|Australian Capital Territory|
|Slogan or Nickname: "The Nations Heart" or "The Capital"|
|Motto(s): For the Queen, the Law and the People|
Other Australian states and territories
|Administrator||Governor General of Australia|
|Chief Minister||Jon Stanhope (ALP)|
|- House seats||2|
|- Senate seats||2|
|Gross Territorial Product (2006-07)|
|- Product ($m)||$20,985 (6th)|
|- Product per capita||$62,793 (2nd)|
|Population (End of June 2007)|
|- Population||339,900 (7th)|
|- Density||144. The current state flag of the Australian Capital Territory was officially adopted by the Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly in 1993 The Coat of Arms of the Canberra was created by the Commonwealth Department of Home Affairs and Territories in 1927 in response to a request by the Commonwealth Department of Defence The following is a list of Australian state and territory slogans. The Commonwealth of Australia is made up of 8 states and territories controlled under a federal system of government There are eight capital cities in Australia, all of which function at a sub-national level Canberra ( is the capital city of Australia With a population of over 340000 it is Australia's largest inland City. Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly (or more formally and fully the Legislative Assembly for the Australian Capital Territory is the Unicameral legislature A constitutional monarchy, or a limited monarchy, is a form of Constitutional Government, wherein either an elected or hereditary Monarch is The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) The Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory is the head of government of the Australian Capital Territory. For the 18th century British politician see John The Parliament of Australia or Commonwealth Parliament is the legislative branch of government of Australia. The House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers of the Parliament of Australia; it is the Lower house, the Upper house being the Senate The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 15/km² (1st)|
373. 3 /sq mi
|- Total||2,358 km² (8th)|
910 sq mi
|- Land||2,280 km²|
880 sq mi
|- Water||77. 6 km² (3. 29%)|
30 sq mi
|- Highest||Bimberi Peak|
1,912 m (6,273 ft)
|- Lowest||Murrumbidgee River|
429 m (1,407 ft)
|Time zone||UTC+10 (+11 DST)|
|- ISO 3166-2||AU-CT|
|- Floral||Royal Bluebell|
|- Faunal||Gang-gang cockatoo|
|- Colours||Blue and Gold |
The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) is the capital territory of the Commonwealth of Australia and its smallest self-governing internal territory. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. Bimberi Peak or Mt Bimberi is the highest Mountain in the Australian Capital Territory at 1912 metres A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The Murrumbidgee River is a major river in the state of New South Wales, Australia, and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT The UTC+10 Time zone covers the following locations Australia (AEST&mdash Australian Eastern Standard Time) Australian UTC+11 is the Time zone for the following locations As standard (non-DST time Federated States of Micronesia Daylight saving time ( DST ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO Wahlenbergia gloriosa, or royal bluebell, is an Australian wildflower from the Campanulaceae family The Gang-gang Cockatoo, Callocephalon fimbriatum is found in the cooler and wetter forests and woodlands of Australia, particularly alpine Bushland In Australia state colours are frequently part of a state or territory's set of State symbols. A capital territory or capital District is normally a specially designated Administrative division where a Country 's seat of For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. The Commonwealth of Australia is made up of 8 states and territories controlled under a federal system of government It is an inland enclave in New South Wales, situated in bushland. The bush is a term used for rural possibly lawless undeveloped land or country areas in many places such as Australia, New Zealand, Sub-Saharan Africa
The ACT was conceived during the federation conventions of the late 1800s as neutral location for a new National Capital. The Australian Constitution provided that following Federation in 1901, land would be ceded to the new Federal Government. The Constitution of Australia is the law under which the Australian Commonwealth Government operates The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South This article describes the federal government of Australia See Australian governments for other jurisdictions The Territory was transferred to the Commonwealth by the state of New South Wales in 1911, and construction of the capital, Canberra, began in 1913. Canberra ( is the capital city of Australia With a population of over 340000 it is Australia's largest inland City.
