Royal Air Force Avro Lancaster B I PA474 of the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight.
|Designed by||Roy Chadwick|
|Maiden flight||8 January 1941|
|Primary users||Royal Air Force|
Royal Canadian Air Force
|Unit cost||£45-50,000 when introduced|
≈£1. A heavy bomber is a Bomber aircraft of the largest size and typically longest ranges An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing building testing selling and maintaining Aircraft, Aircraft parts Avro was a British Aircraft manufacturer, with numerous landmark designs such as the Avro 504 trainer in the First World War, the Avro Roy Chadwick, CBE, FRAeS ( April 30 1893 &ndash August 23 1947) was an aircraft designer for Avro. The maiden flight of an Aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord Events 871 - Battle of Ashdown - Ethelred of Wessex defeats a Danish invasion army This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1941: Events Jackie Cochran became the first woman to fly a bomber across the This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1942: Events January January 30 - Canadian Pacific Air Lines This is a list of Aviation -related events from 1963: Events January January 7 - Aeroflot commences direct The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency 3-1. 5 million in 2005 currency
|Developed from||Avro Manchester|
The Avro Lancaster was a British four-engine Second World War bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the British Royal Air Force (RAF). The Avro 679 Manchester was a British twin-engined Heavy bomber developed during the Second World War by the Avro aircraft company in the The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a British passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s and 1950s developed from the Avro Lancaster bomber (an inhabitant The Avro Type 694 Lincoln was a British four-engined Heavy bomber of the Second World War, first flying on 9 June 1944 and entering service in August WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including A bomber is a Military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets primarily by dropping Bombs on them Avro was a British Aircraft manufacturer, with numerous landmark designs such as the Avro 504 trainer in the First World War, the Avro It first saw active service in 1942, and together with the Handley-Page Halifax it was one of the main heavy bombers of the RAF, the RCAF and squadrons from other Commonwealth and European countries serving within RAF Bomber Command. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAF 's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968 The "Lanc" or "Lankie," as it became affectionately known, became the most famous and most successful of the Second World War night bombers, "delivering 608,612 tons of bombs in 156,000 sorties. " Although the Lancaster was primarily a night bomber, it excelled in many other roles including daylight precision bombing, and gained worldwide renown as the "Dam Buster" used in the 1943 Operation Chastise raids on Germany's Ruhr Valley dams. Operation Chastise was the official name for the attacks on German Dams on 17 May 1943 in the Second World War using a specially developed " The Ruhr Area, ( German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott, Kohlenpott or Revier) is an Urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia
Design and development
Profile of the forward section of a Lancaster, showing the FN5 turret, bomb aimer's perspex blister and the Merlin engines
Diagram comparing the Lancaster with its contemporaries; the Short Stirling
and the Handley Page Halifax
. Tail Gunner is a monochrome vector arcade game created by Vectorbeam in 1979 WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
The origins of the Lancaster lie in a twin-engined bomber design submitted to meet Specification P.13/36, which was for a new generation of twin-engined medium bombers for "world-wide use", the engine specified as the Rolls-Royce Vulture. This is a partial list of the British Air Ministry (AM specifications for Aircraft. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The resulting aircraft was the Avro Manchester, which, although a capable aircraft, was troubled by the unreliability of the Vulture. The Avro 679 Manchester was a British twin-engined Heavy bomber developed during the Second World War by the Avro aircraft company in the Only 200 Manchesters were built and they were withdrawn from service in 1942.
Avro's chief designer, Roy Chadwick, was already working on an improved Manchester design using four of the more reliable but less powerful Rolls-Royce Merlin engines on a larger wing. Avro was a British Aircraft manufacturer, with numerous landmark designs such as the Avro 504 trainer in the First World War, the Avro Roy Chadwick, CBE, FRAeS ( April 30 1893 &ndash August 23 1947) was an aircraft designer for Avro. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The aircraft was initially designated Avro Type 683 Manchester III, and later re-named the Lancaster. Lancaster (pronounced ˈlæŋˌkæstə or ˈlænˌkæstə is a City in Lancashire, England. The prototype aircraft BT308 was assembled by Avro's experimental flight department at Manchester's Ringway Airport from where test pilot H. A serial number is a unique Number assigned for Identification which varies from its Successor or Predecessor by a fixed discrete Integer Manchester Airport is a major Airport in the vicinity of Manchester, England, and the largest airport in the United Kingdom outside the A. "Bill" Thorn took the controls for its first flight on Thursday, 9 January 1941. Events 475 - Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital at Constantinople. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The aircraft proved to be a great improvement on its predecessor, being "one of the few warplanes in history to be 'right' from the start. " Its initial three-finned tail layout, a result of the design being adapted from the Manchester I, was quickly changed on the second prototype DG595 and subsequent production aircraft to the familiar twin-finned specification also used on the later Manchesters (below).
Some of the later orders for Manchesters were changed in favour of Lancasters; the designs were very similar and both featured the same distinctive greenhouse cockpit, turret nose and twin tail. A twin tail is a specific type of Vertical stabilizer arrangement found on some Aircraft. The Lancaster discarded the stubby central third tail fin of the early Manchesters and used the wider span tailplane and larger elliptical twin fins from the later Manchester IA.
The Lancaster is a mid-wing cantilever monoplane with an oval all-metal fuselage. The wing was constructed in five main sections, the fuselage in five sections. All wing and fuselage sections were built separately and fitted with all the required equipment before final assembly. The tail unit had twin oval fins and rudders. The Lancaster was initially powered by four wing-mounted Rolls-Royce Merlin piston engines with three-bladed airscrews. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout It had retractable main landing gear and fixed tail-wheel, with the hydraulically operated main landing gear raised into the inner engine nacelles. 
