Augustine as depicted by Sandro Botticelli, c. 1480
|Bishop, Confessor, Doctor of the Church|
|Born||November 13, 354, Tagaste, Algeria|
|Died||August 28, 430 (aged 75), Hippo Regius|
|Venerated in||most Christian groups|
|Major shrine||San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, Pavia, Italy|
|Feast||August 28 (W), June 15 (E)|
|Attributes||child; dove; pen; shell, pierced heart|
|Patronage||brewers; printers; sore eyes; theologians|
Saint Augustine (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430), Bishop of Hippo, in Algeria, was a philosopher and theologian. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St Events By Place Roman Empire Constantius Gallus, Caesar of the East is deposed and executed on orders of Constantius II Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital Events By Place Asia Feng Ba abdicates as emperor of the Northern Yan, one of the states vying for control of China A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (formerly Bône Algeria. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Augustine, a Latin Father and Doctor of the Church, is one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity. The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church Doctor of the Church ( Latin doctor, teacher from Latin docere, to teach is a title given by a variety of Christian Churches to individuals Western Christianity is a term used to cover the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Churches of the Anglican Communion, the Lutheran Church Augustine was radically influenced by Platonic doctrines.  He framed the concepts of original sin and just war. Original sin is according to a doctrine in Catholic theology, humanity's state of Sin resulting from the Fall of Man. Just War theory is a Doctrine of military ethics of Roman philosophical and Catholic origin studied by moral Theologians Ethicists and international When the Roman Empire in the West was starting to disintegrate, Augustine developed the concept of the Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material City of Man.  His thought profoundly influenced the medieval worldview.
Augustine was born in the city of Tagaste, the present day Souk Ahras, Algeria, to a Christian mother, Saint Monica. Souk Ahras ( Arabic: سوق أهراس; Chaoui:) is a municipality in Algeria. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Monica (or Monnica) of Hippo (331 – 387 is a Christian Saint and the mother of Augustine of Hippo, who wrote extensively of her He was educated in North Africa and resisted his mother's pleas to become Christian. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Living as a pagan intellectual, he took a concubine and became a Manichean. Manichaeism (in Modern Persian fa-Arab آیین مانی Āyin e Māni; Chinese zh 摩尼教 was one of the major Gnostic Religions originating Later he converted to Christianity, became a bishop, and opposed heresies, such as the belief that people can have the ability to choose to be good to such a degree as to merit salvation without divine aid (Pelagianism). Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (ad 354 – ad His works—including The Confessions, which is often called the first Western autobiography—are still read around the world. Confessions ( Latin: Confessiones) is the name of an Autobiographical work consisting of 13 books by St An autobiography, from the Greek αὐτός autos "self" βίος bios "life" and γράφειν graphein "to write" In addition he believed in Papal supremacy. Referring to the doctrine of papal supremacy the Catechism of the Catholic Church notes in paragraph 882 “the Roman Pontiff by reason of his office as Vicar 
In Roman Catholicism and the Anglican Communion, he is a saint and pre-eminent Doctor of the Church, and the patron of the Augustinian religious order. See also Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is an international association of national Anglican churches Doctor of the Church ( Latin doctor, teacher from Latin docere, to teach is a title given by a variety of Christian Churches to individuals The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430) are several Catholic Monastic orders and congregations Many Protestants, especially Calvinists, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of Reformation teaching on salvation and grace. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time In Theology, salvation can mean three related things being saved from or Liberation from something such as Suffering or the punishment of In Christianity, divine Grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to Salvation — irrespective of actions In the Eastern Orthodox Church he is a saint, and his feast day is celebrated annually on June 15, though a minority are of the opinion that he is a heretic, primarily because of his statements concerning what became known as the filioque clause. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history Filioque, a Latin phrase meaning "and (from the Son" In Western Christianity, it was added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed  Among the Orthodox he is called Blessed Augustine, or St. Augustine the Blessed. "Blessed" here does not mean that he is less than a saint, but is a title bestowed upon him as a sign of respect. 
