August Schleicher (February 19, 1821 – December 6, 1868) was a German linguist born in Meiningen (Duchy Saxe-Meiningen, southwest of Weimar in the Thuringian Forest). Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum Year 1821 ( MDCCCXXI) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common year Events 1060 - Béla I of Hungary is crowned king of Hungary 1240 - Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev Year 1868 ( MDCCCLXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields Meiningen is a town in Germany - located in the Southern part of the state of Thuringia and the district seat of Schmalkalden-Meiningen. A duchy is a territory fief, or domain ruled by a Duke or Duchess. The Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen was one of the Saxon Duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin Dynasty Weimar (ˈvaɪmaʁ is a City in Germany. It is located in the Bundesland of Thuringia (Thüringen north of the Thüringer Wald, The Thuringian Forest ( Thüringer Wald in German) running northwest to southeast forms a continuous stretch of ancient rounded mountains posing ample difficulties His great work was A Compendium of the Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European Languages, in which he attempted to reconstruct the Proto-Indo-European language. Grammar is the field of Linguistics that covers the Rules governing the use of any given natural language.
August Schleicher began his career studying theology and Indo-European, especially Slavic languages. The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) a group of closely related Languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages Influenced by Hegel, he formed the theory that a language is an organism, with periods of development, maturity, and decline. A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them In 1850 Schleicher completed a monograph systematically describing the languages of Europe, Die Sprachen Europas in systematischer Übersicht (The languages of Europe in systematic perspective). For the game see 1850 (board game. 1850 ( MDCCCL) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link Most of the many Languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European Language family. He explicitly represented languages as perfectly natural organisms that could most conveniently be described using terms drawn from biology e. Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles g. , genus, species, and variety. A genus (plural genera from Γένος Latin genus "descent family type gender" is a low-level Taxonomic In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. In Botanical nomenclature or biological nomenclature variety is a low-level Taxonomic rank below that of species and signifies members of different populations can
Schleicher claimed that he himself had been convinced of the natural descent and competition of languages before he had read Darwin’s Origin of Species. Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life He invented a system of language classification that resembled a botanical taxonomy, tracing groups of related languages and arranging them in a genealogical tree. Botany, plant science(s, phytology, or plant biology is a branch of Biology and is the scientific study of plant Life List of language familiesA language family is a group of Languages related by descent from a common ancestor called the Proto-language of that family His model, the Stammbaumtheorie (family-tree theory), was a major development in the study of Indo-European languages. To show how Indo-European might have looked he created a short tale, Schleicher's fable, to exemplify both words and known culture. Schleicher's fable (avis akvāsas ka is an artificial text composed in the reconstructed language Proto-Indo-European (PIE published by August Schleicher in He first introduced a graphic representation of a Stammbaum in articles published in 1853. A phylogenetic tree, also called an evolutionary tree, is a tree showing the Evolutionary relationships among various biological Species or other Year 1853 ( MDCCCLIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common By the time of the publication of his Deutsche Sprache (German language) (1860) he had begun to use trees to illustrate language descent. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Year 1860 ( MDCCLX) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year starting Schleicher is commonly recognized as the first linguist to portray language development using the figure of a tree. Language development is a process that starts early in human life when a person begins to acquire Language by learning it as it is spoken and by mimicry
For the most part, however, Darwin’s ideas simply overlaid the fundamental features of Schleicher’s prior evolutionary project, which derived from the work of those individuals immersed in German romanticism and idealism especially Humboldt and Hegel. Evolutionary linguistics is the Scientific study of the origins and development of language. For the general context see Romanticism. In the Philosophy, Art, and Culture of German -speaking countries German Romanticism German idealism was a philosophical movement in Germany in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt ( June 22, 1767 April 8, 1835) government functionary August Schleicher died from tuberculosis at the age of 47 in Jena (Duchy Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Thuringia). Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common Jena (pronunciation ˈjeːna is a university City in central Germany on the river Saale. The Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (Herzogtum Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach was created in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen is located in central Germany.