The majority of Lancasters built during the war years were manufactured by Avro at their factory at Chadderton near Manchester and test flown from Woodford Aerodrome in Cheshire. Avro was a British Aircraft manufacturer, with numerous landmark designs such as the Avro 504 trainer in the First World War, the Avro Chadderton (pop 33000 is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, in Greater Manchester, England. Woodford Aerodrome or Manchester Woodford Aerodrome is located at Woodford in the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, Greater Manchester Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a county in North West England. Other Lancasters were built by Metropolitan-Vickers (1080, also tested at Woodford) and Armstrong Whitworth. Metropolitan-Vickers, Metrovick, or Metrovicks, was a British heavy electrical engineering company of the early-to-mid 20th century formerly known as Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century The aircraft was also produced at the Austin Motor Company works in Longbridge, Birmingham later in the Second World War and postwar by Vickers-Armstrongs at Chester. The Austin Motor Company was a British manufacturer of automobiles that rose to be a major motorcar brand the dominant partner after merger with Morris in 1952 Longbridge is an area of Birmingham, England. For local government purposes it is a ward within the district of Northfield. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um Vickers-Armstrongs Limited was a British engineering conglomerate formed by the merger of the assets of Vickers Limited and Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Company in Chester is the County town of Cheshire, England. Lying on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales, it is home to 77040 Only 300 of the Lancaster B II fitted with Bristol Hercules engines were constructed; this was a stopgap modification caused by a shortage of Merlin engines as fighter production was of higher priority. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Many BII's were lost after running out of fuel. The Lancaster B III had Packard Merlin engines but was otherwise identical to contemporary B Is, with 3,030 B IIIs built, almost all at A. Packard was an American luxury Automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation V. Roe's Newton Heath factory. Newton Heath is a district in the city of Manchester, England. The B I and B III were built concurrently, and minor modifications were made to both marks as new batches were ordered. Examples of these modifications were the relocation of the pitot head from the nose to the side of the cockpit, and the change from de Havilland "needle blade" propellers to Hamilton Standard or Nash Kelvinator made "paddle blade" propellers. A Pitot (ˈpiːtoʊ tube is a Pressure measurement instrument used to measure Fluid flow Velocity. The de Havilland Aircraft Company (less commonly spelled de Haviland was a British aviation manufacturer founded in 1920 when Airco, of which Geoffrey Hamilton Standard, a famous Aircraft Propeller parts supplier was formed in 1929 when United Aircraft & Transport Corporation consolidated Hamilton Aero Manufacturing Nash-Kelvinator Corporation was the result of a merger between Nash Motors and Kelvinator Appliance Company 
Of later variants, only the Canadian-built Lancaster B X manufactured by Victory Aircraft in Malton, Ontario was produced in significant numbers. Victory Aircraft Limited was a Canadian manufacturing company that during the Second World War, built mainly British-designed aircraft under license Malton is one of the Neighbourhoods in the northeast part of the city of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, located to the northwest of Toronto A total of 430 of this type were built, earlier examples differing little from their British-built predecessors, except for using Packard-built Merlin engines and American-style instrumentation and electrics. Packard was an American luxury Automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation Late-series models replaced the Frazer Nash mid-upper turret with a differently configured Martin turret, mounted slightly further forward for weight balance. Nash & Thomson was a British engineering firm that specialised in the production of hydraulically-operated Gun turrets for aircraft A total of 7,377 Lancasters of all marks were built throughout the duration of the war, each at a 1943 cost of £45-50,000 (approximately equivalent to £1. The Pound Sterling ( symbol £; ISO code: GBP) subdivided into 100 pence (singular penny) is the Currency 3-1. 5 million in 2005 currency). 
The test pilot Alex Henshaw is the only known pilot to have barrel rolled a Lancaster bomber, a feat considered almost impossible because of the slow speed of the aircraft. Alexander Adolphus Dumfries Henshaw MBE ( 7 November 1912 - 24 February 2007 was a British A barrel roll is a maneuver in which an object (usually an Airplane or Roller coaster) makes a complete Rotation on its longitudinal axis while 
In a standard Lancaster as used in the war, the crew were accommodated as follows: starting at the nose, the bomb aimer had two positions to man. A bombardier ( French for " bomberman " in the United States Army Air Forces and United States Air Force, or a bomb aimer His primary location was lying prone on the floor of the nose of the aircraft, where he had access to the controls for the bombsight head in front, with the bombsight computer on his left and bomb release selectors on the right. A bombsight is a device used by Bomber aircraft to assist in the task of accurately dropping Bombs on a ground target An analog computer (spelt analogue in British English is a form of Computer that uses continuous physical phenomena such as electrical mechanical He would also use his view out of the large transparent perspex nose cupola to assist the navigator with map reading. To man the Frazer Nash FN5 nose turret, he simply had to stand up and he would be in position behind the triggers of his twin Browning . 303 guns. The bomb aimer's position contained the nose parachute exit in the floor.
Moving backwards, on the roof of the bomb bay the pilot and flight engineer sat side-by-side under the expansive canopy, with the pilot sitting on the left on a raised portion of the floor. In Aviation, a flight engineer is a member of the aircrew of some Aircraft. The flight engineer sat on a collapsible seat (known as a 'second dicky seat') to the pilot's right, with the fuel selectors and gauges on a panel behind him and to his right. A rumble seat, dicky seat, dickie seat or dickey seat is an upholstered exterior seat which hinges or otherwise opens out from the
Behind these crew members, and behind a curtain fitted to allow him to use light to work, sat the navigator. The title Flight Officer can refer to a functional (occupational job title as an aircrew member or it can refer to a military rank previously used by the U His position had him facing to port with a large chart table in front of him. An instrument panel showing the airspeed, altitude and other details required for navigation was mounted on the side of the fuselage above the chart table.
The radios for the wireless operator were mounted on the left-hand end of the chart table, facing towards the rear of the aircraft. Behind these radios, facing forwards, on a seat at the front of the main spar sat the wireless operator. To his left was a window, and above him was the astrodome, used for visual signalling and also by the navigator for celestial navigation. An astrodome is a hemispherical transparent dome fitted in the cabin roof of an Aircraft for the purpose of allowing the use of a Sextant during Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is a Position fixing technique that was devised to help sailors cross the featureless oceans without having to
Behind the wireless operator were the two spars for the wing, which created a major obstacle for crew members moving down the fuselage even on the ground. In an aircraft the spar is the main structural member of the wing running widthways across the span of the wing at right angles (or thereabouts to the Fuselage. On reaching the end of the bomb bay the floor dropped down to the bottom of the fuselage, and the mid upper gunner's Frazer Nash FN50 or FN150 turret was reached. His position allowed a 360° view over the top of the aircraft, with two Browning . 303 guns to protect the aircraft from above and to the side.
To the rear of the turret was the side crew door, on the starboard side of the fuselage. This was the main entrance to the aircraft, and also could be used as a parachute exit. At the extreme rear of the aircraft, over the spars for the tailplane, the rear gunner sat in his exposed position in the FN20, FN120 or Rose Rice turret. In the FN20 and FN120 turrets he had four Browning . 303 guns, and in the Rose Rice turret he had two . 50 Brownings. Neither of the mid upper or rear gunner's positions were heated, and the gunners had to wear electrically heated suits to prevent hypothermia and frostbite. Hypothermia is a condition in which an organism's temperature drops below that required for normal Metabolism and bodily functions Frostbite ( congelatio in Medical terminology) is the Medical condition whereby damage is caused to Skin and other tissues Many rear gunners insisted on having nearly all perspex removed from the turret to give a completely unobstructed view.
While eight . 303 in machine guns were the most common Lancaster armament, twin . 50 turrets were later available in both the tail and dorsal positions. A Preston-Green mount was available for a . 50 cal mounted in a ventral blister, but this was mostly used in RCAF service. This blister was later the location for the H2S radar. The H2S Radar was used in bombers of RAF Bomber Command. It was designed to identify targets on the ground for night and all-weather bombing A Nash & Thomson FN-64 periscope-sighted twin . Nash & Thomson was a British engineering firm that specialised in the production of hydraulically-operated Gun turrets for aircraft 303 ventral turret was also available but rarely fitted as it was hard to sight. (Similar problems afflicted the ventral turret in the North American B-25C and other bombers). Some unofficial mounts for . 50 cal or even 20 mm guns were made, firing through ventral holes of various designs.
