The undergraduate academic degree of Bachelor of Laws is required for the practice of law in most common law countries. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of Higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Since the late-nineteenth century universities the United States awarded the professional doctorate J.D., which became the required degree for the practice of law in the U. Juris Doctor (abbreviated JD or JD, from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a first professional graduate degree and Professional S. in the 1970's. .  Many law schools in Canada and Australia are in the process of implementing J.D. degrees, although they differ from that in the U. Juris Doctor (abbreviated JD or JD, from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a first professional graduate degree and Professional S. (see the J.D. article for more information). Juris Doctor (abbreviated JD or JD, from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a first professional graduate degree and Professional
Where the term Bachelor of Laws continues to be used, it is abbreviated LL. B. (or LLB): "LL. " is an abbreviation of the genitive plural legum (of lex, legis f. , law), thus "LL. B. " stands for Legum Baccalaureus in Latin. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. In the United States it is sometimes erroneously called "Bachelor of Legal Letters" to account for the double "L" (however then it is abbreviated as "L. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the L. B. ").
Historically, in Canada, Bachelor of Laws was the name of the first degree in common law, but is also the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law awarded by a number of Quebec universities. Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in Law conferred by English-language universities All Canadian common-law LL. B. programs are second-entry professional degrees, meaning that the majority of those admitted to an LL. A second entry degree is term used for an Academic degree that requires at minimum 1-3 years of pre-requisite university courses for admission B. programme are already holders of one or more degrees, or, at a minimum, have completed two years of study in a first-entry, undergraduate degree in another discipline.
Bachelor of Laws is also the name of the first degree in Scots law and South African law (both being pluralistic legal systems that are based partly on common law and partly on civil law) awarded by a number of universities in Scotland and South Africa, respectively. Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. The Law of South Africa has a 'hybrid' or 'mixed' legal system, made of the interweaving of a number of distinct legal traditions a civil law system inherited from its Dutch The three major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, Common law and Religious law. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Historically, law students studied both civil law and common law. Civil law or Romano-Germanic law or Continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Today, this is much less common. However, a few institutions, such as Cardiff University's Department of Canon (Ecclesiastical) Law and McGill University's and the University of Ottawa's combined programme, continue to offer alternatives to the common law. Cardiff University (Prifysgol Caerdydd is a leading University located in the Cathays Park area of Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom For the university in Ottawa Kansas see Ottawa University. The University of Ottawa or Université d'Ottawa in French
In most common law countries (with the exception of Canada, the U. S. ), the Bachelor of Laws programme is generally entered directly after completion of secondary school, but some universities in Britain also offer the programme as an accelerated (shorter duration), second-entry programme for the LL. B. following completion of a previous undergraduate degree.
The programme of study for the common law LLB can be either a graduate-entry degree programme requiring a previous bachelors degree or can be undertaken directly after high-school either by itself (the duration of which is usually 4 years) or with another degree (ie. BComm/LLB or BSc/LLB), the duration of which can vary between 4-7 years depending on the specific combination.
Canada has a dual system of laws. In the province of Quebec, a system of civil law is used. At the federal level, as well as in every province or territory except Quebec, a system of common law is used. Because of this, there are two Canadian law degrees generally in use.
The programme of study for the common law LL. B. is graduate-entry degree programme. While the degree awarded is at the first-degree level and admission may be granted to applicants with two or three years of undergraduate studies towards a degree, in practice the programme generally requires completion of a previous undergraduate degree before registration in that programme. In fact, almost all admitted law students hold at least a bachelor level degree, and a significant number hold a graduate level degree as well.
The common law programme is three years in length. At that time, the graduate holds a Bachelor of Laws degree, but cannot practice law yet. In order to practice law, the graduate must then be licensed by the Law Society of the province where he/she wishes to practice law, which also requires a traineeship. (See Becoming a Lawyer below. ) Those law graduates wishing to become law professors instead of lawyers often obtain a more advanced academic degree, such as the Master of Laws (LL. The Master of Laws is an advanced Academic degree, or research degree and is commonly abbreviated LL M. ) or the Doctor of Laws#Canada (LL. Doctor of Laws ( Latin: Legum Doctor, LLD) is a Doctorate -level Academic degree in Law. D, S. J. D or D. C. L).
