A USAF B-2 Spirit in flight.
|National origin||United States|
|Maiden flight||17 July 1989|
|Status||Active service: 20 aircraft|
|Primary user||United States Air Force|
|Unit cost||$737 million to $2. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing building testing selling and maintaining Aircraft, Aircraft parts The Northrop Corporation was a leading Aircraft manufacturer of the United States from its formation in 1939 until its merger with Grumman to form Northrop Grumman Northrop Grumman Corporation ( is an Aerospace and defense technology company formed by the 1994 purchase of Grumman by Northrop. The maiden flight of an Aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) 2 billion|
The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit is a multi-role stealth heavy bomber, capable of deploying both conventional and nuclear weapons. Stealth aircraft are Aircraft that use Stealth technology to make it harder to be detected by radar and other means than conventional aircraft by employing a A heavy bomber is a Bomber aircraft of the largest size and typically longest ranges A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from Nuclear reactions either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. It is operated exclusively by the United States Air Force. Its development was a milestone in the modernization program of the U.S. Department of Defense. The United States Department of Defense ( DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government The B-2's stealth technology is intended to aid the aircraft's penetration role in order to survive extremely dense anti-aircraft defenses otherwise considered impenetrable by combat aircraft. Penetration is a term in Warfare referring to the breaching of and moving past a defensive military line Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging hostile military Aircraft in defence of ground objectives, ground or naval forces
The B-2 started life as a black project known as the High Altitude Penetrating Bomber (HAPB), then became the Advanced Technology Bomber (ATB), which became the B-2 Spirit. In the United States, a black project is a classified military/defense project unacknowledged publicly by the government military personnel and defense contractors The bomber's design was changed in the mid-1980s when its mission profile was changed from high-altitude to low-altitude, terrain following. The redesign delayed the B-2's first flight by two years and added about $1 billion to the program's cost.  An estimated US$23 billion was secretly spent for research and development on the B-2 in the 1980s. At the program's peak, 13000 people were employed at a dedicated plant in Pico Rivera, California for the plane's engineering and some manufacturing. Pico Rivera is a city located in southeastern Los Angeles County California, United States. 
The first B-2 was publicly displayed on 22 November 1988, when it was rolled out of its hangar at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, California, where it was built. Events 498 - Kofi Aseidu- After the death of Anastasius II, Symmachus is elected Pope in the Lateran Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) A hangar is an enclosed structure to hold Aircraft in protective storage United States Air Force Plant 42 (AFP 42 is a federally owned military Aerospace facility under the control of the Air Force Material Command Palmdale, the first community within the Antelope Valley to incorporate as a city (on August 24, 1962 Its first public flight was on 17 July 1989. Events 180 - Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa are executed for being Christians Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) The B-2 Combined Test Force, Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California, is responsible for flight testing the engineering, manufacturing and development aircraft. Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County California in the Antelope California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean.
The original procurement of 132 aircraft was later reduced to 75 in the late 1980s. In his 1992 State of the Union Address, President George H.W. Bush announced total B-2 production would be limited to 20 aircraft, with a total inventory of 21 by upgrading the first test aircraft to B-2A Block 30 standard. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12 1924 served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993  This reduction was largely a result of the disintegration of the Soviet Union, which effectively rendered void the Spirit's primary mission. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
The cost of the B-2 program in 1994 dollars was reported at $737 million per plane; however, the total cost of the program with development, spares, and facilities averaged over $2. 1 billion per plane as of 1997 according to the B-2 program office. 
In 1990, the Department of Defense accused Northrop of using faulty components in the flight control system. More recent issues with the jet have included cracks in the tail, and efforts to reduce the probability that the engines will suck birds into the jet intakes, damaging fan blades. 
Northrop made a proposal to the USAF in the late 1990s to build additional aircraft for approximately $550M each. This more accurately reflects the per aircraft cost if the full order had been manufactured. The high development costs included: another stealth prototype (now at the USAF museum), security costs which included inefficiencies of separating design teams, the development of a computer aided design system which requires no paper (it was the first aircraft so designed), a totally computerized manufacturing control system (the first of its kind), and a computerized maintenance system to help crew chiefs.
As with the B-52 Stratofortress and B-1 Lancer, the B-2 provides the versatility inherent in manned bombers. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Like other bombers, its assigned targets can be canceled or changed while in flight, the particular weapon assigned to a target can be changed, and the timing of attack, or the route to the target can be changed while in flight. In addition, its low-observable, or "stealth," characteristics give it the ability to penetrate an enemy's most sophisticated defenses and attack its most heavily defended targets.
