The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity Events By Place Asia Feng Ba abdicates as emperor of the Northern Yan, one of the states vying for control of China Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone is the religious practice in which one The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430) are several Catholic Monastic orders and congregations Prominent Augustinians include the only English Pope Adrian IV, Italian Pope Eugene IV, mystic Thomas à Kempis, Dutch Christian humanist Desiderius Erasmus, the German Reformer Martin Luther, the Spanish navigator Andrés de Urdaneta, Italian composer Vittoria Aleotti, German mystic Anne Catherine Emmerich and the Austrian geneticist Gregor Mendel. Pope Adrian IV (or Hadrian IV – c 1100&ndash 1 September, 1159) born Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare, was Pope Pope Eugene IV (1383 &ndash February 23, 1447) born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from March 3, 1431, to his death Thomas à Kempis (orig Thomas Haemerkken Thomas Hammerlein also Thomas Hemerken Thomas Hämerken Thomas van Kempen Tomás de Kempis (ca Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer Andrés de Urdaneta ( Ordizia, November 30[[ 498]] - June 3, 1568, Mexico City) was an Augustinian Friar, sail-captain Vittoria Aleotti (c 1575 – after 1620 believed to be the same as Raffaella Aleotti ( c Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (Anna Katharina Emmerick September 8, 1774 - February 9, 1824) was a Roman Catholic Gregor Johann Mendel ( July 20, 1822 &ndash January 6, 1884) was The order has made a very significant missionary contribution to Christianity as well as establishing educational and charitable institutions throughout the world. A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes.
The Augustinian family worldwide is made up of five main branches
Some of the most visible contemporary groups of Augustinians include:
The O. The Hermits of St Augustine (Ordo Sancti Augustini OSA generally called Augustinians but not to be confused with the Augustinian Canons, are a Roman Catholic S. A. 's, formerly called Augustinian Hermits, but today known as Augustinian Friars or Austin Friars, are a mendicant order. A hermit (from the Greek ἔρημος erēmos, signifying " Desert " "uninhabited" hence "desert-dweller" adjective "eremitic" A Friar is a member of one of the Mendicant orders. Friars and monks Friars differ from Monks in that they are called to a life of poverty in service The mendicant orders are religious orders which depend directly on the charity of the people for their livelihood Being friars, they pray the Liturgy of the Hours throughout every day. This article refers to the Liturgy of the Hours as a specific manifestation of public prayer in the Roman Catholic Church. This Latin Rite branch is active in society (i. The Latin Rite is one of the 23 Sui iuris Particular Churches within the Catholic Church. e. , not enclosed) and it is counted comprehensively in the article below. Enclosed religious orders of the Christian church have solemn vows with a strict separation from the affairs of the external world It is headed by the international Prior-General in Rome, and while spiritually and historically connected is now canonically separate from the other Independent Augustinian Communities such as the Canons Regular, Discalced Augustinians, Augustinian nuns, Premontres, Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception, Augustinian Recollects and the Dominicans. Independent Augustinian communities are Roman Catholic religious communities that follow the Augustinian Rule, but are not under the jurisdiction of the Prior General of the Canons regular are members of certain bodies of Canons (priests living in community under the Augustinian Rule ("regula" in Latin and sharing their property The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430) are several Catholic Monastic orders and congregations Augustinian Nuns are the most ancient and continuous segment of the Roman Catholic Augustinian religious order under the canons of contemporary historical The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians (OPraem and in Britain and Ireland as the White Canons (from the colour of The Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception are a Roman Catholic congregation which follows the Augustinian Rule, and part of the Canonical Order of the Canons Regular The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is
The Augustinian Hermits, while following the rule known as that of St. Augustine, are also subject to the Constitutions drawn up by Augustinus Novellus (d. 1309), prior general of the order from 1298 to 1300, and by Clement of Osimo. The Rule and Constitutions were approved at the general chapter held at Florence in 1287 and at Ratisbon in 1290. A revision was made at Rome in 1895. The Constitutions have frequently been printed: at Rome, in 1581, and, with the commentary of Girolamo Seripando, at Venice, in 1549, and at Rome, in 1553. Girolamo Seripando (b at Troja, Apulia, 6 May[[ 493]] d at Trento 17 March[[ 563]] was an Augustinian friar, Italian The newly revised Constitutions were published at Rome in 1895, with additions in 1901 and 1907.