The civil law programme in Canada is three years in length. The programme of study for the first degree in Quebec civil law (called LL. Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in Law conferred by English-language universities B. , B. C. L. or LL. L. ) is a first-entry degree programme. Like other first-entry university programmes in Quebec it requires a CEGEP diploma for entry. A CEGEP (ˈseɪʒɛp or /ˈsiːʤɛp/ French: Cégep) is a post-secondary education institution exclusive to the province of Quebec in
Law schools that offer civil law B. C. L. or LL. L. degrees include McGill University and the University of Ottawa.
Because of Canada's dual system of laws, some law schools offer joint or dual degrees of common law and civil law. McGill University and the University of Ottawa are two law schools which offer such degrees.
The law degree offered by McGill University is a mandatory joint common law LL. B. / Quebec civil law B. C. L. degree. The programme is four years in length. Admission to that programme is a first-entry programme in the case of Quebec students (as the CEGEP diploma is required) while it is a second-entry programme in the case of students from other provinces (since two years of university studies is required - effectively one extra year of studies more than for a CEGEP diploma). The University of Ottawa offers a civil law degree (LL. L. ) on its own.
A number of Canadian law schools offer students the opportunity to earn, besides their three-year first degrees in common law, programmes in common law for holders of baccalaureate degrees in Quebec civil law enabling those individuals to earn the LL. B. in common law in two or three semesters, depending on the offering university's program. Similarly, the University of Ottawa offers, besides its three year LL. For the university in Ottawa Kansas see Ottawa University. The University of Ottawa or Université d'Ottawa in French L. program in Quebec civil law, a one year LL. L. program in Quebec civil law for holders of an LL. B. or J. D. degree in common law from a Canadian law school.
Additionally, some Canadian universities with common law law schools have an arrangement with a Canadian university with a Quebec civil law law school enabling students to obtain the home school's law degree in three years and the exchange school's law degree in the fourth year.
Main article Legal Education in India
In India, legal education has been traditionally offered as a three years graduate degree conferring the title of title of LL. Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end either related to law The term Autonomous law schools in India refers to the law schools founded in India pursuant to the second-generation reforms for legal education sought to be implemented by the Common Law Admission Test (CLAT is a centralised test for admission to 7 National Law Universities in India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end either related to law B. (Bachelor of Laws) or B. L. (Bachelor of Law). However the legal education system was revised by the Bar Council of India, the governing body of legal education in India in 1984. The Bar Council of India is an autonomous body in India which governs the legal/law institutions in India Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end either related to law Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) Pursuant thereto, various autonomous law schools were established which administer five years undergraduate degree programme and confer an integrated honours degree, such as "B. The term Autonomous law schools in India refers to the law schools founded in India pursuant to the second-generation reforms for legal education sought to be implemented by the A. ,LL. B. (Honours)", "B. B. A, LL. B. (Honours)", "B. Sc. , LL. B. (Honours)", etc.
Both the types of degrees (i. e. three years and five years integrated honours) are recognized and are also qualifying degrees for practice of legal profession in India. A holder of either type of degree may approach a Bar Council of any States of India and get upon compliance with the necessary standards, be enrolled on the rolls of the said Bar Council. India is a union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The process of enrollment confers a license to the holder to practice before any court in India and give legal advice. The entire procedure of enrollment and post-enrollment professional conduct is regulated and supervised by the Bar Council of India.
Like other Common Law countries, Bachelor of Laws (LL. B. ) degree is a condition precedent to practice as an Advocate in the Courts of Law of Bangladesh. Both LL. B. and LL. B. (Hons. ) degrees are offered in different Public and Private Universities. Only four Public Universities offer LL. B. (Hons. ) degree. These Universities are-the University of Dhaka, the University of Rajshahi, the University of Chittagong, the Islamic University of Kustia. All these Universities also offer one year LL. M. course. Private Universities like Green University of Bangladesh, Eastern University, South East University, University of Asia Pacific, Stamford University, Northan University, World University of Bangladesh also offer LL. B. (Hons. ) degree. Besides, the National University of Bangladesh also offers two years LL. B. degree to the graduates of subjects other than Law through some Law Colleges.