The blending of low-observable technologies with high aerodynamic efficiency and large payload gives the B-2 significant advantages over previous bombers. Its range is approximately 6,000 nautical miles (11,100 km) without refueling. A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. Also, its low-observation ability provides the B-2 greater freedom of action at high altitudes, thus increasing its range and giving a better field of view for the aircraft's sensors. It combines GPS Aided Targeting System (GATS) with GPS-aided bombs such as Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM). Basic concept of GPS operation A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the signals sent by the constellation of GPS Satellites high above the Earth Overview The JDAM is not a weapon rather it is a "bolt-on" upgrade for unguided gravity bombs installed during build up of the munition by Naval Ordnancemen or Air Force This uses its passive electronically scanned array APQ-181 radar to correct GPS errors of targets and gain much better than laser-guided weapon accuracy when "dumb" gravity bombs are equipped with a GPS-aided "smart" guidance tail kit. A passive electronically scanned array (PESA as opposed to its active counterpart AESA, is a Phased array which has a central radiofrequency The AN/APQ-181 is an all-weather Low probability of intercept (LPI Radar system designed by Hughes Aircraft (now Raytheon) for the U It can bomb 16 targets in a single pass when equipped with 1,000 or 2,000-pound bombs, or as many as 80 when carrying 500-lb bombs.
The B-2's stealth comes from a combination of reduced acoustic, infrared, visual and radar signatures, making it difficult for defenses to detect, track and engage. Many specific aspects of the low-observability process remain classified; however, the B-2 represents a further advancement of technology exploited for the F-117. Pyotr Ufimtsev, whose theoretical work made the F-117 and B-2 possible, was hired by Northrop at one time. Pyotr Yakovlevich Ufimtsev (Пётр Я́ковлевич Уфи́мцев (born 1931 is a Russian physicist and mathematician considered the seminal force behind modern Additionally, the B-2's composite materials, special coatings and flying wing design (which cuts down on the number of leading edges) contribute to its stealth abilities. A flying wing is a Fixed-wing aircraft which has no definite Fuselage, with most of the crew payload and equipment being housed inside the main wing structure  The B-2 uses radar absorbent material and coatings that require climate-controlled hangars for maintenance.  The engines are contained within the wing contour and just above the wing, helping scatter radar reflections and hide their exhaust. 
The B-2 has a crew of two; a pilot in the left seat and mission commander in the right.  The B-2 has a provision for a third crew member if required in the future.  For comparison, the B-1B has a crew of four and the B-52 has a crew of five.  B-2 crews have been used to pioneer sleep cycle research to improve crew performance on long flights. The B-2 is highly automated, and unlike single-seat fighters, one crew member can sleep, use a flush toilet or prepare a hot meal while the other monitors the aircraft. 
The first operational aircraft, christened Spirit of Missouri, was delivered on December 17, 1993. Events 546 - Gothic War (535–554: The Ostrogoths of King Totila Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) The B-2 fleet is based at Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri. Whiteman Air Force Base ( Whiteman AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force in Johnson County, Missouri, United States Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee Depot maintenance for the B-2 is accomplished by United States Air Force contractor support and managed at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center, Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma. Tinker Air Force Base is a major US Air Force base located in the southeast Oklahoma City area near the suburb of Midwest City, Oklahoma. Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America.  Originally designed to deliver nuclear weapons, modern usage has shifted towards a flexible role with conventional and nuclear capability.
The prime contractor, responsible for overall system design and integration, is Northrop Grumman Integrated Systems Sector. Northrop Grumman Corporation ( is an Aerospace and defense technology company formed by the 1994 purchase of Grumman by Northrop. Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, Hughes Aircraft (now Raytheon), General Electric Aircraft Engines and Vought Aircraft Industries, are members of the aircraft contractor team. Boeing Integrated Defense Systems ( Boeing IDS) based in St Louis, Missouri, USA, is a unit of The Boeing Company responsible for Hughes Aircraft Company was a major aerospace and defense company founded by Howard Hughes. Raytheon Company ( is a major American Defense contractor and industrial corporation with core Manufacturing concentrations in Defense systems GE Aviation, a subsidiary of General Electric, is headquartered in Evendale Ohio (a Cincinnati suburb Vought is the name of several related Aerospace firms These have included in the past Lewis and Vought Corporation, Chance Vought, Vought Sikorsky Another contractor, responsible for aircrew training devices (weapon system trainer and mission trainer) is Link Simulation & Training, a division of L-3 Communications formerly Hughes Training Inc. Not to be confused with Level 3 Communications, an Internet carrier L-3 Communications Holdings Inc (HTI).  Link Division, formerly known as CAE - Link Flight Simulation Corp. Link Simulation & Training is responsible for developing and integrating all aircrew and maintenance training programs.