An important feature of the Lancaster was its extensive bomb bay, at 33 feet (10. A bomb is any of a range of devices that typically rely on the Exothermic Chemical reaction of an Explosive material to produce an extremely 05 m) long. Initially the heaviest bombs carried were 4,000 lb (1,818 kg) "Cookies". Blockbuster or cookie was the name given to several of the largest conventional Bombs used in World War II by the Royal Air Force (RAF Bulged doors were added to allow the aircraft to carry 8,000lb and later 12,000lb "Cookies". Towards the end of the war, attacking special and hardened targets, the B I Specials could carry the 21 foot (6. 4 m) long 12,000 lb (5,448 kg) "Tallboy" or 25. The Tallboy was an Earth quake bomb developed by Barnes Wallis and brought into operation by the British in 1944 5 foot (7. 77 m) long 22,000 lb (9,979 kg) "Grand Slam" "earthquake" bombs: the Lancaster was able to deliver the heaviest bombs made. The Grand Slam was a 22000 lb Earth quake bomb used by RAF Bomber Command against strategic targets during the Second World War. To carry the "Grand Slam" extensive modifications to the aircraft were required which led to them being redesignated as B I (Specials). The modifications included removal of the mid-upper turret, two guns from the rear turret, removal of all of the cockpit armour plating and installation of Rolls-Royce Merlin Mk 24 Engines which had better take-off performance. The bomb-bay doors were removed and the rear end of the bomb bay cut away to clear the tail of the bomb. Later the nose turret was also removed to further improve performance. 
Bombsights used on Lancasters included:
- Mark IX Course-Setting Bombsight (CSBS).
- This was an early preset vector bombsight that involved squinting through wires that had to be manually set based on aircraft speed, altitude and bombload. This sight lacked tactical flexibility as it had to be manually adjusted if any of the parameters changed and was soon phased out in favour of the bombsights below.
- Mark XIV bombsight
- A vector bombsight where the bomb aimer input various details of the bombload, target altitude and wind direction, and the analogue computer then continuously calculated the trajectory of the bombs and projected an inverted sword shape onto a sighting glass on the sighting head. Assuming the sight was set correctly, when the target was in the cross hairs of the sword shape, the bomb aimer would be able to accurately release the bombs.
- T1 bombsight
- A Mark XIV bombsight modified for mass production and produced in the USA. Some of the pneumatic gyro drives on the Mk XIV sight were replaced with electronic gyros and other minor modifications were made.
- Stabilizing Automatic Bombsight
- Also known as "SABS", this was an advanced bombsight mainly used by 617 Squadron for precision raids. Like the American Norden bombsight it was a tachometric sight. The Norden bombsight was a Bombsight used by the United States Army Air Forces during World War II, and the United States Air Force in the
Radio, radar and countermeasures equipment
The Lancaster had a very advanced communications system for its time. Most British-built Lancasters were fitted with the famous R1155 receiver and T1154 transmitter, whereas the Canadian built aircraft and those built for service in the Far East had American radios. These provided radio direction-finding, as well as voice and Morse capabilities. Morse code is a Character encoding for transmitting telegraphic information using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters numerals
- Ground looking navigation radar system - eventually, it could be homed in on by the German night fighters' NAXOS receiver and had to be used with discretion. The H2S Radar was used in bombers of RAF Bomber Command. It was designed to identify targets on the ground for night and all-weather bombing The FuG 350 Naxos Radar detector was a World War II German counter measure to centimetric radar produced by a Cavity magnetron.
- An add-on to H2S that provided additional (aerial) coverage of the underside of the aircraft to display attacking fighters on the main H2S screen. Fishpond was the Code name given to an extension to the British H2S airborne radar system fitted to allied Bombers during World War II.
- A rearward-looking radar to warn of night fighter approaches—a notable disaster, since it could not distinguish between attacking enemy fighters and nearby friendly bombers. Monica was a range-only tail warning Radar for Bombers, introduced by the RAF in the spring of 1942 Much worse, it served as a homing beacon for suitably equipped German night fighters, who would then use Schräge Musik to attack the bombers from below, outside the crew's field of view. A night fighter (also all-weather fighter) is a Fighter aircraft adapted for use at night or in other times of bad visibility Schräge Musik, derived from the German Colloquialism for Jazz Music (the German word "schräg" literally means "slanted" or "oblique" Once this was realised, it was removed altogether.
- A receiver for a navigation system of synchronized pulses transmitted from the UK - aircraft calculated their position from the time delay between pulses. GEE or AMES Type 7000 was a British Radio navigation system used by the Royal Air Force during World War II. The range of GEE was 3-400 miles.
- A system of lights mounted on the aircraft's instrument panel that lit up when the aircraft was being tracked by Würzburg ground radar and Lichtenstein airborne radar. The Würzburg radar was the primary ground-based Gun laying Radar for both the Luftwaffe and the German Army during World War II. Lichtenstein Radar was a German airborne radar in use during World War II. In practice it was found to be more disconcerting than useful, as the lights were often triggered by false alerts in the radar signal-infested skies over Germany.
- A very accurate navigation system consisting of a receiver/transponder for two radar stations transmitting from widely separated locations in southern England which together determined the range and the bearing on the range. For other meanings of Oboe see Oboe (disambiguation Oboe was a British aerial blind Bombing The system could only handle one aircraft at a time, and was fitted to a Pathfinder aircraft, usually a fast and manoeuvrable Mosquito rather than a heavy Lancaster, which marked the target for the main force. For other meanings see Pathfinder. The Pathfinders were Elite Squadrons in RAF Bomber Command, during World WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
- Similar to Oboe but with the transponder on the ground allowing more aircraft to use the system simultaneously. G-H was a Radio navigation system developed by Britain during World War II to aid RAF Bomber Command. GEE-H aircraft were usually marked with two horizontal yellow stripes on the fins.
- Village Inn
- A radar-aimed gun turret fitted to some Lancasters in 1944. The British Automatic Gun-Laying Turret ( AGLT) was a Radar -aimed FN50 turret fitted to some Lancaster bombers in 1944.
Avro Lancaster B I
Avro Lancaster over Hamburg
Avro Lancasters of No. 50 Squadron (No. 5 Group), based at Skellingthorpe, Lincolnshire, UK
The first RAF squadron to convert to the Lancaster was No. 44 Squadron RAF in early 1942. No 44 (Rhodesia Squadron of the Royal Air Force is no longer operational
Lancasters flew 156,000 sorties and dropped 608,612 tons of bombs between 1942 and 1945. A bomb is any of a range of devices that typically rely on the Exothermic Chemical reaction of an Explosive material to produce an extremely Just 35 Lancasters completed more than 100 successful operations each, and 3,249 were lost in action. The most successful survivor completed 139 operations, and was scrapped in 1947.