Upon completion of the LL. Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end either related to law England Wales and Northern Ireland Qualifying law degrees The term "qualifying law degree" refers to an undergraduate degree (generally a Bachelor of Laws B. degree (or its equivalent), graduates are generally qualified to apply for membership of the bar or law society. A bar association is a Professional body of Lawyers Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their Jurisdiction A Law Society in current and former Commonwealth jurisdictions is an association of solicitors (effectively the trade organisation for solicitors which has a regulatory role The membership eligibility bestowed may be subject to completion of professional exams. A student may have to gain a further qualification at postgraduate level, for example a traineeship and the Legal Practice Course or Bar Vocational Course in England and Wales or the Postgraduate Certificate in Laws in Hong Kong. The Legal Practice Course (LPC is the vocational stage for becoming a Solicitor in England and Wales. The Bar Vocational Course (usually termed the BVC) is a graduate course that is completed by those wishing to be Called to the Bar, i PCLL redirects here For the lacrosse league in the northeastern United States see Pioneer Collegiate Lacrosse League. Hong Kong ( officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is a territory located on China 's south coast on the Pearl River Delta, and borders
In Australia, LL. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. B. graduates are required to undertake a one year articled clerkship or the Legal Practice Course (Commonly Practical Legal Training or PLT) before applying for registration as a solicitor. A "solicitor" is a term used in many Common law jurisdictions for a lawyer who offers legal services outside of the courts Depending on the State to which a practitioner is admitted membership of the Bar is either restricted to Barristers, or open to both Solicitors and Barristers in the states where both roles are fused. In the states that maintain membership of the bar as a separate entity, entry is attained through the successful completion of an exam and a nine-month period of tutelage (the reading period) under a senior Barrister.
In Canada, the lawyer licensing process usually requires the law graduate to 1. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page ) take further classroom law courses, taught by the law society itself, and pass a set of written examinations, commonly referred to as bar exams, related to the taken courses and 2. ) complete articled clerkship commonly known as articling. Although the vast majority of law graduates fulfill the articled clerkship requirement by articling (i. e. working and learning) in a law firm, a government's legal department, a corporation's (in house) legal department, a community legal clinic or some other type of non-profit organization involved in legal work, a small minority of law graduates (with exceptional academic records) satisfy the articled clerkship requirement by undergoing what is commonly called clerkship with a specific courthouse and under the supervision of a judge instead of working in a more "lawyer-type environment" under the supervision of a lawyer called a "principal". In either articling or clerkship, there is the expectation that the law graduate will work in a variety of legal fields and be exposed to the harsh realities of legal practice that are absent from law school's academic atmosphere.
In the province of Ontario, for example, the licensing process for the Law Society of Upper Canada (Ontario's governing law society) consists of three mandatory components: The Skills and Professional Responsibility Program with assignments and assessments, Licensing Examinations (a Barrister Licensing Examination and a Solicitor Licensing Examination), and a 10-month Articling term. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec The Law Society of Upper Canada (LSUC is responsible for the self-regulation of Lawyers in the Canadian province of Ontario, Canada. 
At the conclusion of the licensing process, the law graduate is "called to the bar" whereby he/she signs his/her name in the rolls of solicitors and swears lawyer-related oaths in a formal ceremony where he/she must appear in a complete barrister's gown and bow before judges of the local superior court and benchers of the licensing law society. After the call ceremony, he/she can designate him/herself as a "solicitor and barrister", and can practice law in the province in which he/she is licensed. In the Province of British Columbia, licensed lawyers are automatically permitted to practice the powers of a Notary Public. British Columbia (ˌbrɪtɨʃ kəˈlʌmbiə ( BC) ( (la Colombie-Britannique C A notary public is an officer who can administer Oaths and Statutory Declarations Witness and authenticate documents In Ontario and other provinces, a licensed lawyer requires further licensing from another authority, such as the provincial attorney general, before he/she can work in a Notary Public capacity.
Although not required by the licensing process, many 1st and 2nd year law students work in law firms during the summer off-school season to earn extra money and to guarantee themselves an articling position (with the same law firms) upon their graduation from law school, because there is always fierce competition for articling positions, especially for those in large law firms offering attractive remuneration and prestige, and a law graduate cannot become a licensed lawyer in Canada if he/she has not gone through articled clerkship.