The B-2 has seen service in three separate campaigns. Its debut was during the Kosovo War in 1999. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: 1996–1999 The B-2 first introduced the satellite guided JDAM in combat use. Overview The JDAM is not a weapon rather it is a "bolt-on" upgrade for unguided gravity bombs installed during build up of the munition by Naval Ordnancemen or Air Force Since then, the aircraft has operated over Afghanistan in Operation Enduring Freedom and Iraq in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF is the official name used by the U For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia During the Iraq campaign, B-2s were temporarily operated from Diego Garcia. Diego Garcia is the largest Atoll, in terms of land area in Chagos Archipelago, part of the British Indian Ocean Territory. Later missions to Iraq launched from Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri. Whiteman Air Force Base ( Whiteman AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force in Johnson County, Missouri, United States Missouri ( or) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee This resulted in missions lasting over 30 hours and one mission of over 50 hours.
The Pentagon's Operational Test and Evaluation 2003 Annual Report noted that the B-2's serviceability for FY03 was still inadequate, mainly due to maintenance on the B-2's Low Observable materials. The evaluation also noted that the Defensive Avionics suite also had shortcomings with pop-up threats.  Despite these problems the B-2 reached full operational capability in December 2003.  The B-2 maintained high mission capable rates for Operation Iraqi Freedom, dropping 583 JDAMs during the campaign. Overview The JDAM is not a weapon rather it is a "bolt-on" upgrade for unguided gravity bombs installed during build up of the munition by Naval Ordnancemen or Air Force 
Noshir Gowadia, a design engineer who worked on the B-2's propulsion system, was arrested in October 2005 for selling B-2 related classified information to foreign countries. Noshir Sheriarji Gowadia is a former Design engineer at Northrop Corporation. His trial was initially scheduled for 12 February 2008, but he received a continuance. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common  In 1984 a Northrop employee, Thomas Cavanagh, was arrested for trying to sell secrets apparently smuggled out of the Pico Rivera plant to the Soviet Union and was eventually sentenced to life in prison. Pico Rivera is a city located in southeastern Los Angeles County California, United States. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 
The USAF has funded a project to upgrade the B-2s weapon control systems so new weapons can be used, including weapons intended to hit moving targets. 
On 23 February 2008, B-2 s/n 89-0127, named Spirit of Kansas, crashed onto the runway shortly after takeoff from Andersen Air Force Base in Guam. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This article is about the US Air Force B-2 Wing For the article on the World War II B-29 unit see 509th Operations Group. Whiteman Air Force Base ( Whiteman AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force in Johnson County, Missouri, United States The 393d Bomb Squadron ( 393 BS) is part of the 509th Bomb Wing at Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri. The 412th Test Wing ( 412 TW) is a wing of the United States Air Force based out of Edwards Air Force Base, California. Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County California in the Antelope Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County California in the Antelope The 53d Wing ( 53 WG) is a wing of the United States Air Force based out of Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Eglin Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located southwest of Valparaiso in Okaloosa County, Florida, United States Whiteman Air Force Base ( Whiteman AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force in Johnson County, Missouri, United States The 57th Wing ( 57 WG) is a wing of the United States Air Force based out of Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada. Nellis Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in Clark County, Nevada. Whiteman Air Force Base ( Whiteman AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force in Johnson County, Missouri, United States Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Andersen Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base on the northern end of the island of Guam, largely within the village of Yigo but also stretching Guam ( Chamorro: cha Guåhån) officially the Territory of Guam, is an island in the western Pacific Ocean and is an organized unincorporated  The crash of the Spirit of Kansas, which had 5,100 flight hours, was the first ever for the B-2. Both pilots ejected before the crash and survived, but the aircraft was completely destroyed, at an estimated loss of US $1. 4B.  No munitions were on board because it and three other B-2s were returning to Whiteman Air Force Base from a temporary deployment to Guam. Whiteman Air Force Base ( Whiteman AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force in Johnson County, Missouri, United States  At Guam Naval Hospital, one pilot was evaluated and released, while the second remained hospitalized. A B-2 already in the air was called back to Andersen following the crash, where it and the other B-2s were grounded until an initial investigation into the crash was complete. Six B-52s of the 96th Bomb Squadron, 2d Bomb Wing at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana were deployed to replace the B-2s. The 96th Bomb Squadron ( 96 BS) is part of the 2d Bomb Wing at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. The 2d Bomb Wing ( 2 BW) is a B-52 Stratofortress unit based at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. Barksdale Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located three Nautical miles (6 km) east of the Central business district of  Chief of Air Combat Command General John Corley stated that the B-2 "rotated early, rotated excessively, stalled, and then dragged the left wingtip". The pilots then ejected and the aircraft ran off the side of the runway and burned. 