A famous Lancaster bombing raid was the 1943 mission, codenamed Operation Chastise, to destroy the dams of the Ruhr Valley. Operation Chastise was the official name for the attacks on German Dams on 17 May 1943 in the Second World War using a specially developed " The Ruhr Area, ( German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott, Kohlenpott or Revier) is an Urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia The mission was carried out by 617 Squadron in modified Mk IIIs carrying special drum shaped bouncing bombs designed by Barnes Wallis. No 617 Squadron of the Royal Air Force is better known as the "Dambusters" squadron A bouncing bomb is a bomb designed specifically to bounce to a target such as across water to avoid Torpedo nets Unlike Skip bombing, which uses conventional Sir Barnes Neville Wallis, CBE, Kt, FRS, RDI, FRAeS ( 26 September 1887  &ndash 30 October The story of the mission was later made into a film, The Dam Busters. The Dam Busters is a British War film, set during the Second World War, and based on the true story of the RAF 's 617 Squadron Also famous was a series of Lancaster attacks using Tallboy bombs against the German battleship Tirpitz, which first disabled and later sank the ship. Operational history This battleship was launched on 1 April 1939 and she was planned to be deployed in a manner similar to the ''Bismarck'', as a Commerce raider
Lancasters from Bomber Command were to have formed the main strength of Tiger Force, the Commonwealth bomber contingent scheduled to take part in Operation Downfall, the codename for the planned invasion of Japan in late 1945, from bases on Okinawa. Tiger Force, also known as the VLR Bomber Force, was the name given to a World War II British Commonwealth long range Heavy bomber force formed Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. is one of Japan 's southern prefectures, and consists of hundreds of the Ryukyu Islands in a chain over 1000 km long which extends southwest from Kyūshū
RAF Lancasters dropped food into the Holland region of the occupied Netherlands, with the acquiescence of the occupying German forces, to feed people who were in danger of starvation. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Named after the food Manna which miraculously appeared for the Israelites in the book of Exodus, the aircraft involved were from 1, 3 and 8 Groups, and consisted of 145 Mosquitoes and 3,156 Lancasters, flying between them a total of 3,298 sorties. Manna (sometimes or archaically spelt mana) ( Hebrew: מָן) is the name of a Food which according to the Bible, was eaten by Exodus ( Greek: έξοδος eksodos = "departure" is the second book of the Jewish Torah and of the Christian Old Testament. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Sortie is a term for deployment or dispatch of one military unit be it of Aircraft, Ship or in older times of columns of troops from a fort The first of the two RAF Lancasters chosen for the test flight was nicknamed "Bad Penny" from the old expression: "a bad penny always turns up. Operation Manna took place from 29 April to 8 May 1945, at the end of World War II. " This bomber, with a crew of seven men (five Canadians including pilot Robert Upcott of Windsor, Ontario), took off in bad weather on the morning of 29 April 1945 without a ceasefire agreement from the German forces, and successfully dropped her cargo. Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and lies at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar
A development of the Lancaster was the Avro Lincoln bomber, initially known as the Lancaster IV and Lancaster V. The Avro Type 694 Lincoln was a British four-engined Heavy bomber of the Second World War, first flying on 9 June 1944 and entering service in August These two marks became the Lincoln B1 and B2 respectively. There was also a civilian airliner based on the Lancaster, the Lancastrian. The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a British passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s and 1950s developed from the Avro Lancaster bomber (an inhabitant Other developments were the York, a square-bodied transport and, via the Lincoln, the Shackleton which continued in airborne early warning service up to 1992. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
In 1946, four Lancasters were converted by Avro at Bracebridge Heath, Lincolnshire as freighters for use by British South American Airways, but proved to be uneconomical and were withdrawn after a year in service. Bracebridge Heath is a commuter village approximately 4 km (2 Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. British South American Airways (BSAA or British South American Airways Corporation was a British state-run airline of the 1940s
Four Lancaster IIIs were converted by Flight Refuelling Limited as two pairs of tanker and receiver aircraft for development of in-flight refuelling. Cobham plc ( is a British manufacturing company based in Wimborne Minster, Dorset, England. Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is In 1947, one aircraft was flown non-stop 3,355 miles from London to Bermuda. Later the two tanker aircraft were joined by another converted Lancaster and were used in the Berlin Airlift, achieving 757 tanker sorties. The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 11 May 1949 was one of the first major international crises of the Cold war.
During its Argentinian service, Lancasters were used in several military coups. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics.
Lancaster B I NG128
dropping its load over Duisburg
on 14 October 1944. Duisburg (ˈdyːsbʊɐ̯k is a German city in the western part of the Ruhr Area ( Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia.
The aircraft is carrying Airborne Cigar
(ABC) radio jamming equipment, as shown by the two vertical aerials
on the fuselage. This is a List of World War II Electronic warfare equipment and code words and tactics derived directly from the use of electronic equipment An antenna is a Transducer designed to transmit or Receive electromagnetic waves In other words antennas convert electromagnetic waves into
Avro Lancaster B II
- B I
- The original Lancasters were produced with Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engines and SU carburettors. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout SU carburettors (named for Skinners Union, the company that produced them were a brand of Carburettor usually of the sidedraught type but downdraught variants were A carburetor (North American spelling or carburettor ( Commonwealth spelling) is a device that blends air and Fuel for an Internal Minor details were changed throughout the production series - for example the pitot head design was changed from being on a long mast at the front of the nose to a short fairing mounted on the side of the fuselage under the cockpit. A Pitot (ˈpiːtoʊ tube is a Pressure measurement instrument used to measure Fluid flow Velocity. Later production Lancasters had Merlin 22 and 24 engines. No designation change was made to denote these alterations. 
- B I Special
- Adapted to take first the super-heavy "Tallboy" and then "Grand Slam" bombs. The Tallboy was an Earth quake bomb developed by Barnes Wallis and brought into operation by the British in 1944 The Grand Slam was a 22000 lb Earth quake bomb used by RAF Bomber Command against strategic targets during the Second World War. Upgraded engines with paddle-bladed propellers gave more power, and the removal of gun turrets reduced weight and gave smoother lines. For the Tallboy, the bomb bay doors were bulged; for the Grand Slam, they were removed completely and the area faired over. For some Tallboy raids the mid upper turret was removed. This modification was retained for the Grand Slam aircraft, and in addition the nose turret was later removed. Two airframes (HK541 and SW244) were modified to carry a dorsal "saddle tank" with 1,200 gallons mounted aft of a modified canopy for increasing range. No. 1577 SD Flight tested the aircraft in India and Australia in 1945 for possible use in the Pacific, but the tank adversely affected handling characteristics when full and flight refuelling was later used instead. Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling ( IFR) air-to-air refueling ( AAR) or tanking, is
- PR 1
- B 1 modified for photographic reconnaissance, operated by RAF No. 82 and No. 541 Squadrons, wartime. All armament and turrets were removed with a reconfigured nose and a camera carried in the bomb bay. The type was also operated by 683 Squadron from circa 1950 for photographic reconnaissance based at Aden and subsequently Habbaniya in Iraq until disbanded 30 November 1953. Aden (ˈeɪdən Arabic: عدن) is a city in Yemen, 170 kilometers east of Bab-el-Mandeb. Royal Air Force Station Habbaniya, more commonly known as RAF Habbaniya, (originally RAF Dhibban) was a Royal Air Force station For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics.