Saint Augustine was, by descent, a Berber, a major ethnic group native to North Africa comprising the Numidians and Mauri. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. He was born in 354 A.D. in Tagaste (present-day Souk Ahras, Algeria), a provincial Roman city in North Africa. Events By Place Roman Empire Constantius Gallus, Caesar of the East is deposed and executed on orders of Constantius II Souk Ahras ( Arabic: سوق أهراس; Chaoui:) is a municipality in Algeria. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan  At the age of 11, Augustine was sent to school at Madaurus, a small Numidian city about 19 miles south of Tagaste noted for its pagan climate. M'Daourouch is a municipality in Souk Ahras Province, Algeria, occupying the site of the former Roman town of Madauras Madaure or Madaura There he became very familiar with Latin literature, as well as pagan beliefs and practices. Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language remains an enduring legacy of the culture of Ancient Rome.  In 369 and 370, he remained at home. During this period he read Cicero's dialogue Hortensius, which he described as leaving a lasting impression on him and sparking his interest in philosophy. Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman A dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog) is a reciprocal Conversation between two or more entities. Quintus Hortensius Hortalus (114 - 50 BC was a Roman Orator and advocate  At age seventeen, through the generosity of a fellow citizen Romanianus, he went to Carthage to continue his education in rhetoric. Carthage (Καρχηδών Karkhēdōn, Carthago from the Phoenician קרת חדשת phn-Latn Qart-ḥadašt meaning new town) refers His revered mother, Monica, was a Berber and a devout Catholic, and his father, Patricius, a pagan. Monica (or Monnica) of Hippo (331 – 387 is a Christian Saint and the mother of Augustine of Hippo, who wrote extensively of her Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Although raised as a Catholic, Augustine left the Church to follow the controversial Manichaean religion, much to the despair of his mother. Manichaeism (in Modern Persian fa-Arab آیین مانی Āyin e Māni; Chinese zh 摩尼教 was one of the major Gnostic Religions originating As a youth Augustine lived a hedonistic lifestyle for a time and, in Carthage, he developed a relationship with a young woman, named Floria Aemilia, who would be his concubine for over fifteen years. Concubinage is the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status During this period he had a son, Adeodatus, with the young woman. During the years 373 and 374, Augustine taught grammar at Tagaste. The following year, he moved to Carthage to conduct a school of rhetoric there, and would remain there for the next nine years. Rhetoric has had many definitions no simple definition can do it justice  Disturbed by the unruly behaviour of the students in Carthage, in 383 he moved to Rome to establish a school there, where he believed the best and brightest rhetoricians practiced. However, Augustine was disappointed with the Roman schools, which he found apathetic. Once the time came for his students to pay their fees they simply fled. Manichaean friends introduced him to the prefect of the City of Rome, Symmachus, who had been asked to provide a professor of rhetoric for the imperial court at Milan. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy.
The young provincial won the job and headed north to take up his position in late 384. Events By Place Roman Empire The Forum of Theodosius I is built in Constantinople. At age thirty, Augustine had won the most visible academic chair in the Latin world, at a time when such posts gave ready access to political careers. However, he felt the tensions of life at an imperial court, lamenting one day as he rode in his carriage to deliver a grand speech before the emperor, that a drunken beggar he passed on the street had a less careworn existence than he did.
It was at Milan that Augustine's life changed. While still at Carthage, he had begun to move away from Manichaeism, in part because of a disappointing meeting with a key exponent of Manichaean theology. In Rome, he is reported to have completely turned away from Manichaeanism, and instead embraced the skepticism of the New Academy movement. For a general discussion of skepticism see Skepticism. Philosophical skepticism (from Greek σκέψις - skepsis meaning At Milan, his mother Monica pressured him to become a Catholic. Monica (or Monnica) of Hippo (331 – 387 is a Christian Saint and the mother of Augustine of Hippo, who wrote extensively of her Augustine's own studies in Neoplatonism were also leading him in this direction, and his friend Simplicianus urged him that way as well. Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by  But it was the bishop of Milan, Ambrose, who had most influence over Augustine. Saint Ambrose (c 338 &ndash 4 April 397) was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the fourth century Ambrose was a master of rhetoric like Augustine himself, but older and more experienced.
Augustine's mother had followed him to Milan and he allowed her to arrange a society marriage, for which he abandoned his concubine (however he had to wait two years until his fiancée came of age; he promptly took up in the meantime with another woman). It was during this period that he uttered his famous prayer, "Grant me chastity and continence, but not yet" (da mihi castitatem et continentiam, sed noli modo). 
In the summer of 386, after having read an account of the life of Saint Anthony of the Desert which greatly inspired him, Augustine underwent a profound personal crisis and decided to convert to Catholic Christianity, abandon his career in rhetoric, quit his teaching position in Milan, give up any ideas of marriage, and devote himself entirely to serving God and the practices of priesthood, which included celibacy. Events By Place Roman Empire Theodosius I concludes peace with Persia, dividing Armenia between them Saint Anthony the Great (c 251–356 also known as Anthony the Abbot, Anthony of Egypt, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. Clerical celibacy is the practice in various religious traditions, in which Clergy, Monastics and those (of either sex in religious orders adopt a Key to this conversion was the voice of an unseen child he heard while in his garden in Milan telling him in a sing-song voice to tolle lege ("take up and read"). He grabbed the nearest text to him, which was Paul's Epistle to the Romans and opened it at random to 13:13-14, which read: "Let us walk honestly, as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying; but put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to gratify its desires. The Epistle of St Paul the Apostle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. " He would detail his spiritual journey in his famous Confessions, which became a classic of both Christian theology and world literature. Confessions ( Latin: Confessiones) is the name of an Autobiographical work consisting of 13 books by St Ambrose baptized Augustine, along with his son, Adeodatus, on Easter Vigil in 387 in Milan, and soon thereafter in 388 he returned to Africa. Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. For the processor see Intel 80387. Events By Place Roman Empire The widowed Emperor Theodosius I Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Events By Place Roman Empire The rebellion of Magnus Maximus is put down at the Battle of the Save, and Valentinian II  On his way back to Africa his mother died, as did his son soon after, leaving him alone in the world without family.
