Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان; Āzarbāijān; Azerbaijani: آذربایجان , Kurdish:آذربایجان ), also Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Āzarbāijān-e Irān), is a region in northwestern Iran. The Kurdish language (Kurdish Kurdî or کوردی is a term used for the language spoken by Kurds. The article is about the geographic sense of the term For other uses including Regions and Regional, see Region (disambiguation. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. It is also historically known as Atropatene and Aturpatakan. Atropatene was the Seleucid -era Koine Greek name given to a kingdom established in the 4th century BCE and the nominal ancestor of the name ' Azerbaijan Atropatene was the Seleucid -era Koine Greek name given to a kingdom established in the 4th century BCE and the nominal ancestor of the name ' Azerbaijan
The region is called by some South Azerbaijan or Southern Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: جنوبی آذربایجان, In the republic of Azerbaijan: Cənubi Azərbaycan, گونئي آذربایجان, In the Republic of Azerbaijan (Anatolian Turkish style): Güney Azərbaycan') however, some sources view these terms as being incorrect and politically motivated.  For more information see the article History of the name Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan is the name used by the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Iranian region of Azerbaijan.
The name Azerbaijan itself is derived from Atropates, the Satrap (governor) of Medea in the Achaemenid empire, who ruled a region found in modern Iranian Azarbaijan called Atropatene. Azerbaijan is the name used by the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Iranian region of Azerbaijan. Atropates ( Greek Aτρoπάτης from Old Persian Aturpat "protected by fire" c See also the related deity Satrapes. Satrap (Persian ساتراپ was the name given to the governors of the Provinces of ancient The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that Atropatene was the Seleucid -era Koine Greek name given to a kingdom established in the 4th century BCE and the nominal ancestor of the name ' Azerbaijan Atropates name is believed to be derived from the Old Persian roots meaning "protected by fire. The Old Persian language is one of the two attested Old Iranian languages (besides Avestan) " The name is also mentioned in the Avestan Frawardin Yasht: âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide which translates literally to: We worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare-pata. The Avesta is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the Avestan language. In Zoroastrian doctrine a fravashi ( Avestan fravaši; Middle Persian fraward, frawahr, frohar, frawash  َAccording to the Encyclopedia of Islam, the name of the province was pronounced as: In Middle Persian the name of the province was called Āturpātākān, older new-Persian Ādharbādhagān آذربادگان/آذرآبادگان, Ādharbāyagān, at present Āzerbāydjān/Āzarbāydjān, Greek ᾿Ατροπατήνη, Byzantine Greek ᾿Αδραβιγάνων, Armenian Atrpatakan, Syriac Adhorbāyghān. .  The name Atropat in Middle Persian was transformed to Adharbad and is connected with Zoroastrianism. A famous Zoroastrian priest by the name Adarbad Mahraspandan is well known for his counsels.  Azerbaijan, due to its numerous fire-temples has also been quoted in a variety of historic sources as being the birth place of the prophet Zoroaster although modern scholars have not yet reached an agreement on the location of his birth. Zoroaster ( Latinized from Greek variants) or Zarathushtra (from Avestan Zaraθuštra) also referred to as Zartosht (زرتشت 
Iranian Azerbaijan is generally considered the northwest portion of Iran compromising the provinces of Zanjan, East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan and Ardabil. The name Zanjan may mean one of the following subdivisions in the country of Iran: Zanjan Province Zanjan County, an area This article is about the Iranian province for similar uses see Azerbaijan (disambiguation. This article is about the Iranian province for similar uses see Azerbaijan (disambiguation. Ardabil ( Persian and Azeri: اردبیل also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil It shares borders with the Republic of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, and Iraq and a population of about 10 million. Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South Azerbaijan is famous for its great natural beauty. There are 17 rivers and two lakes in the region. Cotton, nuts, textiles, tea, machinery and electrical equipments are main industries. The northern, alpine region, which includes Lake Urmia, is mountainous, with deep valleys and fertile lowlands. For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see Climate of the Alps. Lake Urmia ( Daryacheh-ye Orumieh; ارومیه گولو, ارومیه گولی ancient name Lake Matiene) is a Salt lake in northwestern Iran
The region is bounded in the north by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan and in the West by Lake Urmia and Kurdish-inhabited areas of Iran, and in the East by the Talyshstan and Gilan. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South Lake Urmia ( Daryacheh-ye Orumieh; ارومیه گولو, ارومیه گولی ancient name Lake Matiene) is a Salt lake in northwestern Iran Talyshistan also spelled as Talishistan Tolishistan Talyshistan is an unofficial designation meaning the land of Talysh people.
Grains, fruits, cotton, rice, nuts, and tobacco are the staple crops of the region.
Industries include machine tools, vehicle factories, oil refinery, petrochemical complex, food processing, cement, textiles, electric equipment, and sugar milling. Oil and gas pipelines run through the region. Wool, carpets, and metal ware are also produced.
Azerbaijan, the main Turkic-speaking area and one of the richest and one of the most densely populated regions of Iran, presents a picture of ethnic distinctiveness and homogeneity that is perhaps misleading. This article is about Azeris in Iran For Azeris in general see the respective article Iran's population was declared 70049262 in the 2006 census with nearly one quarter of its people being 15 years of age or younger Not only are there various linguistic, religious, and tribal minority groups, and Azerbaijanis themselves have settled widely outside the region.  The Azeris are followers of Shi'a Islam. Azeris make up the majority of the population in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan. This article is about Azeris in Iran For Azeris in general see the respective article The Azeri (also known as Azerbaijani) population of Iran is mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and as a minority some regions of Kordestan, Hamadan and Markazi. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. This article is about the Iranian province for similar uses see Azerbaijan (disambiguation. This article is about the Iranian province for similar uses see Azerbaijan (disambiguation. Ardabīl ( Persian: اردبیل Azeri: اردبیل also known as Ardebil; ancient name Artavil) is one of the Azeri The name Zanjan may mean one of the following subdivisions in the country of Iran: Zanjan Province Zanjan County, an area Kordestan ( Persian: استان کردستان UniPers: Ostâne Kordestân; Kurdish: پارێزگه ی کوردستان Parêzgeha Hamadān or Hamedan (استان همدان is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. Markazi (استان مرکزی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. Many others live in Tehran, Karaj and other regions. Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of Karaj is a city in Iran, located in Tehran province. It is situated 20 km west of Tehran, at the foot of Alborz mountains 
Smaller groups of Kurds, Armenians, Assyrians, Talyshs, Jews, Georgians, and Persians also inhabit the region. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large The Assyrians are an Ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria. |||} Persian Jews or Iranian Jews are Jews historically associated with the Persian Empire or Iran. Iranian Georgians are an ethnic group living in Iran Today's Georgia was a subject to the Safavid empire in 17th century and Shah Abbas I relocated layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox
Iranian Azerbaijan is divided into the provinces of East Azarbaijan (1996 pop. This article is about the Iranian province for similar uses see Azerbaijan (disambiguation. 3,325,540), West Azarbaijan (1996 pop. This article is about the Iranian province for similar uses see Azerbaijan (disambiguation. 2,496,320), Ardabil. Ardabīl ( Persian: اردبیل Azeri: اردبیل also known as Ardebil; ancient name Artavil) is one of the Azeri (1996 pop. 1,168,011), Zanjan (1996 pop. Zanjan (زنجان زنجان is a province located in the North-West Iran with the Zanjan city being its center 900,890) The chief cities include Tabriz (the capital of East Azarbaijan), Urmia (the capital of West Azerbaijan), Ardabil (the capital of Ardabil), Maragheh, Marand, Zanjan, and Khoy (Khvoy). Tabriz ( تبریز, تبریز) is the largest city in northwestern Iran. Ardabil ( Persian and Azeri: اردبیل also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil Marand is among major cities in East Azerbaijan province of Iran. The name Zanjan may mean one of the following subdivisions in the country of Iran: Zanjan Province Zanjan County, an area KHOY (881 FM) branded as "Catholic Radio 881" is an Easy listening format station that serves the Laredo, Texas, United States
The oldest kingdom known in Iranian Azerbaijan is that of the Mannea who ruled a region southeast of Lake Urmia centered around modern Saqqez. See Also Persian Empire History of Iran and Greater Iran (also referred to as the " Iranian Cultural Continent The Mannaeans (country name usually Mannea; Akkadian: Mannai, possibly Biblical Minni, מנּי were an ancient people of unknown origin Lake Urmia ( Daryacheh-ye Orumieh; ارومیه گولو, ارومیه گولی ancient name Lake Matiene) is a Salt lake in northwestern Iran Saqqez or Saghez (in Persian: سقز in Kurdish: Seqiz is a city located at, in Kurdistan Province of Iran. The Manneans were a confederation of Iranian and non-Iranian groups. According to Professor Zadok:
|“||it is unlikely that there was any ethnolinguistic unity in Mannea. Like other peoples of the Iranian plateau, the Manneans were subjected to an ever increasing Iranian (i. The Iranian Plateau, also known as the Persian plateau is a Geological formation in Southwest Asia, Southern e. , Indo-European) penetration. ||”|
According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the Medes were an:
|“||Indo-European people, related to the Persians, who entered northeastern Iran probably as early as the 17th century BC and settled in the plateau land that came to be known as Media. The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. ||”|
By the 8th century BC, Azerbaijan, as well as Hamadan, Tehran, and Esfahan had been settled by Medes. Hamedān or Hamadān ( Persian: همدان, Old Persian: Hagmatana Hebrew: המזיין Ancient Greek: Ecbatana) Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of Esfahān or Isfahan (historically also rendered as Ispahan or Hispahan, Old Persian: Aspadana, Middle Persian: Spahān The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. Azerbaijan later formed the province of Media Minor in the Persian Empire. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia
After Alexander the Great conquered Persia, he appointed (328 BC) as governor the Persian general Atropates, who eventually established an independent dynasty. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Atropates ( Greek Aτρoπάτης from Old Persian Aturpat "protected by fire" c The region, which came to be known as Atropatene or Media Atropatene (after Atropates), was much disputed. Atropatene was the Seleucid -era Koine Greek name given to a kingdom established in the 4th century BCE and the nominal ancestor of the name ' Azerbaijan In the 2nd century BC, it was liberated from Seleucid domination by Mithradates I of Arsacid dynasty, and was later made a province of the Sassanid Empire of Ardashir I. The Seleucid Empire /sə'lusɪd/ ( 312 - 63 BC) was a Hellenistic empire i Mithridates I (B 195 BC? D 138 BC was the "Great King" of Parthia from ca The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanid dynasty, was ruler of Istakhr (206-241 subsequently Persia Under the Sassanids, Azerbaijan was ruled by a marzubān, and, towards the end of the period, belonged to the family of Farrukh-Hormuzd. Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor, briefly held the region in the 7th century until peace was made with the Sassanids. Heraclius, or Herakleios (Flavius Heraclius Augustus;) (c 575 - February 11, 641) was a Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the East This is a list of the Emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, commonly known as the Byzantine Empire by modern historians After the Islamic Conquest of Iran, Arab invaders converted most of its people to Islam and made it part of the caliphate. The Islamic conquest of Persia (633–656 led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual extirpation of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history
During the Islamic invasion of Azerbaijan, the name of the general of Iran, was Rustam the son of Farrukh Hurmuz also known as Rustam Farrokhzad. Rustam himself was born in Azerbaijan and lead the Sassanid army into battle.
He is also mentioned in the Shahnameh: چو نامه بخوانی تو با مهتران/برانداز و برساز لشکر بران
همی تاز تا آذرآبادگان/ دیار بزرگان و آزادگان
همیدون گله هرچه داری ز اسب/ببر سوی گنجور آذرگشسب
The Sassanid Persian army was defeated in the battle of Qadisiya and Rustam was killed in the same battle. In 642 A. D. , Piruzan, the Persian commander fought the Muslims in Nahavand, which was a gateway to the provinces of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Albania. The battle was fiece but the Sassanid troops failed in battle. This opened the gateway for Muslims into Azerbaijan. Muslims settled in Azerbaijan like many parts of Iran. According to the historian Kasravi, the Muslims also settled in Azerbaijan more numerously than other provinces due to its wide and green pastures. Local revolts against the Caliphate were common and the most famous of these revolts was that Persian Khurramite movement.
After the revolt of Babak Khorramdin who was a Zoroastrian of neo-Mazdakite background, the grip of the Abbasid caliphate on Azerbaijan weakened, allowing native dynasties to rise in Azerbaijan. Bābak Khorram-Dīn ( Persian: بابک خرمدین; alternative spelling Bâbak Xoramdin; 795 according to some other Later on Azerbaijan was taken by the Kurdish Daisam and the Daylamite Marzuban. Daisam b Ibrahim al-Kurdi (alternatively Daysam) (d c 957) was the ruler of Azerbaijan (by 938 &ndash 941 / 2, 951 The Daylamites were succeeded by the Kurdish Rawadids. Rawadid (also Rawwadid or Ravvadid ( 955 - 1071) was a Kurdish principality ruling Azerbaijan from the 10th to the early 13th centuries centered After confrontations with the local Kurdish populations who had already established their own dynasties and emirates in vast areas of Azerbaijan, the Seljuks dominated the region in the 11th and early 12th centuries, at which point Turkification of the native populations began. The Great Seljuq Empire was a Medieval Sunni Muslim empire established by the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks that once controlled In 1136, Azerbaijan fell to the lot of the Atabakan-e-Azerbaijan and Atabakan-e-Maragheh. It was invaded by the Khwarizm Shah Jalal ad-din until the advent of the Mongol invasions.
The Mongols under Hulagu Khan established their capital at Maragheh. This article is about the founder of the Ilkhanate For the head of the Chagatai khanate please see Qara Hülëgü Hulagu Khan, also known as The Safina-yi Tabriz is a book that describes the general intellectual condition of Tabriz during the Ilkhanid period. Safīna-yi Tabriz ( The Vessel of Tabriz or The Treasury of Tabriz,) is an important encyclopedic manuscript from 14th century Ilkhanid Iran The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate (Ил Хан улс Il Khan uls;) was a Mongol Khanate established in After being conquered by Timur in the 14th century, Tabriz became an important provincial capital of the Timurid empire. Timur also written Emir Timur or Amir Temur ( Chagatai: تیمور - Tēmōr " Iron " (1336 – 19 February 1405 among Tabriz ( تبریز, تبریز) is the largest city in northwestern Iran. Timur also written Emir Timur or Amir Temur ( Chagatai: تیمور - Tēmōr " Iron " (1336 – 19 February 1405 among Later, Tabriz becamse the capital of the Qara Qoyunlu empire. The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans ( Turkmen: Garagoýunly; Azeri: Qaraqoyunlu
It was out of Ardabil (ancient Artavilla) that the Safavid dynasty arose to renew the state of Persia and establish Shi'ism as the official religion of Iran. Ardabil ( Persian and Azeri: اردبیل also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz After 1502, Azarbaijan became the chief bulwark and military based of the Safavids. In the meantime, between 1514 and 1603, the Ottomans frequently occupied Tabriz and other parts of the province. The Safavid control was restored by Shah Abbas but during the Afghan invasion (1722-8) the Ottomans recaptured Azerbaijan and other western provinces of Iran, until Nadir Shah expelled them. Nāder Shāh Afshār ( also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (November In the beginning of the reign of Karim Khan Zand, the Afghan Azad Khan revolted in Azerbaijan and later the Dumbuli Kurds of khoy and other tribal chiefs ruled various parts of the territory. KHOY (881 FM) branded as "Catholic Radio 881" is an Easy listening format station that serves the Laredo, Texas, United States With the advent of the Qajars, Azerbaijan became the traditional residence of the heirs-apparent. At this time, the final northern frontier of Iran with Russia (along the Araxes) was established in 1828 (Turkmanchay Treaty). The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which After 1905 the representatives of Azerbaijan were very active in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also known as the Persian Constitutional Revolution or Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911
The Russian (Tsarist) army occupied Iranian Azerbaijan in 1909, and again in 1912-1914 and 1915-1918 period,the Ottoman forces occupied her in 1914-1915 and 1918-1919 periods, the Bolshevik forces occupied Iranian Azerbaijan and other parts of Iran in 1920-1921, and the Soviet forces occupied Iranian Azerbaijan in 1941, createing a very short-lived autonomous, Soviet-supported state in May 1946, which was dissolved after reunification of Iranian Azerbaijan with Iran in November of the same year. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  . Azerbaijani provinces have played a major in the cultural and economic life of Iran in both the Pahlavi era as well as the Islamic revolution.
Azeris are culturally very close to the rest of the Iranians though their language is Turkic. The Azerbaijanis are an Ethnic group mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran. The people of Azerbaijan have similar DNA to other Iranian peoples as well as their religion which is Shi'a Islam, which sets them apart from other Turkic speakers (who are mostly Sunni Muslims). Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic Azeris celebrate Nouruz for the turn of the new Iranian year, the arrival of spring. The Azerbaijanis are an Ethnic group mainly in the Republic of Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran. Nowrūz ( /noruz/ ↔, (English New Day various local pronunciations and spellings) is the traditional Iranian New year Holiday celebrated Azerbaijan has a distinct music in Iran. Music of Azerbaijan includes various styles that reflect influences from the music of the Iran, Caucasus and Central Asia. Many local dances and folk music continue to survive among the various peoples of the provinces. Although Azerbaijani language is not an official language it is widely used, mostly in an oral tradition, among the Azeris in Iran. This article is about Azeris in Iran For Azeris in general see the respective article Many poets that came from Azerbaijan wrote poetry in both Persian and Azerbaijani. Renowned poets in Azerbaijani language are Nasimi, Shah Ismail I (who was known with the pen-name Khatai), Fuzuli, and Mohammad Hossein Shahriar. For the administrative region of Azerbaijan see Fizuli Rayon; for the city in Azerbaijan see Füzuli. Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat-Tabrizi (سید محمدحسین بهجت تبریزی ( 1906 - September 18, 1988) chiefly known by his Pen Fuzuli and Nasimi were probably born outside what is now Iranian Azerbaijan. Azerbaijani was the dominant language of the ruling dynasties of the Turkic rulers of the area such as the Ak Koyunlu and later it was used in the Safavid courts for a short time, until Persian was adopted, however, Turkic was used especially among the Kizilbash warriors. The Ak Koyunlu or Aq Qoyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans ( Turkmen: Akgoýunly, Azeri: Ağqoyunlu, The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz Qizilbash or Kizilbash ( Nastaliq: قزلباش - Qizilbāš; Ottoman Turkish for "Red Heads" is a name given to a wide As a longstanding province of Iran (Persia), Azerbaijan is mentioned favorably on many occasions in Persian literature by Iran's greatest authors and poets. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia Persian literature ( spans two and a half millennia though much of the pre- Islamic material has been lost list is not comprehensive but is continuously being expanded and includes Persian writers and poets from Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Afghanistan Examples:
گزیده هر چه در ایران بزرگان
زآذربایگان و ری و گرگان
All the nobles and greats of Iran,
Choose from Azerbaijan, Ray, and Gorgan. See Rayshahr for the Sassanid center of learning in Fars province Gorgan ( Persian: گرگان Caspian: Vergen is the capital of the Golestan Province, Iran.
—Vis o Ramin
از آنجا بتدبیر آزادگان
بیامد سوی آذرآبادگان
From there the wise and the free,
set off to Azerbaijan
به یک ماه در آذرآبادگان
ببودند شاهان و آزادگان
For a month's time, The Kings and The Free,
Would choose in Azerbaijan to be