- B I (FE)
- In anticipation of the needs of the Tiger Force operations against the Japanese in the Far East (FE), a tropicalized variant was based on late production aircraft. Tiger Force, also known as the VLR Bomber Force, was the name given to a World War II British Commonwealth long range Heavy bomber force formed The B I (FE) had modified radio, radar, navaids and a 400 gallon tank installed in the bomb bay. The mid-upper turret was also removed.
- B II
- Bristol Hercules (Hercules VI or XVI engines) powered variant, of which 300 were produced by Armstrong Whitworth. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century One difference between the two engine versions was that the VI had manual mixture control, requiring an extra lever on the throttle pedestal. These aircraft were almost always fitted with an FN. 64 ventral turret and pronounced step in the bulged bomb bay.
- B III
- These aircraft were fitted with Packard-built Merlin engines and produced at the same time as the B I, the two marks being indistinguishable externally. Packard was an American luxury Automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit Michigan, and later by the Studebaker-Packard Corporation The minor differences between the two variants were related to the engine installation, and included the addition of slow-running cut-off switches in the cockpit, a requirement due to the Bendix Stromberg pressure-injection carburettors fitted to the Packard Merlin engines. The Bendix Corporation was an American manufacturing and engineering company which during various times in its 60 year existence made brake systems aeronautical hydraulics
- B III (Special)
- Known at the time of modification as the "Type 464 Provisioning" Lancaster, this variant was built to carry the "Upkeep" bouncing bomb for the dam busting raids. A bouncing bomb is a bomb designed specifically to bounce to a target such as across water to avoid Torpedo nets Unlike Skip bombing, which uses conventional The bomb bay doors were removed and Vickers-built struts to carry the bomb were fitted in their place. A hydraulic motor, driven by the pump previously used for the mid upper turret was fitted to spin the bomb. Lamps were fitted in the bomb bay and nose for the simple height measurement system which enabled the accurate control of low-flying altitude at night. The mid-upper turret was removed to save weight, and the gunner moved to the front turret to relieve the bomb aimer from having to man the front guns so that he could assist with map reading.
- ASR III/ASR 3
- B III modified for air-sea rescue, with three dipole ventral antennas fitted aft of the radome and carrying a lifeboat in the re-configured bomb bay. A radome (the word is a contraction of Radar and Dome) is a structural weatherproof enclosure that protects a Radar antenna The armament was often removed and the mid-upper turret faired-over, especially in postwar use. Observation windows were added to both sides of the rear fuselage, a port window just forward of the tailplane, and a starboard window into the rear access door. A number of ASR 3 conversions were fitted with Lincoln-style rudders. 
- GR 3/MR 3
- B III modified for maritime reconnaissance.
- B IV
- The B IV featured an increased wingspan and lengthened fuselage and new Boulton Paul F turret (two X 0.5in) with re-configured framed "bay window" nose glazing. Boulton Paul Aircraft Ltd was a British aircraft manufacturer that was created in 1934 although its origins lay in 1914, and lasted until 1961. This article is about the.50 caliber M2 machine gun For the.30-06 M2 machine gun see M1919 Browning machine gun. The prototypes (PW925, PW929 and PW932) were powered by two-stage Merlin 85s inboard and later, Merlin 68s on the outboard mounts. The prototypes became the basis of the renamed Lincoln B 1. The Avro Type 694 Lincoln was a British four-engined Heavy bomber of the Second World War, first flying on 9 June 1944 and entering service in August
- B V
- Increased wingspan and lengthened fuselage, two-stage Merlin 85s. Later renamed Lincoln B 2
- B VI
- Nine aircraft converted from B IIIs. The Avro Type 694 Lincoln was a British four-engined Heavy bomber of the Second World War, first flying on 9 June 1944 and entering service in August Fitted with Merlin 85s which had two-stage superchargers, giving improved high altitude performance. These aircraft were only used by Pathfinder units, often as "Master Bomber". For other meanings see Pathfinder. The Pathfinders were Elite Squadrons in RAF Bomber Command, during World The dorsal and nose turrets were often removed and faired-over.
- B VII
- The B VII was the final production version of the Lancaster. The Martin 250CE mid-upper turret was re-positioned slightly further forward than on previous Marks, and the Nash & Thomson FN-82 tail turret with twin Browning 0. The Glenn L Martin Company was an early US Aircraft company founded by aviation pioneer Glenn Luther Martin. 5 in machine guns replaced the FN. 20 turret with four 0. 303 Browning machine guns. The Browning M1919 is a.30 caliber Medium machine gun family widely used during the 20th century
- B X
- The B X was a Canadian-built B III with Canadian- and US-made instrumentation and electrics. On later batches the heavier Martin 250CE was substituted for the Nash & Thomson FN-50 mid-upper turret, mounted further forward to maintain center of gravity balance. Canada was a long term operator of the Lancaster, utilizing modified aircraft in postwar maritime patrol, search and rescue and photo-reconnaissance roles until 1963.
- See also: List of Avro Lancaster operators:
There are 17 known largely complete Avro Lancasters remaining in the world. The following are operators of the Avro Lancaster: Military Operators; Argentine Air Force In June of 1947 the Argentine Air Force received 15 Lancasters For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 G for George is an Avro Lancaster MkI bomber callsign AR-G and serial number W4783, operated by No The Battle of Britain Memorial Flight ( BBMF) is a Royal Air Force flight which provides an aerial display group comprising an Avro Lancaster, The Royal International Air Tattoo (RIAT is the world's largest military Air show, held annually over the third weekend in July usually at RAF Fairford in Gloucestershire See also List of attractions in Hamilton Ontario The Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum is a major Canadian aviation museum
Two Lancasters remain in airworthy condition:
- Lancaster B I PA474 "City of Lincoln"
- Operated by the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight since 1973. The Battle of Britain Memorial Flight ( BBMF) is a Royal Air Force flight which provides an aerial display group comprising an Avro Lancaster,  The paint scheme is periodically changed to represent notable Lancasters, and the aircraft is currently flown as EE139 Phantom of the Ruhr, bearing the codes HW-R on the port side and BQ-B on the starboard side. 
- Lancaster B X FM213
- This aircraft was retired from active duty with the RCAF on 6 November 1963, then stored at Dunnville, ON. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. FM213 had 4,392. 3 hours on the airframe when it was handed over, which was an amazing record for a combat aircraft. It would probably have been sold for scrap metal except for the intervention of The Royal Canadian Legion in Goderich. 