The government of the order is as follows: At the head is the prior general, elected every six years by the general chapter. Chapter ( Latin capitulum) designates certain corporate ecclesiastical bodies in the Roman Catholic, Anglican and Nordic Lutheran The prior general is aided by four assistants and a secretary, also elected by the general chapter. These form the Curia Generalitia. Each province is governed by a provincial, each commissariate by a commissary general, each of the two congregations by a vicar-general, and every monastery by a prior (only the Czech monastery of Alt-Brunn, in Moravia, is under an abbot) and every college by a rector. For the Soviet terms see People's Commissariat and Commissar A commissariat is the department of an Army charged with A vicar general (often abbreviated VG) is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority Prior is a Title, derived from the Latin adjective for 'earlier first' with several notable uses The word abbot, meaning Father, is a title given to the head of a Monastery in various traditions including Christianity. The members of the order are divided into priests and lay brothers. The Augustinians, like most religious orders, have a cardinal protector. Since the thirteenth century it has been customary at Rome to confide to some particular Cardinal a special solicitude in the Roman Curia for the interests of a given religious The choir and outdoor dress of the monks is of black woolen material, with long, wide sleeves, a black leather girdle and a long pointed cowl reaching to the girdle. The indoor dress consists of a black habit with scapular. A religious habit is a distinctive set of garments worn by members of a Religious order. For the shoulder bone see the article Scapula. A scapular (from Latin scapula, shoulder is a length of In many monasteries white was formerly the colour of the house garment, also worn in public, in places where there were no Dominicans. Shoes and (out of doors) a black hat complete the costume.
The Discalced Augustinians have their own constitutions, differing from those of the other Augustinians. The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430) are several Catholic Monastic orders and congregations Their fasts are more rigid, and their other ascetic exercises stricter. They wear sandals, not shoes (and are therefore not strictly discalced). As an apparent survival of the hermit life, the Discalced Augustinians practise strict silence and have in every province a house of recollection situated in some retired place, to which monks striving after greater perfection can retire in order to practise severe penance, living only on water, bread, fruits, olive oil and wine. Penance is repentance of Sins as well as the proper name of the Catholic and Orthodox Christian Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession
The lay societies are voluntary groups, generally made up of people who are either married or single and have sympathy with, and interest in, the Augustinian approach to life. These lay people do not take the monastic vows, but offer support to the work of the Augustinian order through voluntary work, gifts of money and goods, and the study and promotion of Augustine and Augustinian teaching. The Brotherhood of the Virgin Mary of the Belt in Italy, the Friends of Augustine in the Philippines, the Augustinian Lay community and the Augustinian Friends in Australia are some examples of Augustinian lay societies.
Other orders and groups belong within the Augustinian family either because they follow the Rule of Augustine or have been formally aggregated through their constitutions into the worldwide Augustinian Order. These are not counted comprehensively in this article only because the Catholic church's system of governance and accounting makes only the numbers of ordained priests relatively accessible and verifiable. Some of these include:
The ancient Rule of life formally constituted for the hermits around 1243, had its origins established soon after St. Augustine was converted by Ambrose in Milan around the year 384 AD. Saint Ambrose (c 338 &ndash 4 April 397) was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the fourth century He and some friends returned to his native Thagaste in North Africa, gave away their possessions and began a life of prayer and study. Souk Ahras ( Arabic: سوق أهراس; Chaoui:) is a municipality in Algeria. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Probably, Augustine didn't compose a formal monastic rule despite the extant Augustinian Rule . Augustine's hortatory letter to the nuns at Hippo Regius (Epist. , ccxi, Benedictine ed. Benedictine refers to the Spirituality and Consecrated life in accordance with the Rule of St Benedict, written by Benedict of Nursia in ) is not considered a formal Monastic rule by some scholars . However, the present rule has strong consonance with the existing writings and teaching of Augustine of Hippo.