Upon his return to north Africa he sold his patrimony and gave the money to the poor. The only thing he kept was the family house, which he converted into a monastic foundation for himself and a group of friends. Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from Greek monos, alone is the religious practice in which one  In 391 he was ordained a priest in Hippo Regius (now Annaba, in Algeria). Events By Place Roman Empire All non- Christian temples in the Empire are closed as Theodosius establishes Christianity In general religious use ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is set apart as Clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies A priest or priestess is a person having the authority or power to administer religious rites in particular rites of sacrifice to and propitiation of a deity or deities Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (formerly Bône Algeria. Annaba (عنابة formerly Bône, historically Hippo) is a city in the northeastern corner of Algeria near the river Seybouse and Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's He became a famous preacher (more than 350 preserved sermons are believed to be authentic), and was noted for combating the Manichaean religion, to which he had formerly adhered. Preacher is a term the for someone who preaches Sermons or gives homilies
In 396 he was made coadjutor bishop of Hippo (assistant with the right of succession on the death of the current bishop), and became full bishop shortly thereafter. Events By Place Western Roman Empire The Romans enlist the Franks and the Alemanni to defend the Rhine border A coadjutor bishop (or bishop coadjutor) is a bishop in the Roman Catholic or Anglican churches who is designated to assist the diocesan bishop He remained in this position at Hippo until his death in 430. Events By Place Asia Feng Ba abdicates as emperor of the Northern Yan, one of the states vying for control of China Augustine worked tirelessly in trying to convince the people of Hippo, who were diverse racial and religious group, to convert to the Catholic faith. He left his monastery, but continued to lead a monastic life in the episcopal residence. He left a Rule (Latin, Regula) for his monastery that has led him to be designated the "patron saint of Regular Clergy", that is, Clergy who live by a monastic rule. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. For the life inside monasteries and its historical roots see Monasticism.
Augustine died on August 28, 430 during the siege of Hippo by the Vandals. Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital Events By Place Asia Feng Ba abdicates as emperor of the Northern Yan, one of the states vying for control of China On his death bed he was read the Enneads of Plotinus. The Six Enneads, sometimes abbreviated to The Enneads or Enneads, is the collection of writings of Plotinus, edited and Plotinus ( Greek:) (ca AD 204–270 was a major philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the founder of Neoplatonism (along with his He is said to have encouraged its citizens to resist the attacks, primarily on the grounds that the Vandals adhered to Arianism, a heterodox branch of Christianity. Arianism is the theological teaching of Arius (c AD 250-336 who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Council of Nicea. It is also said that he died just as the Vandals were tearing down the city walls of Hippo.
After conquering the city, the Vandals destroyed all of it but Augustine's cathedral and library, which they left untouched. Tradition indicates that his body was later moved to Pavia, where it is said to remain to this day. Pavia (pronounced Pavìa,) the ancient Ticinum, is a town and Comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south 
Another tradition, however, claims that his remains were moved to Cagliari (Karalis) in a small Chapel at the base of a hill, on the summit of which lies the sanctuary of Bonaria. The Chapel bears an ancient, weathered stone plaque with an inscription leading to St. Augustine remains.
Ancient philosophy/Medieval philosophy
Augustine of Hippo
|Birth||November 13, 354 (Tagaste)|
|Death||August 28, 430 (Hippo)|
|School/tradition||Platonism, Neoplatonism, Christian philosophy, Stoicism|
|Influenced by||Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Virgil, Jesus, Paul of Tarsus, Mani, Plotinus, Saint Ambrose|
|Influenced||Thomas Aquinas, Bernard of Clairvaux, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Cornelius Jansen|
Augustine was one of the most prolific Latin authors, and the list of his works consists of more than a hundred separate titles.  They include apologetic works against the heresies of the Arians, Donatists, Manichaeans and Pelagians, texts on Christian doctrine, notably De doctrina Christiana (On Christian Doctrine), exegetical works such as commentaries on Book of Genesis, the Psalms and Paul's Letter to the Romans, many sermons and letters, and the Retractationes (Retractions), a review of his earlier works which he wrote near the end of his life. The Donatists (named for the Berber Christian Donatus Magnus) were followers of a belief considered a Schism by the broader churches of the Manichaeism (in Modern Persian fa-Arab آیین مانی Āyin e Māni; Chinese zh 摩尼教 was one of the major Gnostic Religions originating Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (ad 354 – ad Doctrine (Latin doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or "a body of teachings quot or "instructions" taught principles or positions as the On Christian Doctrine ( Latin: De Doctrina Christiana) is the primary theological text written by St Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and The Epistle of St Paul the Apostle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. A sermon is an oration by a Prophet or member of the Clergy. Sermons address a Biblical, theological, or religious topic A retraction is a public statement either in print or by verbal statement that is made to correct a previously made statement that was incorrect invalid or in error Apart from those, Augustine is probably best known for his Confessiones (Confessions), which is a personal account of his earlier life, and for De civitate Dei (The City of God, consisting of 22 books), which he wrote to restore the confidence of his fellow Christians, which was badly shaken by the sack of Rome by the Visigoths in 410. Confessions ( Latin: Confessiones) is the name of an Autobiographical work consisting of 13 books by St Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Events By place Western Roman Empire Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Emperor. His 'On the Trinity' (De Trinitate), in which he developed what has become known as the 'psychological analogy' of the Trinity, is also among his masterpieces, and arguably one of the greatest theological works of all time.
