RCAF Avro Manchester Mk IA
|Maiden flight||25 July, 1939|
|Primary users||Royal Air Force|
Royal Canadian Air Force
The Avro 679 Manchester was a British twin-engined heavy bomber developed during the Second World War by the Avro aircraft company in the United Kingdom. An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing building testing selling and maintaining Aircraft, Aircraft parts The maiden flight of an Aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1939: Events January January 12 - the RAF Auxiliary Air Force Reserve This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1940: Events January January 6 - During the Winter War between This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1940: Events January January 6 - During the Winter War between This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1941: Events Jackie Cochran became the first woman to fly a bomber across the "Lanc" redirects here Distinguish from Lank (adjective and from Amon Lanc (a place in Tolkien's fiction The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located A heavy bomber is a Bomber aircraft of the largest size and typically longest ranges World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Avro was a British Aircraft manufacturer, with numerous landmark designs such as the Avro 504 trainer in the First World War, the Avro The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Manchester was a failure due to its under-developed, under-powered and unreliable engines, but was the forerunner to the famous Avro Lancaster, one of the most successful bombers of the war. "Lanc" redirects here Distinguish from Lank (adjective and from Amon Lanc (a place in Tolkien's fiction
The Manchester was originally designed to the Air Ministry Specification P.13/36 which was the same specification that Handley Page followed in their design of the Halifax bomber. The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the British Government with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the Royal Air Force. This is a partial list of the British Air Ministry (AM specifications for Aircraft. Handley Page Limited was founded by Frederick Handley Page (later Sir Frederick in 1909 as the United Kingdom 's first publicly traded aircraft manufacturing WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The specification called for a twin-engined "medium bomber" for "worldwide use", which was to be capable of carrying out shallow (30 degrees) dive bombing attacks, and carry heavy bombloads (8,000 lbs) or two 18 inch torpedoes . It was to use the Rolls-Royce Vulture 24 cylinder X-block engine, which was essentially two Rolls-Royce Peregrine Vee cylinder blocks mounted one on top of the other, the bottom one inverted to give the "X" shape. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout X engine is a Piston engine comprising twinned V-block engines horizontally-opposed to each other WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout A V engine is a common configuration for an Internal combustion engine. The cylinder block or engine block is a machined casting (or sometimes an assembly of modules containing cylindrically bored holes for the Pistons of a multi-cylinder When developed in 1935, the engine had promise — it was rated at 1,760 hp — but it proved woefully unreliable and had to be derated to between 1,480 and 1,500 hp. This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1935: Events January January 11 - 12 – Amelia Earhart Avro's prototype Manchester L7246 first flew at Manchester's Ringway Airport on 25 July 1939, with the second aircraft following on 26 May 1940 . Manchester Airport is a major Airport in the vicinity of Manchester, England, and the largest airport in the United Kingdom outside the Events 285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
While the Manchester was designed with twin tails, the first production aircraft, designated the Mk I, had a central fin added and a total of 20 aircraft with this configuration were completed. A twin tail is a specific type of Vertical stabilizer arrangement found on some Aircraft. They were succeeded by the Mk IA which reverted to the twin-fin system but using enlarged, taller fin and rudders and this configuration carried over to the Lancaster.
Avro built 177 and Metropolitan-Vickers completed 32 aircraft. Metropolitan-Vickers, Metrovick, or Metrovicks, was a British heavy electrical engineering company of the early-to-mid 20th century formerly known as Plans for Armstrong Whitworth and Fairey at Stockport/Ringway to build the Manchester were abandoned. Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century The Fairey Aviation Company Limited was a British Aircraft manufacturer of the first half of the 20th century based in Hayes in Greater London
Handley Page's response to the engine's faults was to switch the Halifax to four of the less powerful but more reliable Rolls-Royce Merlin X engines. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Avro however persisted with the Vulture and the Manchester went into production, entering service with No. 207 Squadron of RAF Bomber Command in November 1940, flying its first operational mission on 24 February 1941 in a raid on the French port of Brest. No 207 Squadron (alternatively No CCVII Squadron) is a Squadron of the Royal Air Force, currently based at RAF Linton-on-Ouse in Yorkshire RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAF 's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968 This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1940: Events January January 6 - During the Winter War between Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Brest (bʁɛst in French, in Breton) is a city in the Finistère department in Bretagne in northwestern France. . Eventually 209 Manchesters entered service, before production finished in November 1941 equipping eight bomber squadrons, serving with two others and also being used by Coastal Command. RAF Coastal Command was an organization within the Royal Air Force which defended the United Kingdom from naval threats and countered German U-boats
The Mk III Manchester, BT308, which first flew on 9 January 1941, was essentially the first Lancaster, being powered by four Merlin engines and with increased wingspan, although initially retaining the three fins and rudders of the Manchester I. Events 475 - Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. BT308 received the "Lancaster" name immediately after its first flight. The second prototype Lancaster DG595 featured the twin, enlarged fins and rudders of the Manchester IA. Manchester production continued until November of that year but some aircraft still in production were completed as Lancasters.
Manchesters flew 1,269 operations with Bomber Command, dropping 1,826 tons of bombs and losing 63 aircraft in action, flying its last operation against Bremen on 25 June 1942 Unreliable engines which were prone to catching fire without warning were the main reason for these losses. Bremen (ˈbʁeːmən is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany (official name Stadtgemeinde Bremen / City Municipality of Bremen Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Of 63 aircraft downed, 40% of them occurred on operations while 25% were lost on training flights.