- The aircraft has been operated by Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum since 1988. See also List of attractions in Hamilton Ontario The Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum is a major Canadian aviation museum The aircraft is flown in the paint scheme of KB726 VR-A, and is known as the "Mynarski Memorial Lancaster" in honour of Canadian VC winner Andrew Mynarski. Andrew Charles (Andy Mynarski VC (14 October 1916 - 13 June 1944 was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious 
Only four Lancasters that served in the Bomber Command campaign over Europe survive, none of them airworthy:
- Lancaster B I R5868 "S-Sugar"
- The oldest surviving Lancaster flew 137 operations, originally as "Q-Queenie" with No. 83 Squadron RAF from RAF Scampton and then as "S-Sugar" with No. 463 and No. 467 RAAF Squadrons from RAF Waddington. RAF Scampton is a Royal Air Force station situated north of Lincoln in England, near the village of Scampton, on the site of an old No 463 Squadron RAAF was a Royal Australian Air Force Heavy bomber squadron during World War II. No 467 Squadron RAAF was a Royal Australian Air Force squadron during World War II. RAF Waddington is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire, England. This aircraft was the first RAF heavy bomber to complete 100 operations (going on to fly 137 sorties). It is now on display at the RAF Museum, Hendon. The Royal Air Force Museum ( RAF Museum) is a Museum dedicated to the history of Aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular Hendon is a London suburban development situated 7 miles (113 km north west of Charing Cross.
- Lancaster B I W4783 "G-George"
- Was operated by No. 460 Squadron RAAF and completed 90 sorties. G for George is an Avro Lancaster MkI bomber callsign AR-G and serial number W4783, operated by No Number 460 Squadron Royal Australian Air Force (460 Sqn RAAF was raised during World War II at RAF Molesworth, in England on November It was flown to Australia during the war for fundraising purposes, and was assigned the Australian serial A66-2. The aircraft was later placed on display at the Australian War Memorial, Canberra, and underwent a thorough restoration between 1999 and 2003. The Australian War Memorial is Australia 's national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated Canberra ( is the capital city of Australia With a population of over 340000 it is Australia's largest inland City.
- Lancaster Mk 10AR KB839
- Built by Victory Aircraft and delivered to No. 419 Squadron RCAF in January 1945. History No 419 Bomber Squadron formed at RAF Mildenhall, England in 1941 The aircraft completed 26 sorties, wearing the code letters VR-D. It was returned to Canada after the end of the war in Europe, and modified to Mk 10AR Arctic Reconnaissance specification. After being struck off charge, the aircraft was preserved at Greenwood Military Aviation Museum, Nova Scotia, where it is currently displayed outside. Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's 
- Lancaster Mk 10P KB882
- Built by Victory aircraft in 1945 and delivered to Britain, the aircraft joined No. 428 Squadron RCAF in March of that year. No 428 Squadron RCAF, also known as 428 Bomber Squadron, was a Bomber Squadron in the Royal Canadian Air Force. Flown on six operational sorties over Germany, the aircraft was returned to Canada in June 1945 and entered storage. In 1952 the aircraft was modified to Mk 10P configuration and flew with No. 408 Squadron RCAF. The 408 Tactical Helicopter Squadron is a unit of 1 Canadian Air Division's 1 Wing In 1964 the aircraft was purchased by the City of Edmundston, New Brunswick and has since been on outside display at the Municipal Airport. Edmundston (2006 population 16643 is a Canadian city in Madawaska County, New Brunswick.
The following surviving Lancasters were used as training aircraft or were constructed too late to see operational service in the Second World War:
Lancaster Just Jane during taxi run in April 2008
- Lancaster B VII NX611 "Just Jane"
- Served with the Aeronavale until the 1960s, when it was flown back to Britain. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Aviation navale ( Naval aviation) of the French Navy includes 162 airplanes (138 of them combat-capable and 6800 men both civilians and military personnel At one stage the aircraft was kept at Blackpool, and following the removal of R5868, served as gate guardian at RAF Scampton. Blackpool (/ˈblækˌpul is a seaside town in Lancashire, England. RAF Scampton is a Royal Air Force station situated north of Lincoln in England, near the village of Scampton, on the site of an old NX611 now resides at the Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre at the former RAF East Kirkby, and is frequently taxied at high speed along a length of the wartime runway. Lincolnshire Aviation Heritage Centre, East Kirkby, Lincolnshire, England, was founded in 1988 by Lincolnshire farmers Fred and Harold Panton as a RAF East Kirkby is a former Royal Air Force base near the village of East Kirkby, south of Horncastle in Lincolnshire, just off the A155
- Lancaster B VII NX622
- Served with the Aeronavale until 1962, when it was donated to the RAAF Association. It is now restored and displayed at the RAAF Association museum in Bull Creek, Western Australia
- Lancaster B VII NX664
- This aircraft served with the Aeronavale until it suffered a heavy landing at Wallis Island. Bull Creek is a Suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located within the local government area of the City of Melville. Wallis ( Uvea) is an Island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the French overseas collectivity ( Collectivité d'outre-mer It was recovered in 1984 to Le Bourget and has been under restoration since. Le Bourget is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France.
- Lancaster B VII NX665
- Equipped with H2S radar, is preserved at the Museum of Transport and Technology (aka MOTAT) in Auckland, New Zealand. The Museum of Transport and Technology ( MOTAT) is a Museum located in Western Springs, Auckland, New Zealand. The Auckland metropolitan area or Greater Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island This aircraft served with the Aeronavale until the 1960s, when it was presented to the museum. The airframe originally lacked the mid-upper turret, having been built with the mountings for a Martin 250CE. An earlier FN50 was retrofitted in the late 1980s which required modifications to the aircraft's structure as the turret mounts had to be moved rearwards.
- Lancaster B X KB889
- Delivered to Britain in March 1945 and returned to Canada that June without seeing any service, this aircraft was later converted for Maritime Reconnaissance use. Struck off charge by the RCAF in 1965, the aircraft was displayed in Ontario before being sold to prolific warbird collector Doug Arnold in the UK in 1984. The aircraft was put on the UK register as G-LANC, but was never flown. Sold in 1986 to the Imperial War Museum, the aircraft was restored over eight years to static condition, and has been on display since 1994 as NA-I. The Imperial War Museum Duxford in Cambridgeshire, England, commonly referred to simply as 'Duxford', houses the Imperial War Museum 's
- Lancaster B X KB944
- Built in Canada in 1945 by Victory Aircraft. Victory Aircraft Limited was a Canadian manufacturing company that during the Second World War, built mainly British-designed aircraft under license Later that year, after briefly serving overseas, it was put into stored reserve in Canada where it went on to spend most of the following years, except for a brief period in 1952 serving with 404 Maritime Patrol Squadron at Greenwood, Nova Scotia. In 1964 the RCAF refurbished this aircraft and placed it in the Armed Force’s historical aircraft collection where it is now on display in the Canada Aviation Museum. The Canadian Forces (CF ( French: Forces canadiennes) are the unified Armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence The Canada Aviation Museum ( French: Musée de l'aviation du Canada) is the national aviation history Museum, located in
- Lancaster B X KB976
- This aircraft was delivered to Britain in May 1945 but saw no action. Returned to Canada in June 1945, the aircraft was converted to Mk. 10 (AR) specification, being struck off charge in 1964. The aircraft was owned by a museum in Calgary, before being sold for an abortive conversion to a fire bomber. Aerial firefighting is a method to combat Wildfires using aircraft Sold in 1974 to the Strathallan Collection in Scotland, KB976 was flown across the Atlantic and then statically displayed until 1987. Bought by collector Charles Church, the aircraft was moved to Woodford for restoration to airworthy condition, where the airframe was damaged in a hangar collapse. The rebuild was abandoned and the aircraft was later sold to Doug Arnold before finally being bought by Kermit Weeks in 1992. Kermit Weeks (b circa 1954 -) is an aviation enthusiast pilot, and Aircraft collector The aircraft has since been stored at his Fantasy of Flight museum in Florida awaiting restoration. Fantasy of Flight is an Aviation -related attraction in Polk City, Florida, USA that takes visitors back to the pioneering days of early flight
- Lancaster B X FM104
- Was donated to the City of Toronto in 1964 and placed on a pedestal on Lakeshore Drive. After sitting outside for 36 years, the aircraft was removed from the pedestal and placed on loan to the Toronto Aerospace Museum, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The aircraft is now under long-term restoration to static display condition. With spare parts from the remainder of FM118, it is planned to be complete as a museum quality piece in 2015.
- Lancaster B X FM136
- Manufactured in 1945 by Victory Aircraft Ltd. , assigned to No. 20th and 30th Maintenance Units in England, never issued to active Squadron. Returned to Canada and converted to Maritime Reconnaissance. Taken on strength by No. 404 ‘Buffalo’ (MP) Squadron (Greenwood, Nova Scotia) as RX-136. Transferred to No. 407 ‘Demon’ (MP) Squadron (Comox, BC). Struck off strength April 1961. Acquired by the Lancaster Club of Calgary and mounted on a pedestal in April, 1962. Moved to Aerospace Museum of Calgary  in 1992. New shelter built for it in 2007. Owned by The City of Calgary.
- Lancaster B X FM159
- Arrived in Europe after the fighting ended and never saw combat. After returning to Canada and being placed in storage, it served from 1953 to 1955 with the No. 103 Search and Rescue Unit in Greenwood, Nova Scotia before being transferred to Comox, British Columbia to serve as a maritime and ice patrol aircraft. Greenwood (2001 pop 4500 is a Village located in the western part of Kings County in Nova Scotia 's Comox is a town located on the eastern side of Vancouver Island, British Columbia in the Comox Valley. It was withdrawn from RCAF service in 1958 and purchased in 1960 by a trio of men from Nanton, Alberta with a view to building a war museum in their town. Nanton is a town in Southern Alberta, Canada. It is located south of Calgary at the junction of Highway The aircraft is currently on display at the Nanton Lancaster Society Air Museum and is one of only two surviving Lancasters to offer guided tours of its interior, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum also offers guided tours of the Mynarski Lancaster by appointment. Andrew Charles (Andy Mynarski VC (14 October 1916 - 13 June 1944 was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious 
- Lancaster Mk 10P FM212
- Withdrawn from RCAF service in 1962 and placed in storage. The City of Windsor, Ontario purchased the aircraft for use as a memorial and mounted it on a pedestal in Jackson Park in 1965. Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and lies at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. It was damaged by weather and poor maintenance and replaced by Spitfire and Hurricane replicas on 26 May 2005. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Events 451 - The Battle of Avarayr between Armenian rebels and the Sassanid Empire takes place Currently being restored by the Canadian Historical Aircraft Association, this Lancaster has been renamed "Bad Penny" to commemorate the first RAF Avro Lancaster into Holland during Operation Manna to save the Dutch from starvation in the closing days of World War II, April 29, 1945. The Canadian Historical Aircraft Association (also known as the CH2A is a non-profit organization based in Windsor Ontario which is committed to preserving aircraft which have Operation Manna took place from 29 April to 8 May 1945, at the end of World War II. The Dutch people ( Dutch:) are the dominant Ethnic group of the Netherlands. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar  On 29 April 2007 (to coincide with the 62nd anniversary of Operation Manna) FM212 was removed from storage in Jackson Park and towed to the Sears parking lot of Devonshire Mall where it was on display and open for tours through the aircraft. Events 1429 - Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orleans. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. On 13 May 2007, FM212 was towed from Devonshire Mall to Windsor Airport where it will again be placed in storage and undergo extensive restoration to return the aircraft back to a taxiable condition over the next few years. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Windsor Airport,, is located in the southeast portion of the city of Windsor, Ontario, Canada.
See the link under External links for details of the known survivors.
Orthographic projection of the Lancaster B Mk. I, with profiles detailing the B Mk. I (Special) with Grand Slam bomb, Hercules-powered B Mk. II with bulged bomb-bay doors and FN. 64 ventral turret and the B Mk. III (Special) with the Upkeep store.
- Crew: 7: pilot, flight engineer, navigator, bomb aimer, wireless operator, mid-upper and rear gunners
- Length: 69 ft 5 in (21. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. 18 m)
- Wingspan: 102 ft (31. The wingspan (or just span) of an airplane or a Bird, is the distance from the left wingtip to the right wingtip 09 m)
- Height: 19 ft 7 in (5. 97 m)
- Wing area: 1,300 ft² (120 m²)
- Empty weight: 36 828 lb (16,705 kg)
- Loaded weight: 63,000 lb (29,000 kg)
- Powerplant: 4× Rolls-Royce Merlin XX V12 engines, 1,280 hp (954 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 240 knots (280 mph, 450 km/h) at 15,000 ft (5,600 m)
- Range: 2,700 NM (3,000 mi, 4,600 km) with minimal bomb load
- Service ceiling 23,500 ft (8,160 m)
- Wing loading: 48 lb/ft² (240 kg/m²)
- Power/mass: 0. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout V12 redirects here For the V12 Training program see V-12 Navy College Training Program. In Aviation, V-speeds or Velocity-speeds are standard terms used to define Airspeeds important or useful to the operation of Aircraft, such The maximal total range is the distance an Aircraft can fly between Takeoff and Landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft or cross-country A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of Length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of Latitude along any meridian. A mile is a unit of Length, usually used to measure Distance, in a number of different systems including Imperial units United States In Aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum Density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditions In Aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing Power-to-weight ratio (specific power is a calculation commonly applied to Engines and other mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another 082 hp/lb (130 W/kg)
- Guns: 8× 0. 303 in (7. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. 70 mm) Browning machine guns in three turrets, with variations
- Maximum: 22,000 lb (10,000 kg)
- Typical: 14,000 lb (6,400 kg)
Noted Lancaster pilots and crew members
Victoria Cross awards
Many Lancaster crew members were highly decorated for actions while flying the aircraft. The Browning M1919 is a.30 caliber Medium machine gun family widely used during the 20th century Amongst those who received the Victoria Cross were:
The Avro Lancaster featured prominently in the 1954 film, The Dam Busters, and a number of B VII Lancasters in storage were modified to the original configuration of the B III (Special) for use on screen. See below the section "Separate Commonwealth awards" Note that since WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Wing Commander Guy Penrose Gibson VC, DSO & Bar, DFC & Bar, RAF ( 12 August 1918 – Norman Cyril Jackson VC ( 8 April 1919 &ndash 26 March 1994) was a Sergeant in the Royal Air Force who Andrew Charles (Andy Mynarski VC (14 October 1916 - 13 June 1944 was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious Squadron Leader John Dering Nettleton VC ( June 28, 1917 - July 13, 1943) was a Rhodesian recipient of the Robert Anthony Maurice Palmer VC, DFC & Bar ( 7 July 1920 - 23 December 1944) was an English recipient of William Reid VC ( December 21, 1921 &ndash November 28, 2001) was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross George Thompson VC ( 23 October 1920 - 23 January 1945) was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Edwin Essery Swales VC DFC ( July 3, 1915 – February 23, 1945) was a South African pilot and war hero of the The Dam Busters is a British War film, set during the Second World War, and based on the true story of the RAF 's 617 Squadron It also featured in a 1989 British commercial for Carling Black Label lager which reused footage in a Dam Busters parody sequence in which a German soldier on top of a dam was catching the bombs in the manner of a football goalkeeper. Carling is the name of a brand of Lager in Canada, Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom. Lager (storage camp bearing etc is the more popular of two main types of Beer; the other being Ale. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered In many team Sports a goalkeeper (termed goaltender netminder, goalie, or keeper in some sports The pilot of the attacking Lancaster then delivers the brand slogan: "I bet he drinks Carling Black Label!" The commercial ran for many years, frequently appearing in commercial breaks for both the 1954 film and documentaries about Operation Chastise. Operation Chastise was the official name for the attacks on German Dams on 17 May 1943 in the Second World War using a specially developed " 
- ^ Cotter 2005, p. The Avro 679 Manchester was a British twin-engined Heavy bomber developed during the Second World War by the Avro aircraft company in the WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a British passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s and 1950s developed from the Avro Lancaster bomber (an inhabitant The Avro Type 694 Lincoln was a British four-engined Heavy bomber of the Second World War, first flying on 9 June 1944 and entering service in August WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout The Heinkel He 177 Greif ( Griffin) was a long-range bomber of the Luftwaffe. The Junkers Ju 290 was a long-range transport maritime patrol aircraft and bomber used by the Luftwaffe late in World War II. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Many aircraft types have served in the Royal Air Force since it was formed in 1918 by the merger of the Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service. XIII.
- ^ Taylor 1969, p. 314.
- ^ Winchester 2005, p. 27.
- ^ Bridgman, Leonard. Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II. New York: Crescent Books, 1988. ISBN 0-517-67964-7.
- ^ "The Design and Development of the Avro Lancaster", Manchester Branch of the Royal Aeronautical Society
- ^ Webb, Dominic. "Inflation: The Value of the Pound 1750-2005." House of Commons Library, 13 February 2006. Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. p. 16-17. Retrieved: 14 July 2006. Events 1223 - Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father Philip II of France. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.
- ^ The Man Himself: A passion for the sky (Alex Henshaw) angelfire. com. Retrieved: 23 February 2008. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common
- ^ The exact weight in kilograms of the "Tall Boy" and "Grand Slam" bombs differs according to source. The figures given are the most common.
- ^ Bombsights
- ^ Franks 2000, p. 83-84.
- ^ Franks 2000, p. 83.
- ^ Avro manufacturing drawing Z2852
- ^ Franks 2000, p. 87.
- ^ Battle of Britain Memorial Flight
- ^ Aircraft R of No. 100 Squadron RAF and B of No. 500 Squadron RAF
- ^ a b Page 1989
- ^ No. No 100 Squadron of the Royal Air Force is based at RAF Leeming in North Yorkshire, UK, and No 500 (County of Kent Squadron RAF was formed as a Special Reserve squadron at RAF Manston on 16 March 1931 The Squadron was reformed on 10 419 Squadron
- ^ Winchester 2004, p. 27.
- ^ KB-839 March ACAM Newsletter
- ^ Toronto Aerospace Museum
- ^ Canadian Warplane Heritage
- ^ dramatized in a children's book called A Bad Penny Always Comes Back
- ^ Carling Black Label
- A. P. 22062A-P. N. : Pilot's and Flight Engineer's Notes for Lancaster. Mark I - Four Merlin XX, 22 or 24 Engines. Mark III - Four Merlin 28 or 38 Engines. London: Air Ministry, May 1944. The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the British Government with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the Royal Air Force. No ISBN.
- Chant, Christopher. Lancaster: The History of Britain's Most Famous World War II Bomber. Bath, UK: Parragon, 2003. ISBN 0-75258-769-2.
- Cotter, Jarrod. Living Lancasters: Keeping the Legend Alive. Thrupp, Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7509-4192-8.
- Franks, Norman. Claims to Fame: The Lancaster. London: Arms & Armour Press, 1995. ISBN 1-85409-220-0.
- Franks, Richard A. The Avro Lancaster, Manchester and Lincoln: A Comprehensive Guide for the Modeller. London: SAM Publications, 2000. ISBN 0-9533465-3-6.
- Holmes, Harry. Avro Lancaster (Combat Legend series). Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd. , 2002. ISBN 1-84037-376-8.
- Jackson, A. J. Avro Aircraft since 1908, 2nd edition. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
- Jacobs, Peter. The Lancaster Story. London: Arms & Armour Press, 1996. ISBN 1-85409-288-8.
- Mackay, R. S. G. Lancaster in action. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications Inc. , 1982. ISBN 0-89747-130-X.
- Moyes, Philip J. R. Avro Lancaster I & II. Kidlington, Oxford, UK: Vintage Aviation Publications Ltd. , 1979. ISBN 0-905469-65-8.
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- Robertson, Bruce. Lancaster - The Story of a Famous Bomber. Watford, Hertfordshire, UK: Argus Books Ltd. , 1964 (5th impression 1977). ISBN 0-900435-10-0.
- Sweetman, Bill. Avro Lancaster. London: Jane's Publishing Company Ltd. , 1982. ISBN 0-7106-0132-8.
- Taylor, John W. R. "Avro Lancaster". Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.
- Winchester, Jim. "Avro Lancaster". Aircraft of World War II: The Aviation Factfile. Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-639-1.
Video of Avro Lancasters
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