Three of the four universities under the National University of Ireland (NUI) umbrella, award the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law (B. The National University of Ireland ( NUI) (Ollscoil na hÉireann is a federal University system of constituent universities, previously called Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in Law conferred by English-language universities C. L. ). These are UCC, UCD and NUIG. The National University of Ireland Galway ( NUI Galway) ( Irish Ollscoil na hÉireann Gaillimh or OÉ Gaillimh) is a tertiary-level Five (three in the republic) Irish universities (Trinity College Dublin; NUIG; The Queen's University of Belfast; the University of Limerick, and the University of Ulster), one English university (Nottingham Trent University) and one Welsh university (University of Wales) award the LL. Trinity College Dublin ( TCD; Irish Coláiste na Tríonóide Baile Átha Cliath; Latin: Collegium Sacrosanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae The National University of Ireland Galway ( NUI Galway) ( Irish Ollscoil na hÉireann Gaillimh or OÉ Gaillimh) is a tertiary-level Queen's University Belfast is a university in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The University of Limerick ( UL) (Ollscoil Luimnigh was established in 1972 as the National Institute for Higher Education, Limerick and The University of Ulster ( UU; Ollscoil Uladh is a multi-centre University located in Northern Ireland and is the largest single university on the Nottingham Trent University ( NTU) is a University in Nottingham, England. The University of Wales ( Prifysgol Cymru in Welsh) is a confederal University founded in 1893. B. in Ireland as a basic professional degree in law (the latter two are run via local private colleges). NUIG therefore, awards both. The National University of Ireland Galway ( NUI Galway) ( Irish Ollscoil na hÉireann Gaillimh or OÉ Gaillimh) is a tertiary-level It should be noted, though, that Ireland is a common law jurisdiction (in fact there are two common law jurisdictions on the island) and the expression "civil law" is used to differentiate common law from ecclesiastical law in the republic. Common law refers to law and the corresponding legal system developed through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive Canon law is internal ecclesiastical law governing the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Anglican Communion of churches In the past NUI B. C. L. graduates who went to work in Britain sometimes didn't disabuse people of the casual notion that it was a post-graduate degree, similar to the more famous Oxford B. Oxford is currently bidding for the 2010 Wikimania Conference Oxford () is a city, and the County town of Oxfordshire, C. L.
At the University of Zimbabwe, the first degree in common law is the Bachelor of Law (B. The University of Zimbabwe (UZ, is the first and largest university in Zimbabwe. L. ) which is equivalent to the LL. B. in other common law jurisdictions. It is followed by a one year programme at the university (analogous to post-LL. B. vocational programmes in other common law jurisdictions) at the end of which a second degree, the Bachelor of Laws (LL. B. ), is awarded. 
In Pakistan, a person going for an LL. B. degree should have a bachelor's degree. Most law students choose to obtain a two year bachelor degree before enrolling for an LL. B. degree in a law college. The LL. B. itself is a three year programme. In Punjab, a five year joint B. A. /LL. B. degree is being offered by law colleges.
After obtaining an LL. B. degree, a person wishing to practise has to intimate the concerned Bar Council that he is undergoing a six month training period under the supervision of a High Court lawyer with ten year standing. After he completes the pupillage, he will be asked to take a written test and undergo a viva-voce exam.
Some universities in the United Kingdom and New Zealand offer variations of this degree, such as the LL. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island B. (Europe), which generally take four years to complete and include a wider range of topics as well as some degree of specialisation.
Various universities in the United Kingdom and Australia will allow a degree that combines study with a non-law discipline. For example, some universities in the United Kingdom offer a combined study of law and history leading to a B. A. degree that is accepted by the Law Society and Inns of Court as equivalent to an LL. B.
The University of London External Programme in Laws (LL. B. ) has been awarding its law degree via distance learning since 1858. Distance education, or distance learning, is a field of education that focuses on the Pedagogy and Andragogy, technology and instructional systems design The LL. B. awarded by the University of London External Programme is of the same standard and quality irrespective of the mode or manner of learning.