The floral emblem of the ACT is the Royal Bluebell and the faunal emblem is the Gang-gang cockatoo. This is a list of Australian Floral emblems. The selection of a national emblem in the early years of the twentieth century was hotly contested between those who supported the Wahlenbergia gloriosa, or royal bluebell, is an Australian wildflower from the Campanulaceae family The Gang-gang Cockatoo, Callocephalon fimbriatum is found in the cooler and wetter forests and woodlands of Australia, particularly alpine Bushland 
Before European settlement the area now known as the ACT was inhabited by three Aboriginal tribes: the Ngunnawal, Walgalu, and Ngarigo. The history of the Australian Capital Territory as a Territory of Australia began after the Federation of Australia in 1901 when it was created in law Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. The Ngunnawal people (alternatively Ngunawal tribe) are the Indigenous Australian inhabitants whose traditional lands encompass much of the area now occupied by the The Walgalu one of the two Aboriginal peoples who originally lived in the region now occupied by Canberra, the capital of Australia, and is officially recognized The Ngarigo people were the aboriginal people who lived south-east of the Canberra area, According to Norman Tindale in his 1974 catalogue of Australian
White exploration and settlement did not occur until the 1820s. From 1824 onwards, settlements and homesteads, and ultimately some small townships such as Hall and Tharwa, were established in the area. Hall, is a small town in the north of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT Australia. For other meanings including organizations named `Tharwa' see Tharwa (disambiguation.
One homestead of special historical interest was Lambrigg, near Tharwa. This was the place in which William Farrer developed the rust-resistant Federation wheat strain that had a major beneficial effect on Australia's wheat industry. William James Farrer ( 3 April 1845 – 16 April 1906) was a leading Australian Agronomist and Wheat Breeder Rusts are Fungi of the order Uredinales. Many of these species are plant Parasites. Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Farrer died at Lambrigg in 1906.
When the constitution for the Commonwealth of Australia was being negotiated between the colonies, a point of contention between the colonies was the location of the national capital, with both Melbourne and Sydney claiming the right to be the capital. The Constitution of Australia is the law under which the Australian Commonwealth Government operates For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Melbourne ( is the second most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 3 Sydney (ˈsɪdniː is the most populous city in Australia, with a Metropolitan area population of approximately 4 A compromise was reached whereby a separate capital city would be created in New South Wales, provided it was no closer than 100 miles (160 km) to Sydney. Until such time as the new city was established, Melbourne was to be the temporary capital of Australia.
The present site was chosen in 1908, with additional territory at Jervis Bay (now a naval base on the NSW coast) allocated so the national capital could have a seaport. The Jervis Bay Territory is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia. In 1909 New South Wales transferred the land for the territory to federal control and in 1910 an act of parliament created the legal framework for the territory.  The Minister for Home Affairs, King O'Malley, who had charge of the legislation creating the ACT, also proposed a bill making the ACT an alcohol-free area. King O'Malley (July 1858 – 20 December 1953) was an Australian politician With his strong support, the bill became law later that year, though it was shortly thereafter repealed. O'Malley also pushed for a form of land tenure that restricted land holders to leasehold, rather than freehold, on the basis that this would stop land speculation and give the national government, as the lessor, more control over development. Leasehold is a form of property tenure where one party buys the right to occupy land or a building for a given length of time Fee simple is an estate in land in Common law. It is the most common way Real estate is owned in common law countries and is ordinarily the most This too was adopted by the national Parliament. As of 2006 all land in the ACT is held on 99 year crown leases.
In 1911 an international competition was held; the winner, who would design and name Canberra, was American architect Walter Burley Griffin. Walter Burley Griffin November 24, 1876 &ndash February 11, 1937) was a US Architect and Landscape architect,  The official naming of Canberra and its official construction began on March 12, 1913. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving Year 1913 ( MCMXIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common
The seat of the Federal Government officially moved to the ACT from Melbourne on the formal opening of the Provisional Parliament House on 9 May 1927. Parliament House is the meeting place of the Parliament of Australia. Events 1457 BC - Battle of Megiddo (15th century BC between Thutmose III and a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Among the first acts passed by the parliament in its new location was the repealing of the prohibition laws. At first the public service continued to be based in Melbourne, but the various departments were gradually moved to Canberra over many years.
The territory was initially known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). In 1938, the territory was formally renamed the Australian Capital Territory. 
