences. Near the Gate of Syria a building served as the home for the guards. It was made of brick and marble. The palace governor lived in the latter part of the building and the commander of the guards in the front. In 813, after the death of the caliph Amin the palace was no longer used as the home for the caliph and his family . The roundness points to the fact that it was based on Persian precedents such as Firouzabad in Persia. For the city in Uttar Pradesh, see Firozabad Firouzabad or Firuzabad ( Sassanid Middle Persian Ardasher-Khwarrah For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics.  The two designers who were hired by al-Mansur to plan the city's design were Naubakht, a former Persian Zoroastrian who also determined that the date of the foundation of the city would be astrologically auspicious, and Mashallah, a Jew from Khorasan, Iran. Al-Mansur Almanzor or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (712&ndash775 Arabic: ابو جعفر عبدالله ابن محمد المنصور was the second Nobakht Ahvazi (نوبخت اهوازى also transliterated 'Naubakht' and his sons were Astrologers from Ahvaz (in the present-day Khuzestan Province layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox Masha'allah ibn Atharī (c740-d815 AD was an eighth century Persian Jewish astrologer and astronomer from the city of Basra (now located in For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. 
The Abbasid Caliphate was based on them being the descendants of the uncle of Muhammad and being part of the Quraysh tribe. IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics Quraish is also the name of a Surah in the Qur'an. Quraysh or Quraish (Arabic ar قريش They used Shi’a resentment, Khurasanian movement, and appeals to the ambitions and traditions of the newly conquered Persian aristocracy to overthrow the Umayyads . The Abbasids sought to combine the hegemony of the Arabic tribes with the imperial court ceremonial and administrative structures of the Persians. The Abbasids considered themselves the inheritors of two traditions: the Arabian-Islamic (bearers of the mantle of Muhammad) and the Persian (successors to the Sassanid monarchs). The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire These two things are evident from the construction, which is modeled after Persian structures and the need of Mansur to place the capital in a place that was representative of Arab-Islamic identity by building the House of Wisdom, where ancient texts were translated from their original language, such as Greek, to Arabic. The House of Wisdom ( Arabic: بيت الحكمة; Bait al-Hikma) was a library and translation institute in Abbassid -era Baghdad, Mansur is responsible for the “Translation Movement” for this. The Persian structures are exemplified in how the city was built: round, which is why it is called the “Round City”. It is also near the ancient Sassanid imperial seat of Ctesiphon on the Tigris River . For the Spanish saint see Ctesiphon of Vergium. Ctesiphon (قطسيفون تیسفون was one of the great cities of the Persian Empire
The Seljuqs were a clan of the Oghuz Turks from the Siberian steppes that converted to the Sunni branch of Islam. The Great Seljuq Empire was a Medieval Sunni Muslim empire established by the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks that once controlled The Oghuz (variously known as Ghuzz, Guozz, Kuz, Oguz, Oğuz, Okuz, Oufoi, Ouz, Ouzoi, Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic In 1040, they destroyed the Ghaznavids, taking over their land and in 1055, Tughril Beg, the leader of the Seljuqs, took over Baghdad. The Ghaznavid Empire was a Khorāṣānian Sunni Muslim state founded by a dynasty of Turkic Mamluk. For the Kerait ruler Toghrul protector of Genghis Khan see Wang Khan. The Seljuqs expelled the Buyids dynasty of Shiites that ruled for some time and took over power and control of Baghdad. The Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye, Caspian: Bowyiyün also known as Buwaihids or Buyyids, were a Shī‘ah Iranian They ruled as Sultans in the name of the Abbasid caliphs (they saw themselves as being part of the Abbasid regime) Tughril Beg saw himself as the protector of the Abbasid Caliphs . Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings On February 10, 1258, Baghdad was invaded by the Mongols led by Hulegu, a grandson of Chingiz Khan. This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as Genghis Khan ( or;, Chinggis Khaan, ʧiŋgɪs χaːŋ Činggis Qaɣan; 1162–1227 born (meaning "ironworker" was the Mongol founder Caliph al-Mustasim made an unconditional surrender, and people were killed indiscriminately for over a week. Al-Musta'sim Billah (Arabic المستعصم بالله (full name al-Musta'sim-Billah Abu-Ahmad Abdullah bin al-Mustansir-Billah) (1213 &ndash February 20 Many quarters were ruined by fire, siege, or looting. The Abbasids fled to Cairo where they were installed as caliphs there by the Mamluks, although they were not widely recognized outside the Mamluk territories . Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt.
Within a generation of its founding, Baghdad became a hub of learning and commerce. In the fields of Neuropsychology, Personal development and Education, Learning is one of the most important Mental function of humans Commerce is a division of trade or production which deals with the exchange of goods and services from producer to final consumer The House of Wisdom was an establishment dedicated to the translation of Greek, Middle Persian and Syriac works. The House of Wisdom ( Arabic: بيت الحكمة; Bait al-Hikma) was a library and translation institute in Abbassid -era Baghdad, Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language/ethnolect of Southwestern Iran that during Sassanid times (224-654 CE became a Prestige dialect See Syriac (disambiguation for other uses Syriac (syr ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ leššānā Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language Scholars headed to Baghdad from all over the Abbasid empire, facilitating the introduction of Greek and Indian science into the Arabic and Islamic world at that time. Baghdad was likely the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation until the 930s, when it was tied by Córdoba. Estimated populations of historical cities over time Neolithic settlements See also Neolithic architecture Bronze Age See also ||-||-||} Córdoba ( Cordova in English is a City in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.  Several estimates suggest that the city contained over a million inhabitants at its peak.  Many of the One Thousand and One Nights tales are set in Baghdad during this period. A portion of the population of Baghdad were non-Arabs such as Persians, Arameans and Greeks. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox The Aramaeans (also Arameans) ( Aramaic / Syriac: ܐܪܡܝܐ, Ārāmāye' were a Semitic (West Semitic language group The Greeks ( Greek: Έλληνες) are a Nation and Ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighbouring regions These communities gradually adapted Arabic language. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language
By the 10th century, the city's population was between 300,000 and 500,000. Baghdad's early meteoric growth slowed due to troubles within the Caliphate, including relocations of the capital to Samarra (during 808–819 and 836–892), the loss of the western and easternmost provinces, and periods of political domination by the Iranian Buwayhids (945–1055) and Seljuk Turks (1055–1135). The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Sāmarrā ( Arabic, سامَرّاء) is a city in Iraq. It stands on the east bank of the Tigris For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye, Caspian: Bowyiyün also known as Buwaihids or Buyyids, were a Shī‘ah Iranian The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in Nevertheless, the city remained one of the cultural and commercial hubs of the Islamic world until February 10, 1258, when it was sacked by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan during the sack of Baghdad. Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as The Battle of Baghdad in 1258 was a victory for the Mongol leader Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. The Mongols massacred most of the city's inhabitants, including the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim, and destroyed large sections of the city. Al-Musta'sim Billah (Arabic المستعصم بالله (full name al-Musta'sim-Billah Abu-Ahmad Abdullah bin al-Mustansir-Billah) (1213 &ndash February 20 The canals and dykes forming the city's irrigation system were also destroyed. Canals are artificial channels for water There are two types of canals water conveyance canals which are used for the conveyance and delivery of water and Waterways LeveeEmbankmentDitch A dike (or dyke) levee, levée, embankment, floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops The sack of Baghdad put an end to the Abbasid Caliphate, a blow from which the Islamic civilization never fully recovered. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
At this point Baghdad was ruled by the Il-Khanids, the Mongol emperors of Iran. The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate (Ил Хан улс Il Khan uls;) was a Mongol Khanate established in For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. In 1401, Baghdad was again sacked, by Timur ("Tamerlane"). Timur also written Emir Timur or Amir Temur ( Chagatai: تیمور - Tēmōr " Iron " (1336 – 19 February 1405 among It became a provincial capital controlled by the Jalayirid (1400–1411), Qara Quyunlu (1411–1469), Aq Quyunlu (1469–1508), and Safavid (1508–1534) dynasties. The Jalayirids (آل جلایر were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans ( Turkmen: Garagoýunly; Azeri: Qaraqoyunlu The Ak Koyunlu or Aq Qoyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans ( Turkmen: Akgoýunly, Azeri: Ağqoyunlu, The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz
In 1534, Baghdad was conquered by the Ottoman Turks. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Under the Ottomans, Baghdad fell into a period of decline, partially as a result of the enmity between its rulers and Persia. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The city saw relative revival in the latter part of the 18th century under the Mamluk rule. The Mamluks were mostly Christian slaves converted to Islam, trained in a special school and then assigned to military and administrative duties The Nuttall Encyclopedia reports the 1907 population of Baghdad as 185,000. The Nuttall Encyclopædia: Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge is an early-20th-century Encyclopedia, edited by
Baghdad remained under Ottoman rule until the establishment of the kingdom of Iraq under British control in 1921. The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located British control was established by a systematic suppression of Iraqi Arab and Kurdish national aspirations. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding History See also History of the Kurdish people Ancient period See also Hurrians, Guti, Mannaeans, Medes Iraq was given formal independence in 1932, and increased autonomy in 1946. In 1958 the Iraqi Army deposed the grandson of the British-installed monarch, Faisal II. Faisal II, GCVO ( Arabic: الملك فيصل الثاني Fayṣal) ( May 2, 1935 – July 14, 1958) was The city's population grew from an estimated 145,000 in 1900 to 580,000 in 1950 of which 140,000 were Jewish. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************
During the 1970s Baghdad experienced a period of prosperity and growth because of a sharp increase in the price of petroleum, Iraq's main export. This article is about the price of crude oil see Gasoline usage and pricing for information about derivative motor fuels In Economics, an export is any good or Commodity, Transported from one country to another country in a Legitimate fashion New infrastructure including modern sewage, water, and highway facilities were built during this period. Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society such as Roads Water supply, Wastewater, Power grids Sewage is the mainly liquid Waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water Feces, Urine, laundry waste and other Water is a common Chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of Life. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Before adding any more images to this * * page please do carefully consider * * whether they would be mere decoration * * or actually improve However, the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s was a difficult time for the city, as money flowed into the army and thousands of residents were killed. Iran launched a number of missile attacks against Baghdad, although they caused relatively little damage and few casualties. A missile (see also pronunciation differences) is a self-propelled explosive Projectile used as a weapon towards a target In 1991 the Gulf War caused damage to Baghdad's transportation, power, and sanitary infrastructure. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Electricity generation is the process of converting non-electrical Energy to Electricity.
Baghdad was bombed very heavily in March and April 2003 in the 2003 invasion of Iraq and fell under US control by April 7-April 9. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Additional damage was caused by the severe looting during the days following the end of the war. Looting ( Hindi lūṭ akin to Sanskrit luṭhati steals also Latin latro, latronis With the deposition of Saddam Hussein's regime, the city was occupied by U.S. troops. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. The Coalition Provisional Authority established a three-square-mile (8 km²) "Green Zone" within the heart of the city from which it governed Iraq during the period before the new Iraqi government was established. The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA سلطة الائتلاف الموحدة was established as a Transitional government following the The Green Zone (the common name for the International Zone of Iraq is a 10 km² (4 mile² area in central Baghdad that was the center of the Coalition Provisional The Coalition Provisional Authority ceded power to the interim government at the end of June 2004 and thereafter dissolved itself. The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA سلطة الائتلاف الموحدة was established as a Transitional government following the 
On September 23, 2003, a Gallup poll indicated that about two-thirds of Baghdad residents said that the removal of Hussein was worth the hardships they encountered, and that they expected a better life in five years. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. As time passed, however, support for the occupation declined dramatically. By April 2004, USA Today reported that a follow-up Gallup poll in Baghdad indicated that "only 13 percent of the people now say the invasion of Iraq was morally justifiable. USA TODAY is a national American daily Newspaper published by the Gannett Company. In the 2003 poll, more than twice that number saw it as the right thing to do. "
Most residents of Baghdad became impatient with the United States because essential services like electricity were still unreliable more than a year after the invasion. In the hot summer of 2004, electricity was only available intermittently in most areas of the city. The lack of security was another pressing concern. The curfew imposed immediately after the invasion was lifted in the winter of 2003, but the city with a once-vibrant night life was still considered too dangerous after dark for many citizens. A curfew can be one of the following An order by a Government for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time NightLife with Tony Delroy is a popular late night talkback show across ABC Local Radio, Broadcasting from the 702 ABC Sydney studios in Ultimo Those dangers included kidnapping and the risk of being caught in fighting between security forces and insurgents. In Criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or Asportation of a person against the person's will usually to hold the person in False imprisonment An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution
On April 10, 2007, the United States military began construction of a three mile (5 km) long, 3. Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 5 metre tall wall around the Sunni district of Baghdad. The Baghdad Wall is the name being given by some media outlets to a 5 km long (3 mile Separation barrier being built by the 2nd Brigade Combat Team 82nd Airborne Division Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic  On April 23, the Iraqi Prime Minister, Nouri Maliki, called for construction to be halted on the wall. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Nouri Kamel Mohammed Hassan al-Maliki ( Arabic: نوري كامل محمّد حسن المالكي transliterated Nūrī Kāmil al-Mālikī; born June 
In 1950, 90 percent of the Baghdad's population were Sunnis Muslims. Now Shi'ite Muslims make up 40 percent of Baghdad's population and most of the rest are Sunni. A sizeable Christian community also has a presence in Baghdad. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
The capital is now in the middle of a power struggle with insurgents forcing Shi'ite residents out of some areas in western Baghdad where the Sunni sect is in the majority. After the bombing of a Shi'ite shrine in Samarra, north of Baghdad, Shi'ite militias retaliated and forced out 26,000 Sunni families from predominantly Shi'ite areas. Sāmarrā ( Arabic, سامَرّاء) is a city in Iraq. It stands on the east bank of the Tigris
|Climate chart for Baghdad|
|temperatures in °C • precipitation totals in mm|
source: Weather Base
The city is located on a vast plain bisected by the Tigris River. The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great Rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of southeastern The Tigris splits Baghdad in half, with the Eastern half being called 'Risafa' and the Western half known as 'Karkh'. Al Rusafa ( Arabic: الرصافة) or Rasafa is the eastern side of Baghdad, Iraq, or the eastern shore of the river Tigris Karkh or Al-Karkh ( Arabic: الكرخ) is historically the name of the western half of Baghdad, Iraq, or alternatively the western The land on which the city is built is almost entirely flat and low-lying, being of alluvial origin due to the periodic large floods which have occurred on the river. Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against" is Soil or Sediments deposited by a river or other running A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land a deluge
Baghdad has a hot arid climate (Koppen climate classification BWh) and is, in terms of maximum temperatures, one of the hottest cities in the world. In general terms the Climate of a local or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available Water, to the extent of hindering The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems It was developed by Wladimir Köppen, a German climatologist In the summer from June to August, the average maximum temperature is as high as 44 °C (111 °F) accompanied by blazing sunshine: rainfall is almost completely unknown at this time of year. Temperatures exceeding 50 °C (122 °F) in the shade are by no means unheard of, and even at night temperatures in summer are seldom below 24 °C (75 °F) Though the humidity is very low (usually under 10%) due to Baghdad's distance from the marshy Persian Gulf, dust storms from the deserts to the west are a normal occurrence during the summer. Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air In daily language the term "humidity" is normally taken to mean Relative humidity. The Persian Gulf, in the Southwest Asian region is an extension of the
In the winter, from December to February, by contrast, Baghdad has maximum temperatures averaging 15 to 16 °C (59 to 61 °F). Minima can indeed be very cold: the average January minimum is around 4 °C (39 °F) but temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) are not uncommon during this season.
Annual rainfall, almost entirely confined to the period from November to March, averages around 140 millimetres (5. The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to 5 in), but has been as high as 575 millimetres (23 in) and as low as 23 millimetres (~1 in). Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. On January 11th of 2008, light snow fell across Baghdad for the first time in memory, caused by temperatures falling below zero degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit). 
Most Iraqi reconstruction efforts have been devoted to the restoration and repair of badly damaged urban infrastructure. Reconstruction of Iraq describes attempts by the international community to improve and repair the infrastructure of Iraq in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion when much More visible efforts at reconstruction through private development, like architect and urban designer Hisham N. Ashkouri's Baghdad Renaissance Plan and Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center, garnered early interest but remain undeveloped due to the instability of the region. Hisham N Ashkouri (born August 15, 1948, Baghdad, Iraq) is a Boston and New York -based Architect. Reconstruction of Iraq describes attempts by the international community to improve and repair the infrastructure of Iraq in the aftermath of the 2003 invasion when much The Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center was designed by architect Hisham N 
The City of Baghdad has 89 official neighborhoods within 9 districts. There are nine administrative districts in Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, that correspond to the nine district advisory councils These official subdivisions of the city served as administrative centers for the delivery of municipal services but until 2003 had no political function. Beginning in April 2003, the U. S. controlled Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) began the process of creating new functions for these. The process initially focused on the election of neighborhood councils in the official neighborhoods, elected by neighborhood caucuses. CPA convened a series of meetings in each neighborhood to explain local government, to describe the caucus election process and to encourage participants to spread the word and bring friends, relatives and neighbors to subsequent meetings. Each neighborhood process ultimately ended with a final meeting where candidates for the new neighborhood councils identified themselves and asked their neighbors to vote for them. Once all 88 (later increased to 89) neighborhood councils were in place, each neighborhood council elected representatives from among their members to serve on one of the city's nine district councils. The number of neighborhood representatives on a district council is based upon the neighborhood’s population. The next step was to have each of the nine district councils elect representatives from their membership to serve on the 37 member Baghdad City Council. This three tier system of local government connected the people of Baghdad to the central government through their representatives from the neighborhood, through the district, and up to the city council.
The same process was used to provide representative councils for the other communities in Baghdad Province outside of the City itself. There, local councils were elected from 20 neighborhoods (Nahia) and these councils elected representatives from their members to serve on six district councils (Qada). As within the City, the district councils then elected representatives from among their members to serve on the 35 member Baghdad Regional Council.
The final step in the establishment of the system of local government for Baghdad Province was the election of the Baghdad Provincial Council. As before, the representatives to the Provincial Council were elected by their peers from the lower councils in numbers proportional to the population of the districts they represent. The 41 member Provincial Council took office in February, 2004 and served until National elections held in January 2005, when a new Provincial Council was elected.
This system of 127 separate councils may seem overly cumbersome but Baghdad Province is home to approximately seven million people. At the lowest level, the neighborhood councils, each council represents an average of 74,000 people.
The nine District Advisory Councils (DAC) are as follows :
Baghdad has always played an important role in Arab cultural life and has been the home of noted writers, musicians and visual artists.
The dialect of Arabic spoken in Baghdad today differs from that of other large urban centers in Iraq, having features more characteristic of nomadic Arabic dialects (Verseegh, The Arabic Language). It is possible that this was caused by the repopulating of the city with rural residents after the multiple sacks of the late Middle Ages.
Some of the important cultural institutions in the city include:
The live theatre scene received a boost during the 1990s when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films. Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries on another for a variety of reasons As many as 30 movie theatres were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions. Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. 
Institutions offering cultural education in Baghdad include the Academy of Music, Institute of Fine Arts and the Music and Ballet School. The Institute of Fine Arts is one of the 14 divisions of New York University (NYU Baghdad is also home to a number of museums which housed artifacts and relics of ancient civilizations; many of these were stolen, and the museums looted, during the widespread chaos immediately after U.S. forces entered the city. A museum is a "permanent institution in the service of society and of its development open to the public which acquires conserves researches communicates and exhibits the In Archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
During the 2003 occupation of Iraq, AFN Iraq ("Freedom Radio") broadcast news and entertainment within Baghdad, among other locations. Iraq War|2007 in Iraq|2008 in IraqThe post-invasion period in Iraq AFN Iraq is the American Forces Network of Radio stations within Iraq. There is also a private radio station called "Dijlah" (named after the Arabic word for the Tigris River) that was created in 2004 as Iraq's first independent talk radio station. Radio Dijlah offices, in the Jamia neighborhood of Baghdad, have been attacked on several occasions. Jamia (جامعة (or Jami'a) is the Arabic word for gathering (n 
Points of interest include the National Museum of Iraq whose priceless collection of artifacts was looted during the 2003 invasion, and the iconic Hands of Victory arches. The Monument to the Unknown Soldier ( Arabic, صرح الجندي المجهول) is said to be inspired by the glorification of a martyr from the Iran–Iraq War The National Museum of Iraq ( Arabic: المتحف العراقي) is a museum located in Baghdad, Iraq. Multiple Iraqi parties are in discussions as to whether the arches should remain as historical monuments or be dismantled. Thousands of ancient manuscripts in the National Library were destroyed when the building burnt down during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The Iraq National Library and Archive is the National library and legal deposit and copyright of Iraq. The Al Kadhimain Shrine in the northwest of Baghdad (in Kadhimiya) is one of the most important Shi'ite religious sites in Iraq. al-Kāżimiyyah (الكاظمية al-Kāżimiyyah; alternatively الكاظمين al-Kāżimayn) is a town located in what is now a northern neighbourhood of It was finished in 1515 and the 7th (Musa ibn Jafar al-Kathim) and the 9th Imams (Mohammad al-Jawad) were buried there. Mūsá ibn Ja‘far ibn Muḥammad al-Kāżim (الإمام موسى الكاظم ( October 28, 746 AD - September 1, 799 / An imam (إمام plural ائمة A'immah, امام is an Islamic leader often the leader of a Mosque and/or community One of the oldest buildings is the 12th century or 13th century Abbasid Palace. The palace is part of the central historical area of the city and close to other historically important buildings such as the Saray Building and Al-Mustansiriyah School (From the Abbasid Period). There are other landmarks in Baghdad, each of which marks a certain historical era:
The Baghdad Zoo was the largest zoo in the Middle East. The Baghdad Zoo is a Zoo located in Baghdad, Iraq, in the Al Zawraa Gardens area which also includes the Zawraa Amusement Park and Zawraa Tower Within eight days following the 2003 invasion, however, only 35 of the 650 to 700 animals in the facility survived. This was a result of bombing, theft of some animals for human food, and starvation of caged animals that had no food or water.  Survivors included larger animals like bears, lions, and tigers.  Notwithstanding the chaos brought by the invasion, South African Lawrence Anthony and some of the zoo keepers cared for the animals and fed the carnivores donkeys they had bought locally. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Lawrence Anthony (born 1950 Johannesburg) and raised in rural Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Malawi, is an international conservationist environmentalist The donkey or ass, Equus asinus, is a member of the Equidae or horse family and an odd-toed ungulate.  Eventually, Bremer ordered protection of the zoo, and American engineers helped reopen the facility. Lewis Paul Bremer III (born September 30 1941 known as Paul Bremer and also nicknamed Jerry Bremer, is an American Diplomat. 
Baghdad is home to some of the most successful football teams in Iraq, the biggest being Al Quwa Al Jawiya (Airforce club), Al Zawra, Al Shurta (Police) and Al Talaba (Students). Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Al-Quwa Al-Jawiya (القوة الجوية is a football club based in Baghdad, Iraq. Al-Zawraa (نادي الزوراء is an Iraqi football club based in Baghdad. Al Talaba (Arabic الطلبة is an Iraqi football club based in Baghdad. The largest stadium in Baghdad is Al Shaab Stadium which was opened in 1966. Another. Much larger stadium, are still in the opening stages of construction.
The city has also had a strong tradition of horse racing ever since World War I, known to Baghdadis simply as 'Races'. This article is about the sport For other uses see Horserace (drinking game or Horse race (politics. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All There are reports of pressures by the Islamists to stop this tradition due to the associated gambling.