At various universities in the UK such as Oxford, and Cambridge the principal law degree is a B.A., in either Jurisprudence or Law respectively; the B. The University of Oxford (informally "Oxford University" or simply "Oxford" located in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England is the The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the C. L. and LL. B. are second-entry postgraduate degrees. The University of Cambridge has recently replaced their LL. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University) located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the B. degree with an LL.M.
For the most part, foreign law graduates seeking admission to the bar in the United States will find their LL. B. law degree does not of itself fulfill the core admission requirements of most states, thereby not allowing them to take the bar exam. The major exception to this is New York, where those foreign graduates who have fulfilled the educational requirements to practice law in another common law country through study at an approved educational institution, similar in both duration and content to the equivalent teaching at an approved U. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous S. law school, are permitted to sit the bar. . Additionally, both New York and Massachusetts permit Canadian LL. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. B. holders to take the bar. The requirements of each of the states procedures vary, and in some states sufficient years of practice in one's home country may allow for those otherwise excluded to sit for the bar. Interested applicants should check the requirements of each state bar association carefully as requirements vary markedly.
European Union law permits European Union citizens with LL. The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in B. degrees from Ireland or the UK, who practise law in one of these countries for three or more years, to practise also in every other member state. Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world The actual procedure to receive the respective national licence is regulated by the member state and therefore differs from country to country, but every EU member has to apply the relevant EU Directives to its own national law. The verb license or grant license means to give permission The noun license is the document demonstrating that permission
Recently many universities in Germany have introduced LL. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. B. degrees as part of the Bologna process. The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords is to create the European higher education area by making Academic degree standards and quality assurance standards The LL. B. is a three or four year basic law degree. Some students pursue the LL. M. after pursuing the LL. B. The LL. B. in Germany doesn't cover all classes which are also required for the First State Exam. A credit point system is used for the LL. B. degree. In order to obtain the LL. B. students have to pass different sorts of exams and collect fewer points than needed for the First State Exam. The LL. B. degrees are intended for those students not necessarily seeking to be lawyers by profession. The background in law obtained is, however, solid. Currently, in Germany, there is a huge dispute as to the value of Bachelor degrees in general. One will often hear State Exam students criticizing the Bachelor as being a lesser degree. In fact, the objective is simply different. By obtaining the LL. B. , a student is not automatically qualified to sit for the First State Exam. It is expected that the First State Exam will be completely replaced by the LL. B. by 2010. The LL. B. is a cornerstone to the future of law practice in Germany.
In Malta, the Bachelor of Laws (LL. B. ) degree, offered by the University of Malta, is an undergraduate degree that of itself is not sufficient for admission into any of the legal professions. The University of Malta ( Maltese L-Università ta' Malta) is the highest educational institution in Malta.
There are also conversion courses available for non-law graduates, available as an alternative to the full-length LL. B. degree course. One such example of a conversion course in England and Wales is the GDL (Graduate Diploma in Law), which takes one year to complete.
In the UK, as well as in other Common Law jurisdictions, the main approach to this, is the so-called Graduate Entry (undergraduate) LL. A graduate entry degree is term used for an Academic degree that requires at minimum a previous bachelors degree for admission B. degree, where graduates from another discipline can complete the LL. B. in two years, although this may occasionally require taking qualifying law courses within the first degree to meet professional requirements in full. Therefore it is not entirely correct to regard it as an 'accelerated' degree.
This 'double degree' system was, at one time, an alternative route to the former B. L. degree (now obsolete) but students were required to have independent means to complete the second degree. The current Scots LL. B. degree, a direct-entry undergraduate degree, meets all professional requirements when coupled with the Diploma in Legal Practice. The Diploma was introduced circa 1980; prior to this, all professional exams were taken within the degree itself (or as part of an earlier non-law degree), limiting the scope for academic study.
Therefore the pursuit of the double degree nowadays, for school-leavers at least, is mainly to indicate that one (or, more precisely, one's parents) can afford to do so - in other words, a marker of affluence. The first non-law degree will almost invariably be an arts degree although science or other degrees are not unknown. Rarely, the double degree principle is found in reverse; just as an arts or science degree can provide exemption from the full academic (not professional) requirements of a subsequent law degree, similarly a law degree can provide exemption from the full academic requirements of a subsequent arts or science degree. In this case, it is more likely that the second degree will be taken as a self-funding mature student, possibly on a part-time basis.