In a 1978 referendum, Canberrans rejected self-government by 63% of the vote. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita  Despite this, in December 1988, the ACT was granted full self-government through an Act of the Commonwealth Parliament that made the ACT a body politic under the crown.  Following the first elections in February 1989, a 17-member Legislative Assembly sat at its offices in London Circuit, Civic, on May 11, 1989. Events 330 - Byzantium is renamed ''Nova Roma'' during a dedication ceremony but is more popularly referred to as Constantinople Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) The Australian Labor Party formed the ACT's first government, led by the Chief Minister Rosemary Follett, who made history as Australia's first female head of government. Rosemary Follett AO (born 27 March 1948) Australian politician was the first Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory –
The ACT is bounded by the Goulburn-Cooma railway line in the east, the watershed of Naas Creek in the south, the watershed of the Cotter River in the west, and the watershed of the Molonglo River in the north-east. Goulburn is a provincial City in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia in Goulburn Mulwaree Council. Cooma is A drainage divide, water divide, divide or (outside North America) watershed is the line separating neighbouring Drainage basins Naas Valley is an area south of Canberra, Australia in the Brindabella Ranges which was first settled by Europeans in 1834 The The Molonglo River rises on the western side of the Great Dividing Range of eastern Australia in the state of New South Wales.
Apart from the city of Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory also contains agricultural land (sheep, dairy cattle, vineyards and small amounts of crops), and a large area of national park (Namadgi National Park), much of it mountainous and forested. Canberra ( is the capital city of Australia With a population of over 340000 it is Australia's largest inland City. Dairy Cattle, generally of the species Bos taurus, are Domesticated Animals bred to produce large quantities of Milk A vineyard is a Plantation of Grape -bearing Vines grown mainly for Winemaking, but also Raisins Table grapes and non-alcoholic Namadgi National Park is located in the southwestern part of the Australian Capital Territory, bordering Kosciuszko National Park in New South Wales. Small townships and communities located within the ACT include Williamsdale, Naas, Uriarra, Tharwa and Hall. Williamsdale is village on the New South Wales - Australian Capital Territory border in Australia on the Monaro Highway. Uriarra is a settlement in the Australian Capital Territory. It had been a forestry settlement from the 1920s to the 1980s For other meanings including organizations named `Tharwa' see Tharwa (disambiguation. Hall, is a small town in the north of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT Australia.
Tidbinbilla is a locality to the south-west of Canberra that features the Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve and the Canberra Deep Space Communications Complex, operated by the United States’ National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of its Deep Space Network. Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, on the fringe of Namadgi National Park, is a short drive from the city of Canberra Australia. The Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex (CDSCC is a Ground station that is located in Australia at Tidbinbilla in a valley of the Murrumbidgee The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program The Deep Space Network, or DSN, is an international network of communication facilities that supports Interplanetary Spacecraft missions and
There are a large range of mountains, rivers and creeks in the Namadgi National Park. These include the Naas and Murrumbidgee Rivers.
In 1915 the Jervis Bay Territory Acceptance Act 1915 created the Jervis Bay Territory as an annexe to the Australian Capital Territory. The Jervis Bay Territory Acceptance Act 1915 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which followed the New South Wales, Seat of Government The Jervis Bay Territory is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia. In 1988, when the ACT gained self-government, Jervis Bay became a separate territory administered by the Minister for Territories.
Animals and plants found in the ACT are fairly typical of South Eastern Australia, although there are some endemic species. The Fauna of the Australian Capital Territory includes representatives from most major groups of Australian Fauna such as Kangaroos Possums Wombats The Flora of the Australian Capital Territory is the plants that grow naturally in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT
Because of its elevation (650 m) and distance from the coast, the Australian Capital Territory experiences four distinct seasons, unlike many other Australian cities whose climates are moderated by the sea. Canberra is notorious for hot, dry summers, and cold winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. Fog is a cloud that is in contact with the ground Stratus clouds are usually the only clouds that touch the ground Frost is the solid deposition of Water vapor from saturated air Many of the higher mountains in the territory’s south-west are snow-covered for at least part of the winter. Thunderstorms can occur between October and March, and annual rainfall is 623 millimetres (24. The Millimetre ( American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is a unit of Length in the Metric system, equal to 5 in), with rainfall highest in spring and summer, and lowest in winter.
Lowest minimum temperature: −14. Acton ( postcode: 2601 is a suburb of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Events 1055 - Theodora is crowned Empress of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 6 °C (5. 7 °F), Gudgenby, 11 July 1971
Notable geological formations in the Australian Capital Territory include the Canberra Formation, the Pittman Formation, Black Mountain Sandstone and State Circle Shale. Events 911 - Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The geology of the Australian Capital Territory includes rocks dating from the Ordovician around 480 million years ago whilst most rocks are from the Silurian.
In the 1840s fossils of brachiopods and trilobites from the Silurian period were discovered at Woolshed Creek near Duntroon. FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. Brachiopods (from Latin brachium, arm + New Latin -poda, foot are a small phylum of Benthic Invertebrates Also Trilobites ("three-lobes" are extinct Arthropods that form the class Trilobita. The Silurian is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Ordovician period about 443 Duntroon is a suburb of the city of Canberra in the Australian Capital Territory. At the time, these were the oldest fossils discovered in Australia, though this record has now been far surpassed.  Other specific geological places of interest include the State Circle cutting and the Deakin anticline. 
The oldest rocks in the ACT date from the Ordovician around 480 million years ago. The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six of the Paleozoic era, and covers the time between 488 During this period the region along with most of Eastern Australia was part of the ocean floor; formations from this period include the Black Mountain Sandstone formation and the Pittman Formation consisting largely of quartz-rich sandstone, siltstone and shale. Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. Siltstone is a Sedimentary rock which has a composition intermediate in grain size between the coarser Sandstones and the finer Mudstones and Shale (also called mudstone) is a fine-grained Sedimentary rock whose original constituents were Clay minerals or Muds It is characterized by These formations became exposed when the ocean floor was raised by a major volcanic activity in the Devonian forming much of the east coast of Australia. Orogeny (Greek for "mountain generating" is the process of natural Mountain building and may be studied as a tectonic structural event as a geographical event and The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic era spanning from to  million years ago.
The ACT has internal self-government, but it does not have the full legislative independence of the Australian states. Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly (or more formally and fully the Legislative Assembly for the Australian Capital Territory is the Unicameral legislature It is governed by a Ministry headed by a Chief Minister (currently Jon Stanhope, Australian Labor Party). For the 18th century British politician see John Laws are made in a 17-member Legislative Assembly that has all state and local government functions. Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly (or more formally and fully the Legislative Assembly for the Australian Capital Territory is the Unicameral legislature However, its decisions can be overruled by the Australian Governor-General (effectively the national government) under section 35 of the Australian Capital Territory (Self-Government) Act 1988. (See also Electoral systems of the Australian states and territories). For elections to the Australian Parliament see the Australian electoral system. The ACT Government is a member of the Council of Australian Governments.
Unlike other self-governing Australian territories (e. g. Norfolk Island, Northern Territory), the ACT does not have an Administrator. Norfolk Island ( Norfuk: Norfuk Ailen) is a small inhabited island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand The Northern Territory is a federal territory of Australia, occupying much of the center of the mainland continent as well as the central northern regions The Crown is represented by the Governor-General of Australia in the government of the ACT. The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the monarch of Australia (currently Elizabeth II Queen of Australia) The Chief Minister performs many of the roles that a state governor normally holds in the context of a state, however the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly gazettes the laws and summons meetings of the Assembly.
ACT Ministers implement their executive powers through the following government departments and agencies:
In Australia's Federal Parliament, the ACT is represented by four federal members: two members of the House of Representatives; the Division of Fraser and the Division of Canberra and is one of only two territories to be represented in the Senate with two Senators. The Planning and Land Authority is an agency of the Government of the Australian Capital Territory, which advises the Minister for Planning, currently Andrew The Chief Minister’s Department is the department of the Government of the Australian Capital Territory, which advises the ACT Chief Minister, currently Jon The Department of Territory and Municipal Services is a department of the Government of the Australian Capital Territory and is responsible to the Minister for Territory The Parliament of Australia or Commonwealth Parliament is the legislative branch of government of Australia. The House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers of the Parliament of Australia; it is the Lower house, the Upper house being the Senate The Division of Fraser is an Australian Electoral Division in the Australian Capital Territory. The Division of Canberra is an Australian Electoral Division in the Australian Capital Territory. The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. The Member for Fraser and the ACT Senators also represent the (small number of) voters from the Jervis Bay Territory. The Jervis Bay Territory is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia.
In the 2006 census the population of the ACT was 333,667, of which only 869 were outside Canberra. The ACT median weekly income for people aged over 15 was in the range $600-$699 while the population living outside Canberra was at the national average of $400-$499. The average level of degree qualification in the ACT is higher than the national average. Within the ACT 4. 5% of the population have a postgraduate degree compared to 1. 8% across the whole of Australia.
Almost all educational institutions in the Australian Capital Territory are located within Canberra. Almost all educational institutions in the Australian Capital Territory are located within Canberra. The Australian National University, commonly abbreviated to ANU, is a public Research university situated in Canberra, Australia. Canberra High School is a government funded public High school, located in Canberra Australia. Canberra ( is the capital city of Australia With a population of over 340000 it is Australia's largest inland City. The ACT public education system schooling is normally split up into Pre-School, Primary School (K-6), High School (7-10) and College (11-12) followed by studies at university or TAFE. A nursery school is a school for children between the ages of three and five staffed by qualified teachers and other professionals who encourage and supervise educational play rather than See also Primary education A primary school (from French école primaire) is an institution where children receive the first stage of Compulsory High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution College ( Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an Educational Institution. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Technical and Further Education or TAFE (pronounced) institutions provide a wide range of predominantly vocational tertiary education courses in Australia Many private high schools include years 11 and 12 and are referred to as colleges. Children are required to attend school until they turn 16 years old.
In February 2004 there were 140 public and non-governmental schools in Canberra; 96 were operated by the Government and 44 are non-Government. There are numerous public and non-governmental schools in the Australian Capital Territory.  In 2005 there were 60,275 students in the ACT school system. 59. 3% of the students were enrolled in government schools with the remaining 40. 7% in non-government schools. There were 30,995 students in primary school, 19,211 in high school, 9,429 in college and a further 340 in special schools. 
As of May 2004, 30% of people in the ACT aged 15–64 had a level of educational attainment equal to at least an bachelor's degree, significantly higher that the national average of 19%. A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and  The two main tertiary institutions are the Australian National University (ANU) in Acton and the University of Canberra (UC) in Bruce. The Australian National University, commonly abbreviated to ANU, is a public Research university situated in Canberra, Australia. Acton ( postcode: 2601 is a suburb of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. The University of Canberra, also known as UC, is a University located in Canberra, ACT, the capital of Australia. Bruce is a suburb of Canberra Australian Capital Territory Australia. There are also two religious university campuses in Canberra: Signadou is a campus of the Australian Catholic University and St Mark's Theological College is a campus of Charles Sturt University. Australian Catholic University, or ACU National, is Australia's only public Catholic university Charles Sturt University ( CSU) is an Australian multi-campus University in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory The Australian International Hotel School offers degree and diploma level courses and operates the Hotel Kurrajong in Barton. The Australian International Hotel School (AIHS is Australia’s leading university-level provider of Hotel management education located in Canberra, Australia Barton ( postcode: 2600 is a suburb of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Tertiary level vocational education is also available through the multi-campus Canberra Institute of Technology. The Canberra Institute of Technology (CIT is a vocational education provider in the Australian Capital Territory, and is one of a system of TAFEs Qualifications offered
The Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) and the Royal Military College, Duntroon (RMC) are in the suburb of Campbell in Canberra's inner northeast. The Royal Military College Duntroon is Australia 's Military academy where Staff Cadets train for commissioning into the Australian Army Campbell ( postcode: 2612 is a suburb of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. ADFA teaches military undergraduates and postgraduates and is officially a campus of the University of New South Wales while Duntroon provides Australian Army Officer training. A military is an Organization authorized by its Nation to use force usually including use of Weapons in defending its Country (or by attacking In some Educational systems undergraduate education is Post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelor's degree. See also Postgraduate Training in Education Postgraduate education (synonymous in North America with graduate education, and sometimes described A campus is traditionally the land on which a College or University and related institutional buildings are situated The University of New South Wales, also known as UNSW or colloquially as New South, is a University situated in Kensington, a suburb in The Australian Army is Australia's military land force It is part of the Australian Defence Force (ADF along with the Royal Australian Navy and the An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge skills and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge
The Academy of Interactive Entertainment (AIE) offers courses in computer game development and 3D animation.