The commander of the 509th Bomb Wing, Brig. Gen. Garrett Harencak, followed up on the incident by temporarily suspending flying operations for all 20 remaining B-2s to review procedures. Harencak termed the suspension a "safety pause" and stated that the B-2s would resume flying if called upon for immediate operations.  The B-2 returned to flight on 15 April 2008. Events 1450 - Battle of Formigny: Toward the end of the Hundred Years' War, the French attack and nearly annihilate English 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
The findings of the subsequent investigation stated that the B-2 crashed after water distorted preflight readings in three of the plane's 24 sensors, making the aircraft's control computer force the B-2 to pitch up on takeoff, causing the aircraft to stall and subsequently crash.   The sensors in question measure numerous environmentals, such as air pressure, and help calculate everything from airspeed to altitude. Because of the bad data resulting from the distortions, the flight computers had inaccurate airspeed readings, and incorrectly indicated a downward angle for the aircraft, which contributed to an early rotation and an uncontrolled 30-degree pitch up, resulting in the stall. 
Because of its cost, rarity, and combat value, no production B-2 has been placed on permanent display. However, B-2s have made periodic appearances on ground display at various air shows.
In 2004, one of test articles (s/n AT-1000) built without engines or instruments for static testing was placed on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force near Dayton, Ohio. The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official National Museum of the United States Air Dayton is a city in southwestern Ohio, United States. It is the County seat and largest city of Montgomery County.  The test article had been used for structural testing, and after passing all planned tests, pressure was applied until the right wing broke off at 161% of specification.  The Museum's restoration team spent over a year reassembling the fractured airframe.
From 1989 to 2004, the South Dakota Air and Space Museum located on the grounds of Ellsworth Air Force Base displayed the 10-ton (9. The South Dakota Air and Space Museum, part of the museum system of the National Museum of the US Air Force is located in Box Elder South Dakota, just outside the main gate Ellsworth Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base near Rapid City in Meade County, South Dakota, United States. 1 tonne) "Honda Stealth", a 60% scale mock-up of a stealth bomber, which had been built by North American Honda in 1988 for a national automobile campaign. This article is about the tonne or metric ton For other tons see Ton. () is a Multinational corporation, engine Manufacturer and engineering corporation headquartered in Japan.  Although not an actual replica of a B-2, the mock-up was close enough to create a stir that Honda had cracked national security, as the B-2 project was still officially classified in 1988. Honda donated the model to the Museum in 1989, on the condition that the model be destroyed if it were ever replaced with a different aircraft. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) In 2005, when the museum received a B-1 Lancer for display (Ellsworth being a B-1 base), the Honda Stealth was cut up. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout 
Data from Global Security
Later avionics and equipment improvements allow B-2A to carry JSOW and GBU-28s as well. The Mark 82 (Mk 82 is an unguided low- drag General-purpose bomb ( Dumb bomb) part of the U The Mark 84 is an American General-purpose bomb, the largest of the Mark 80 series of weapons The B61 Nuclear bomb is the primary Thermonuclear weapon in the U The B83 Nuclear weapon is a variable-yield Gravity bomb developed by the United States in the late 1970s entering service in 1983 The AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon ( JSOW) is the product of a joint venture between the United States Navy and Air Force to deploy a standardized The Spirit is also designated as a delivery aircraft for the AGM-158 JASSM when the missile enters service. The AGM-158 JASSM ( Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile) is a Cruise missile developed in the United States.
|Air Vehicle No.||Block No. ||USAF s/n||Formal name||Status|
|AV-1||Test||82-1066||Spirit of America||Active|
|AV-2||Test||82-1067||Spirit of Arizona||Active|
|AV-3||Test||82-1068||Spirit of New York||Active, Flight Test|
|AV-4||Test||82-1069||Spirit of Indiana||Active|
|AV-5||Test||82-1070||Spirit of Ohio||Active|
|AV-6||Test||82-1071||Spirit of Mississippi||Active|
|AV-7||10||88-0328||Spirit of Texas||Active|
|AV-8||10||88-0329||Spirit of Missouri||Active|
|AV-9||10||88-0330||Spirit of California||Active|
|AV-10||10||88-0331||Spirit of South Carolina||Active|
|AV-11||10||88-0332||Spirit of Washington||Active|
|AV-12||10||89-0127||Spirit of Kansas||Crashed 23 February 2008|
|AV-13||10||89-0128||Spirit of Nebraska||Active|
|AV-14||10||89-0129||Spirit of Georgia||Active|
|AV-15||10||90-0040||Spirit of Alaska||Active|
|AV-16||10||90-0041||Spirit of Hawaii||Active|
|AV-17||20||92-0700||Spirit of Florida||Active|
|AV-18||20||93-1085||Spirit of Oklahoma||Active|
|AV-19||20||93-1086||Spirit of Kitty Hawk||Active|
|AV-20||30||93-1087||Spirit of Pennsylvania||Active|
|AV-21||30||93-1088||Spirit of Louisiana||Active|