Three sets of the "Augustinian Rule" have been attributed to Augustine's authorship (texts in Holstenius-Brockie, Codex regularum monasticarum, ii, Augsburg, 1759, 121–127), the longest of which, a medieval compilation from certain pseudo-Augustinian sermons in 45 chapters, is the one commonly known as the regula Augustini, and served as the constitution of the Augustinian Canons and many societies imitating them, as, for example, the Dominicans and Arrouaisians. Lucas Holstenius, the Latinized name of Lukas Holste (1596 &ndash February 2 1661) German Catholic humanist, Geographer Peter Geoffrey Brock AM ( 26 February, 1945 – 8 September, 2006) otherwise known as "Peter Perfect" "The Augsburg is an independent City in the south-west of Bavaria. Year 1759 ( MDCCLIX) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is
The extant Augustinian orders claim lineage from the communities founded by Augustine of Hippo, and while the history of ideas is evident, historic continuity is not conclusively proven according to the standards of contemporary historical method. The most likely process of transmission occurred between the years 430 and 570 as the Roman empire collapsed - rapidly in Roman North Africa. Augustine's style of communal living was carried into Europe by monks and clergy fleeing the onslaught of the Vandal tribes under Geiseric. Geiseric the Lame (c 389 &ndash January 25, 477) also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric, was the King of the Vandals Around 440 Quodvultdeus of Carthage established communities in Naples. Saint Quodvultdeus (died c 450 was a fifth century church father and Bishop of Carthage who was exiled to Naples. St. Fulgentius of Ruspe arrived in Sardinia by 502 and introduced Augustinian teaching there. Saint Fulgentius of Ruspe ( Thelepte, 462 or 467 — 1 January, 527 or 533 was bishop of the city of Ruspe, North Africa, in The 5th century Donatus and his monks probably brought a form of it to Southern Spain around the year 570 when he established the Monasterium Servitanum . The Third Order, a form of Augustine's Rule, was later used as a basis for the reform of monasteries and cathedral chapters during the 11th century. The convent of Saint Clare of Montefalco was one of the first to adopt the formally constituted Augustinian rule 1291. Saint Clare of Montefalco (ItalianChiara da Montefalco also called Saint Clare of the Cross (c The rule was also adopted by the Dominicans, Canons Regular of the Abbey of St. Victor in Marseilles (before its suppression), the Abbey of St Victor, Paris (a precursor to the University of Paris), the Premonstratensians, and the Lateran Canons. Canons regular are members of certain bodies of Canons (priests living in community under the Augustinian Rule ("regula" in Latin and sharing their property For the abbey in Marseille see St Victor's Abbey Marseille St The historic University of Paris (Université de Paris first appeared in the second half of the 13th century The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians (OPraem and in Britain and Ireland as the White Canons (from the colour of Lateran and Laterano are the shared names of several architectural projects throughout Rome.
The year 1256 is usually quoted as the date of the Grand Union that brought the modern order into existence, but there is some scholarly discussion over the exact date of the formal constitution of the Augustinian order, as it occurred in stages. By the 11th century there had appeared historically identifiable groups of clerics in various part of Europe who renounced private property and lived together in community following the Rule of St. Augustine described above. The consolidation of this movement can be connected to the changes proposed by the Gregorian Reform. The Gregorian Reform was a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, circa 1050&ndash1080 which dealt with the In 1243 the decree, Incumbit Nobis was issued by Pope Innocent IV, and it called together a number of monastic communities in Tuscany. The Augustinians owed their formal existence to the policy of Popes Innocent IV (1241–1254) and Pope Alexander IV (1254–1261), who wished to counterbalance the influence of the powerful Franciscans and Dominicans by means of a similar order under more direct papal authority and devoted to papal interests. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi was Pope from June 28, 1243 to December 7, 1254. Pope Alexander IV (1199 or ca 1185 &ndash May 25 1261) was Pope from 1254 until his death The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is
The Augustinian Hermits (who are generally meant by the name "Augustinians", one branch of which Martin Luther belonged to) became the last of the great mendicant orders to be formally constituted in the thirteenth century. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer The term mendicant (Latin mendicans, begging refers to Begging or relying on charitable donations and is most widely used for religious followers or Religious orders ('Religious Institutes' cf canons 573-746 are the major form of consecrated life in the Roman Catholic Church. It is historically verifiable that Innocent IV, by the bull issued 16 December 1243 united a number of small hermit societies with Augustinian rule, especially the Williamites, the John-Bonites, and the Brictinans. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion
Alexander IV (admonished, it was said, by an appearance of Saint Augustine) called a general assembly of the members of the new united order under the presidency of Cardinal Richard of Saint Angeli at the monastery of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome in March, 1256, when the head of the John-Bonites, Lanfranc Septala, of Milan, was chosen general prior of the united orders. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. Santa Maria del Popolo is a notable Augustinian church located in Rome. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Alexander's bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae, confirmed this choice. The new order was thus finally constituted with Italian, Hungarian, French, English, Belgian, Spanish, Portuguese, Swiss, Austrian and German Augustinian friars united into one international order. Pope Alexander IV afterward allowed some houses of the Williamites, who were dissatisfied with the new arrangement, to withdraw from the union, and they adopted the Benedictine rule.