Augustine was a bishop, priest, and father who remains a central figure, both within Christianity and in the history of Western thought, and is considered by modern historian Thomas Cahill to be the first medieval man and the last classical man. Thomas Cahill (born 1940 in New York City) is an American Scholar and Writer.  In both his philosophical and theological reasoning, he was greatly influenced by Stoicism, Platonism and Neo-platonism, particularly by the work of Plotinus, author of the Enneads, probably through the mediation of Porphyry and Victorinus (as Pierre Hadot has argued). Stoicism, a school of Hellenistic philosophy, was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC Platonism is the Philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical Philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD founded by Plotinus ( Greek:) (ca AD 204–270 was a major philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the founder of Neoplatonism (along with his The Six Enneads, sometimes abbreviated to The Enneads or Enneads, is the collection of writings of Plotinus, edited and Porphyry of Tyre ( Greek:, c AD 233&ndashc 309 was a Phoenician Neoplatonic philosopher Marcus Piav(vonius Victorinus was emperor of the secessionist Gallic Empire from 268 to 270 or 271 following the brief reign of Marius. Pierre Hadot ( Paris, 1922 is a French Philosopher, specialized in Ancient philosophy (in particular Neo-platonism) Although he later abandoned Neo-Platonism some ideas are still visible in his early writings. His generally favorable view of Neoplatonic thought contributed to the "baptism" of Greek thought and its entrance into the Christian and subsequently the European intellectual tradition. His early and influential writing on the human will, a central topic in ethics, would become a focus for later philosophers such as Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. Will, or willpower is a philosophical concept that is defined in several different ways Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15 1844 August 25 1900 ( was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and classical philologist In addition, Augustine was influenced by the works of Virgil (known for his teaching on language), Cicero (known for his teaching on argument), and Aristotle (particularly his Rhetoric and Poetics). Publius Vergilius Maro ( October 15, 70 BCE &ndash September 21, 19 BCE later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Marcus Tullius Cicero ( Classical Latin ˈkikeroː usually ˈsɪsərəʊ in English January 3, 106 BC &ndash December 7, 43 BC was a Roman Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Aristotle 's Rhetoric is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of persuasion dating from the fourth century BCE Aristotle 's Poetics ( Greek: Ποιητικός, c 335 BCE aims to give an account of what he calls 'poetry' (for him the term includes the
Augustine's concept of original sin was expounded in his works against the Pelagians. Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (ad 354 – ad However, Eastern Orthodox theologians, while they believe all humans were damaged by the original sin of Adam and Eve, have key disputes with Augustine about this doctrine, and as such this is viewed as a key source of division between East and West. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world His writings helped formulate the theory of the just war. Just War theory is a Doctrine of military ethics of Roman philosophical and Catholic origin studied by moral Theologians Ethicists and international He also advocated the use of force against the Donatists, asking "Why . The Donatists (named for the Berber Christian Donatus Magnus) were followers of a belief considered a Schism by the broader churches of the . . should not the Church use force in compelling her lost sons to return, if the lost sons compelled others to their destruction?" (The Correction of the Donatists, 22–24). St. Thomas Aquinas took much from Augustine's theology while creating his own unique synthesis of Greek and Christian thought after the widespread rediscovery of the work of Aristotle. Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. While Augustine's doctrine of divine predestination and efficacious grace would never be wholly forgotten within the Roman Catholic Church, finding eloquent expression in the works of Bernard of Clairvaux, Reformation theologians such as Martin Luther and John Calvin would look back to him as the inspiration for their avowed capturing of the Biblical Gospel. Predestination (also linked with Foreknowledge) is a religious concept which involves the relationship between God and His creation Irresistible Grace (or efficacious grace) is a Doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Calvinism, which teaches that the Bernard of Clairvaux, OCist ( 1090 - August 20, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and Bishop John Fisher of Rochester, a chief opponent of Luther, articulated an Augustinian view of grace and salvation consistent with Church doctrine, thus encompassing both Augustine’s soteriology and his teaching on the authority of and obedience to the Catholic Church.  Later, within the Roman Catholic Church, the writings of Cornelius Jansen, who claimed heavy influence from Augustine, would form the basis of the movement known as Jansenism. Corneille Janssens, commonly known by the Latinized version of his name Cornelius Jansen or Jansenius, or most commonly in English simply as Jansen Jansenism was a branch of Catholic Gallican thought which arose in the frame of the Counter-Reformation and the aftermath of the Council of Trent
Augustine was canonized by popular acclaim, and later recognized as a Doctor of the Church in 1303 by Pope Boniface VIII. Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints Doctor of the Church ( Latin doctor, teacher from Latin docere, to teach is a title given by a variety of Christian Churches to individuals Pope Boniface VIII (c 1235 &ndash October 11, 1303) born Benedetto Caetani, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 His feast day is August 28, the day on which he died. The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints Events 475 - The Roman General Orestes forces western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos to flee his Capital He is considered the patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members
The latter part of Augustine's Confessions consists of an extended meditation on the nature of time. Even the agnostic philosopher Bertrand Russell was impressed by this. Agnosticism ( Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Bertrand Arthur William Russell 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970 was a British Philosopher, Historian He wrote, "a very admirable relativistic theory of time. . . . It contains a better and clearer statement than Kant's of the subjective theory of time - a theory which, since Kant, has been widely accepted among philosophers. Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg " Catholic theologians generally subscribe to Augustine's belief that God exists outside of time in the "eternal present"; that time only exists within the created universe because only in space is time discernible through motion and change. While in the popular mind eternity often simply means existing for a limitless amount of Time, many have used it to refer to a timeless existence altogether outside of His meditations on the nature of time are closely linked to his consideration of the human ability of memory. In Psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store retain and subsequently retrieve information Frances Yates in her 1966 study, The Art of Memory argues that a brief passage of the Confessions, X. Dame Frances Amelia Yates DBE ( November 28 1899 &ndash September 29 1981) was a noted British historian Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. The Art of Memory is a 1966 Non-fiction book by British historian Frances A 8. 12, in which Augustine writes of walking up a flight of stairs and entering the vast fields of memory  clearly indicates that the ancient Romans were aware of how to use explicit spatial and architectural metaphors as a mnemonic technique for organizing large amounts of information. A mnemonic device (nəˈmɒnɪk is a Memory aid Commonly met mnemonics are often verbal something such as a very short poem or a special word used to help a person remember According to Leo Ruickbie, Augustine's arguments against magic, differentiating it from miracle, were crucial in the early Church's fight against paganism and became a central thesis in the later denunciation of witches and witchcraft. Leo Ruickbie is an historian and sociologist of magic witchcraft and Wicca Magic, sometimes known as sorcery, is a Conceptual system that asserts human ability to control the natural world (including events objects people and A miracle is an event believed to be caused by interposition of Divine intervention by a Supernatural being in the Universe by which the ordinary operation Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Witchcraft, in various historical anthropological religious and mythological contexts is the use of certain kinds of Supernatural or magical powers According to Professor Deepak Lal, Augustine's vision of the heavenly city has influenced the secular projects and traditions of the Enlightenment, Marxism, Freudianism and Eco-fundamentalism. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded
For quotations of St. Augustine by St. Thomas Aquinas see Aquinas and the Sacraments and Thought of Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas and the Sacraments: The following article is a condensation of the writings of St This article contains selected thoughts of Thomas Aquinas on various topics
On the topic of original sin, Aquinas proposed a more optimistic view of man than that of Augustine in that his conception leaves to the reason, will, and passions of fallen man their natural powers even after the Fall. 
While in his pre-Pelagian writings Augustine taught that Adam's guilt transmitted to his descendants much enfeebles, though not destroying, the freedom of the will, Protestant reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin affirmed that Original Sin completely destroyed liberty. Martin Luther (November 10 1483 February 18 1546 was a German Monk, theologian, university professor Father of Protestantism, and church reformer John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and (see total depravity). Total depravity (also called total inability and total corruption) is a theological Doctrine that derives from the Augustinian concepts
It is often stated that Augustine, when asked what God was doing before the Creation, answered "Preparing Hell for people who ask questions like that" (or variations). In fact Augustine mentions this joke (Confessions, Book 11, ch. 12) in order to deplore making a laughing-stock of those who ask serious questions. (His own answer to the question is in terms of "before" being meaningless, since time was created with the world. )
Augustine took the view that the Biblical text should not be interpreted literally if it contradicts what we know from science and our God-given reason. In "The Literal Interpretation of Genesis" (early 5th century, AD), St. The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. Augustine wrote:
It not infrequently happens that something about the earth, about the sky, about other elements of this world, about the motion and rotation or even the magnitude and distances of the stars, about definite eclipses of the sun and moon, about the passage of years and seasons, about the nature of animals, of fruits, of stones, and of other such things, may be known with the greatest certainty by reasoning or by experience, even by one who is not a Christian. It is too disgraceful and ruinous, though, and greatly to be avoided, that he [the non-Christian] should hear a Christian speaking so idiotically on these matters, and as if in accord with Christian writings, that he might say that he could scarcely keep from laughing when he saw how totally in error they are. In view of this and in keeping it in mind constantly while dealing with the book of Genesis, I have, insofar as I was able, explained in detail and set forth for consideration the meanings of obscure passages, taking care not to affirm rashly some one meaning to the prejudice of another and perhaps better explanation.
– The Literal Interpretation of Genesis 1:19–20, Chapt. 19 [AD 408]
With the scriptures it is a matter of treating about the faith. For that reason, as I have noted repeatedly, if anyone, not understanding the mode of divine eloquence, should find something about these matters [about the physical universe] in our books, or hear of the same from those books, of such a kind that it seems to be at variance with the perceptions of his own rational faculties, let him believe that these other things are in no way necessary to the admonitions or accounts or predictions of the scriptures. In short, it must be said that our authors knew the truth about the nature of the skies, but it was not the intention of the Spirit of God, who spoke through them, to teach men anything that would not be of use to them for their salvation.
– ibid, 2:9
A more clear distinction between "metaphorical" and "literal" in literary texts arose with the rise of the Scientific Revolution, although its source could be found in earlier writings, such as those of Herodotus (5th century BC). The period which many historians of science call the Scientific Revolution can be roughly dated as having begun in 1543 the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash It was even considered heretical to interpret the Bible literally at times 
In "The Literal Interpretation of Genesis" Augustine took the view that everything in the universe was created simultaneously by God, and not in seven calendar days like a plain account of Genesis would require. An allegorical interpretation of Genesis is a symbolic rather than literal reading of the biblical Book of Genesis. He argued that the six-day structure of creation presented in the book of Genesis represents a logical framework, rather than the passage of time in a physical way - it would bear a spiritual, rather than physical, meaning, which is no less literal. This article focuses on the views of certain Christian commentators and theologians Augustine also doesn’t envision original sin as originating structural changes in the universe, and even suggests that the bodies of Adam and Eve were already created mortal before the Fall. Original sin is according to a doctrine in Catholic theology, humanity's state of Sin resulting from the Fall of Man. Apart from his specific views, Augustine recognizes that the interpretation of the creation story is difficult, and remarks that we should be willing to change our mind about it as new information comes up. 
In "The City of God", Augustine rejected both the immortality of the human race proposed by pagans, and contemporary ideas of ages (such as those of certain Greeks and Egyptians) that differed from the Church's sacred writings:
Let us, then, omit the conjectures of men who know not what they say, when they speak of the nature and origin of the human race. For some hold the same opinion regarding men that they hold regarding the world itself, that they have always been. . . They are deceived, too, by those highly mendacious documents which profess to give the history of many thousand years, though, reckoning by the sacred writings, we find that not 6000 years have yet passed.
– Augustine, Of the Falseness of the History Which Allots Many Thousand Years to the World’s Past, The City of God, Book 12: Chapt. 10 [AD 419].
Augustine viewed that a major result of original sin was disobedience of the flesh to the spirit as a punishment of their disobedience to God:
For it was not fit that His creature should blush at the work of his Creator; but by a just punishment the disobedience of the members was the retribution to the disobedience of the first man, for which disobedience they blushed when they covered with fig-leaves those shameful parts which previously were not shameful. Original sin is according to a doctrine in Catholic theology, humanity's state of Sin resulting from the Fall of Man.
Although, if those members by which sin was committed were to be covered after the sin, men ought not indeed to have been clothed in tunics, but to have covered their hand and mouth, because they sinned by taking and eating. What, then, is the meaning, when the prohibited food was taken, and the transgression of the precept had been committed, of the look turned towards those members? What unknown novelty is felt there, and compels itself to be noticed? And this is signified by the opening of the eyes. . . As, therefore, they were so suddenly ashamed of their nakedness, which they were daily in the habit of looking upon and were not confused, that they could now no longer bear those members naked, but immediately took care to cover them; did not they--he in the open, she in the hidden impulse--perceive those members to be disobedient to the choice of their will, which certainly they ought to have ruled like the rest by their voluntary command? And this they deservedly suffered, because they themselves also were not obedient to their Lord. Therefore they blushed that they in such wise had not manifested service to their Creator, that they should deserve to lose dominion over those members by which children were to be procreated.
– Letters of the Pelagians 1. 31-32
This view that sex was an evil was prevalent in Augustine's time. Plotinus, a neo-Platonist that Augustine praises in his Confessions,, taught that only through disdain for fleshly desire could one reach the ultimate state of mankind. Plotinus ( Greek:) (ca AD 204–270 was a major philosopher of the ancient world who is widely considered the founder of Neoplatonism (along with his  Augustine, likewise, had served as a "Hearer" for the Manicheans for about nine years, and they also taught that the original sin was carnal knowledge. 
In his pre-Pelagian writings, Augustine taught that Original Sin was transmitted by concupiscence (roughly, lust), making humanity a massa damnata (mass of perdition, condemned crowd) and much enfeebling, though not destroying, the freedom of the will. In the struggle against Pelagianism, the principles of Augustine's teaching were confirmed by many councils, especially the Second Council of Orange (529). Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (ad 354 – ad The Councils of Orange (or the Synods of Orange) comprised two Synods held at Orange France. Anselm of Canterbury established the definition that was followed by the great Schoolmen, namely that Original Sin is the "privation of the righteousness which every man ought to possess", thus separating it from concupiscence, with which Augustine's disciples had often defined it, as later did Luther and Calvin, who instead of seeing concupiscence, like Augustine, as a vehicle of transmission of Original Sin actually equated the two, a doctrine condemned in 1567 by Pope Pius V. Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 &ndash April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval Philosopher, theologian, and church official Pope 
Augustine's formulation of the doctrine of original sin has substantially influenced both Catholic and Reformed (that is, Calvinist) theology. Original sin is according to a doctrine in Catholic theology, humanity's state of Sin resulting from the Fall of Man. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the His understanding of sin and grace was developed against that of Pelagius. Pelagius (ca 354 &ndash ca 420/440 was an ascetic monk who denied the doctrine of Original sin, later developed by Augustine of Hippo, and  Expositions on the topics are found in his works On Original Sin, On the Predestination of the Saints, On the Gift of Perseverance and On Nature and Grace.
Original sin, according to Augustine, consists of the guilt of Adam which all human beings inherit. As sinners, human beings are utterly depraved in nature, lack the freedom to do good, and cannot respond to the will of God without divine grace. In Christianity, divine Grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to Salvation — irrespective of actions Grace is irresistible, results in conversion, and leads to perseverance. Irresistible Grace (or efficacious grace) is a Doctrine in Christian theology particularly associated with Calvinism, which teaches that the Perseverance of the saints is a controversial Christian teaching that none who are truly saved can be condemned for their Sins or finally fall away from the faith  Augustine's idea of predestination rests on the assertion that God has foreordained, from eternity, those who will be saved. Predestination (also linked with Foreknowledge) is a religious concept which involves the relationship between God and His creation The number of the elect is fixed.  God has chosen the elect certainly and gratuitously, without any previous merit (ante merita) on their part.
The Catholic Church considers Augustine's teaching to be consistent with free will.  He often said that any can be saved if they wish.  While God knows who will be saved and who won't, with no possibility that one destined to be lost will be saved, this knowledge represents God's perfect knowledge of how humans will freely choose their destinies. 
Augustine developed his doctrine of the church principally in reaction to the Donatist sect. Ecclesiology (from Greek grc ἐκκλησίᾱ ekklēsiā, "congregation church" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of the The Donatists (named for the Berber Christian Donatus Magnus) were followers of a belief considered a Schism by the broader churches of the He taught a distinction between the "church visible" and "church invisible". The invisible church or church invisible is a theological concept originally taught by St The former is the institutional body on earth which proclaims salvation and administers the sacraments while the latter is the invisible body of the elect, made up of genuine believers from all ages, and who are known only to God. A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is "a Rite in which God is uniquely active The visible church will be made up of "wheat" and "tares", that is, good and wicked people (as per Mat. 13:30), until the end of time. This concept countered the Donatist claim that they were the only "true" or "pure" church on earth. 
Augustine's ecclesiology was more fully developed in City of God. There he conceives of the church as a heavenly city or kingdom, ruled by love, which will ultimately triumph over all earthly empires which are self-indulgent and ruled by pride. Augustine followed Cyprian in teaching that the bishops of the church are the successors of the apostles. This page is about Cyprian bishop of Carthage For other Cyprians see Cyprian (disambiguation. 
Also in reaction against the Donatists, Augustine developed a distinction between the "regularity" and "validity" of the sacraments. A sacrament, as defined in Hexam's Concise Dictionary of Religion is "a Rite in which God is uniquely active Regular sacraments are performed by clergy of the Catholic (that is, the legitimate) church while sacraments performed by schismatics are considered irregular. Nevertheless, the validity of the sacraments do not depend upon the holiness of the priests who perform them; therefore, irregular sacraments are still accepted as valid provided they are done in the name of Christ and in the manner prescribed by the church. On this point Augustine departs from the earlier teaching of Cyprian, who taught that converts from schismatic movements must be re-baptised. This page is about Cyprian bishop of Carthage For other Cyprians see Cyprian (disambiguation. 
Against the Pelagians Augustine strongly stressed the importance of infant baptism. Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (ad 354 – ad Infant baptism is the Christian religious practice of baptizing infants or young children He believed that no one would be saved unless he or she had received baptism in order to be cleansed from original sin. Original sin is according to a doctrine in Catholic theology, humanity's state of Sin resulting from the Fall of Man. He also maintained that unbaptized children would go to hell. Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering It was not until the 12th century that pope Innocent III accepted the doctrine of limbo as promulgated by Peter Abelard. Pope Innocent III ( February 22, 1161 &ndash June 16, 1216) born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was Pope from January See also Intermediate state Purgatory|Heaven|Sheol|Hades in Christianity|Hell in Christianity In Roman Catholic theology Limbo (Latin limbus It was the place where the unbaptized went and suffered no pain but, as the Church maintained, being still in a state of original sin, they did not deserve Paradise, therefore they did not know happiness either. The Church of England disavowed the state of original sin in the 16th century. Non-conformist religions such as the Unitarians and the Quakers never held to the concept.
Augustine did not develop an independent mariology, but his statements on Mary surpass in number and depths those of other early writers.  The Virgin Mary “conceived as virgin, gave birth as virgin and stayed virgin forever  Even before the Council of Ephesus, he defended the ever Virgin Mary as the mother of God, who, because of her virginity, is full of grace  She was free of any temporal sin,  Because of a woman, the whole human race was saved. This article covers the Ecumenical council of 431 For the council of 449 see Second Council of Ephesus. 
Augustine originally believed that Christ would establish a literal 1,000-year kingdom prior to the general resurrection (premillennialism or chiliasm) but rejected the system as carnal. This article concerns itself with Jesus Christ Christian, Islamic and other religious interpretations of resurrection in general Premillennialism in Christian eschatology is the belief that Christ will literally reign on the earth for 1000 years at his Second coming. He was the first theologian to systematically expound a doctrine of amillennialism, although some theologians and Christian historians believe his position was closer to that of modern postmillennialists. Amillennialism ( Latin: a- "not" + mille "thousand" + annum "year" is a view in Christian eschatology In Christian eschatology, postmillennialism is an interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation which sees Christ 's Second coming The mediaeval Catholic church built its system of eschatology on Augustinian amillennialism, where the Christ rules the earth spiritually through his triumphant church.  At the Reformation, theologians such as John Calvin accepted amillennialism while rejecting aspects of mediaeval ecclesiology which had been built on Augustine's teaching. John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and
Augustine taught that the eternal fate of the soul is determined at death, and that purgatorial fires of the intermediate state purify only those that died in communion with the Church. See also Intermediate state Limbo|Heaven|Sheol|Hades in Christianity|Hell in Christianity Purgatory, in the original sense is the condition or process of purification This article is about the Christian doctrine of this name For the Buddhist doctrine of the same name see Bardo. His teaching provided fuel for later theology. 
Augustine developed a theology of just war, that is, war that is acceptable under certain conditions. Just War theory is a Doctrine of military ethics of Roman philosophical and Catholic origin studied by moral Theologians Ethicists and international Firstly, war must occur for a good and just purpose rather than for self-gain or as an exercise of power. Secondly, just war must be waged by a properly instituted authority such as the state. Thirdly, love must be a central motive even in the midst of violence. 
Augustine struggled with lust throughout his life. He associated sexual desire with the sin of Adam, and believed that it was still sinful, even though the Fall has made it part of human nature.
In the Confessions, Augustine describes his personal struggle in vivid terms: "But I, wretched, most wretched, in the very commencement of my early youth, had begged chastity of Thee, and said, 'Grant me chastity and continence, only not yet. '" At sixteen Augustine moved to Carthage where again he was plagued by this "wretched sin":
There seethed all around me a cauldron of lawless loves. I loved not yet, yet I loved to love, and out of a deep-seated want, I hated myself for wanting not. I sought what I might love, in love with loving, and I hated safety. . . To love then, and to be beloved, was sweet to me; but more, when I obtained to enjoy the person I loved. I defiled, therefore, the spring of friendship with the filth of concupiscence, and I beclouded its brightness with the hell of lustfulness.
For Augustine, the evil was not in the sexual act itself, but rather in the emotions that typically accompany it. To the pious virgins raped during the sack of Rome, he writes, "Truth, another's lust cannot pollute thee. " Chastity is "a virtue of the mind, and is not lost by rape, but is lost by the intention of sin, even if unperformed. "
In short, Augustine's life experience led him to consider lust to be one of the most grievous sins, and a serious obstacle to the virtuous life.
Against certain Christian movements rejecting the use of Hebrew Scriptures, Augustine countered that God had chosen the Jews as a special people, though he also considered the scattering of Jews by the Roman empire to be a fulfillment of prophecy.  
Augustine also quotes part of the same prophecy that says "Slay them not, lest they should at last forget Thy law" (Psalm 59:11). Augustine argued that God had allowed the Jews to survive this dispersion as a warning to Christians, thus they were to be permitted to dwell in Christian lands. Augustine further argued that the Jews would be converted at the end of time. 
|“||Of all the fathers of the church, St. Augustine was the most admired and the most influential during the Middle Ages. . . Augustine was an outsider - a native North African whose family was not Roman but Berber. . . He was a genius - an intellectual giant. ||”|
Pennsylvania U. S. A. .
|NAME||Augustine of Hippo, Saint|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo; Augustin; Augustinus, Aurelius|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Christian theologian, bishop, philosopher and saint|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 13, 354|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Tagaste, Algeria|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 28, 430|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Hippo Regius|