Several general chapters in the thirteenth century (1287 and 1290) and toward the end of the sixteenth (1575 and 1580), after the severe crisis occasioned by Luther's reformation, developed the statutes to their present form (text in Holstenius-Brockie, ut sup. , iv, 227–357; cf. Kolde, 17–38), which was confirmed by Pope Gregory XIII. Pope Gregory XIII (January 7 1502 &ndash April 10 1585 born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585 A bull of Pius V in 1567 had already assigned to the Hermits of Saint Augustine the place next to the last (between Carmelites and Servites) among the five chief mendicant orders.
The teaching and writing of Augustine, the Augustinian Rule, and the lives and experiences of Augustinians over 16 centuries help define the ethos of the order, sometimes "honoured in the breach". The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430) are several Catholic Monastic orders and congregations
As well as telling his disciples to be "of one mind and heart on the way towards God" Augustine of Hippo taught that "Nothing conquers except truth and the victory of truth is love" (Victoria veritatis est caritas}, and the pursuit of truth through learning is key to the Augustinian ethos, balanced by the injunction to behave with love towards one another. It does not unduly single out the exceptional, especially favour the gifted, nor exclude the poor or marginalised. Love is not earned through human merit, but received and given freely by God's free gift of grace, totally undeserved yet generously given. These same imperatives of affection and fairness have driven the order in its international missionary outreach. This balanced pursuit of love and learning has energised the various branches of the order into building communities founded on mutual affection and intellectual advancement. The Augustinian ideal is inclusive.
Augustine spoke passionately of God's "beauty so ancient and so new" , and his fascination with beauty extended to music. He taught that "to sing once is to pray twice" (Qui cantat, bis orat) , and music is also a key part of the Augustinian ethos. Contemporary Augustinian musical foundations include the famous Augustinerkirche in Vienna where Orchestral Masses by Mozart and Schubert are performed every week, as well as the boys' choir at Sankt Florian in Austria, a school conducted by Augustinian Canons, a choir now over 1,000 years old. The St Augustine's Church (Augustinerkirche in German is a parish church located on Josefsplatz next to the Hofburg, the winter palace of the Habsburg dynasty in Sankt Florian is a town in Upper Austria, Austria. It is 10 miles (16 km from Linz, with a population of 5500 and an elevation of 296 meters above sea
This article includes content derived from the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1914, which is in the public domain. The Society of Saint Augustine ( Societas Sancti Augustini) is a Roman Catholic Institute of Consecrated Life which takes as its pattern of living the way of life The Bridgettine or Briggittine order is a monastic Religious order of Augustinian Canonesses founded by Saint Birgitta (Saint Canons regular are members of certain bodies of Canons (priests living in community under the Augustinian Rule ("regula" in Latin and sharing their property The Canons Regular of Saint John Cantius (SJC is a clerical Institute of Consecrated Life in the Catholic Church, founded in 1998 in the Archdiocese The Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception are a Roman Catholic congregation which follows the Augustinian Rule, and part of the Canonical Order of the Canons Regular The Order of Preachers ( Latin: Ordo Praedicatorum) after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is Independent Augustinian communities are Roman Catholic religious communities that follow the Augustinian Rule, but are not under the jurisdiction of the Prior General of the Austin Friars Saint Monica's School, more commonly known as "Austin Friars" is a relatively small Roman Catholic private school located in the city of Carlisle The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians (OPraem and in Britain and Ireland as the White Canons (from the colour of The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians (OPraem and in Britain and Ireland as the White Canons (from the colour of This article refers to the Liturgy of the Hours as a specific manifestation of public prayer in the Roman Catholic Church. Our Lady of Good Counsel ( Mater boni consilii) is a title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary, after a miraculous painting now found in the Augustinian church The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge is a religious Encyclopedia (1st edition 1882-84 3rd edition 1891 new edition published in thirteen volumes The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone