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The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the "New World" that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa African American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or Black American ethnic group in the United The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Swahili word meaning disaster terrible occurrence or Slavery in the United States began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia in 1607 and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth The Military history of African Americans spans from the arrival of the first black slaves during the colonial history of the United The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted primarily but not exclusively in the Southern and border states of the United States between 1876 and 1965 Redlining is the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services such as Banking, Insurance, access to jobs access to health care or even Supermarkets The American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968 refers to the reform movements in the United States aimed at abolishing racial discrimination against African Afrocentrism or Afrocentricity is a World view that emphasizes the importance of African people in culture philosophy and history Reparations for Slavery is a proposal by some in the United States that some type of compensation should be provided to the descendants of enslaved people in African American culture in the United States refers to the cultural contributions of African ethnic groups to the culture of the United States either as part of or distinct from African American studies is a subset of Black studies or Africana studies. African American neighborhoods or black neighborhoods are types of Ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States. Historically black colleges and universities ( HBCUs) are institutions of Higher education in the United States that were established before 1964 with the intention Kwanzaa is a week-long holiday celebrated primarily in the United States, honoring African-American heritage African American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community This is an incomplete list of museums which can or may never satisfy any objective standard for completeness African American dances in the vernacular tradition (academically known as "African American vernacular dance" are those dances which have developed within African African American literature is the body of Literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent African American music (also called black music) is an umbrella term given to a range of Music and Musical genres emerging from or influenced by the The term black church or African American church refers to predominantly African-American Christian churches that minister to predominantly black congregations This theology maintains that African Americans must be liberated from multiple forms of bondage — social political economic and religious Black theology refers to a variety of Christian theologies which has as its base in the The Doctrine of Father Divine is the teachings of the late Father Divine (d The Nation of Islam ( NOI) (أمة الإسلام Ummah al-Islāmu) is a group founded in Detroit, Michigan, Black Hebrew Israelites (also Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, and Hebrew Israelites) are groups of people of Black African ancestry Vodou ( Anglicized: Voodoo) or Vaudoo is a family of New World syncretistic religions primarily based on the faiths of the Hoodoo is a form of predominantly African-American traditional folk magic. Santería, also known as La Regla de Lukumi (Lukumi's Rule and The Way of the Saints is an Afro-Cuban religious tradition derived from traditional beliefs Pan-Africanism is a Sociopolitical World view, and Philosophy, as well as a movement which seeks to unify both Native Africans and those of Black nationalism (BN advocates a racial definition (or redefinition of black national identity as opposed to Multiculturalism. Black Power is a racially based Political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies Black Capitalism is a movement among African Americans to build wealth through the ownership and development of businesses Black conservatism is an international political and social movement rooted in communities of African descent that aligns largely with the conservative movement Following the collapse of Reconstruction, African Americans created a broad-based independent political movement in the South black populism that influence all The African American left tends to support leftist positions on social issues and an expansive state that aims at bringing about equality of outcome between the African The Black Panther Party (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a Marxist / Maoist African-American organization established Garveyism is an aspect of Black Nationalism which takes its source from the works words and deeds of UNIA-ACL founder Marcus Garvey. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, usually abbreviated as NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential Civil rights organizations The Southern Christian Leadership Conference ( SCLC) is an American Civil rights organization The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced "snick" was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement The National Urban League ( NUL) formerly known as the National League of black men and women, is a Civil rights organization based in New York City The Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH is a non-profit organization founded in Chicago, Illinois, on September 9, The United Negro College Fund ( UNCF) is a Fairfax, Virginia -based American philanthropic organization that fundraises College tuition The National Black Chamber of Commerce was incorporated in 1993 by Harry Alford who in 2007 continues as CEO History The National Pan-Hellenic Council was established in an age when Racial segregation and disenfranchisement plagued African Americans, the rise of each The Links Incorporated is an exclusive non-profit organization based upon the ideals of combining friendship and community service The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW is a Non-profit organization with the mission to advance the opportunities and the quality of life for African American women their Part of the History of baseball in the United States series The Negro leagues were American professional Baseball leagues History The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, founded on the campus of Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) in 1912 is the oldest African-American Conference sports Conference member schools Current members Former members Conference Stadia Championships The Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC is a Collegiate athletic conference of historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs in the Southeastern "Southwestern Conference" redirects here For the former major conference in Texas and Arkansas see Southwest Conference; for the Ohio High School Conference English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English Geechee is a Creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called "Geechees" an African Louisiana Creole is a French Creole language spoken by the mixed Louisiana Creole people of the state of Louisiana. African American Vernacular English ( AAVE) – also called African American English; less precisely Black English, Black Vernacular, Notable African-Americans or Black Americans For people from current African countries see lists for individual countries List of first African-American mayors for most mayor listings African Americans are a demographic minority in the United States. This is a list of landmark legislation, court decisions, executive orders and proclamations in the United States significantly affecting African Americans This is an alphabetical list of African-American-related topics: A African American African American culture This is a list of articles that are related to African and black people The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. It lasted from the 16th century to the 19th century. Most slaves were shipped from West Africa and Central Africa and taken to the New World (primarily Brazil). West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. Central Africa is a core Region of the African Continent often considered to include Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad Generally slaves were obtained through coastal trading with Africans, though some were captured by European slave traders through raids and kidnapping.  Most contemporary historians estimate that between 9. 4 and 12 million Africans arrived in the New World, although the number of people taken from their homestead is considerably higher.  The slave-trade is sometimes called the Maafa by African and African-American scholars, meaning "holocaust" or "great disaster" in Swahili. The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Swahili word meaning disaster terrible occurrence or African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches The slaves were one element of a three-part economic cycle—the Triangular Trade and its Middle Passage—which ultimately involved four continents, four centuries and millions of people. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another The term business cycle or economic cycle refers to the fluctuations of economic activity during its long term growth trend Triangular trade is a historical term indicating Trade between three ports or regions Middle Passage refers to the forcible passage of African people from Africa to the New World, as part of the Atlantic slave trade. A continent is one of several large Landmasses on Earth. They are generally identified by Convention rather than any strict criteria with seven regions A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred is One hundred consecutive Years Centuries are numbered ordinally (e
Slavery was practiced in Africa before the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history This article discusses systems of slavery within Africa the history and effects of the slavery trade upon Africa The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another  The African slave trade provided a large number of slaves to Europeans and their African agents. This article discusses systems of slavery within Africa the history and effects of the slavery trade upon Africa The European peoples are the various Nations and Ethnic groups of Europe. The term African people can refer to people who live in Africa, or people who trace their ancestry to Indigenous inhabitants of Africa. 
There are two main eras of the Atlantic system.
The First Atlantic system was the trade of African slaves to mostly South American colonies of the Portuguese and Spanish empires; it accounted for only slightly more than 3% of all Atlantic slave trade. It started (on a significant scale) in about 1502 and lasted until 1580, when Portugal was temporarily united with Spain. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Iberian Union is a modern day term that refers to the historical political unit that governed all of the Iberian peninsula south of the Pyrenees from 1580–1640 Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. While the Portuguese traded slaves themselves, the Spanish empire relied on the asiento system, awarding merchants (mostly from other countries) the license to trade slaves to their colonies. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west In the History of Slavery, asiento (or assiento, meaning " Assent " refers to the permission given by the Spanish government During the first Atlantic system most of these traders were Portuguese, giving them a near-monopoly during the era, although some Dutch, English, Spanish and French traders also participated in the slave trade.  After the union, Portugal stayed formally autonomous, but was weakened, with its colonial empire being attacked by the Dutch and English.
The Second Atlantic system was the trade of African slaves by mostly English, Brazilian, French and Dutch traders. The main destinations of this phase were the Caribbean colonies, Brazil and North America, as a number of European countries built up economically slave-dependent colonial empires in the New World. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Amongst the pioneers of this system were Francis Drake and John Hawkins. Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c 1540 &ndash 27 January 1595 was an English Privateer, navigator, Slaver, and politician Admiral Sir John Hawkins (also spelled as John Hawkyns) ( Plymouth 1532 &ndash November 12 1595) was an English shipbuilder
Only slightly more than 3 percent of the slaves exported were traded between 1450 and 1600, 16% in the 17th century. More than half of them were exported in the 18th century, the remaining 28. 5% in the 19th century. 
European colonists initially practiced systems of both bonded labor and Indian slavery, enslaving many of the natives of the New World. Triangular trade is a historical term indicating Trade between three ports or regions An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to Indian Slavery was the practice of using Indigenous peoples of the Americas as Slaves. For a variety of reasons, Africans replaced Indians as the main population of slaves in the Americas. In some cases, such as on some of the Caribbean Islands, warfare and diseases such as smallpox eliminated the natives completely. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting This is a listing of lists of Wars, sorted by country date region and type of conflict Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. In other cases, such as in South Carolina, Virginia, and New England, the need for alliances with native tribes coupled with the availability of African slaves at affordable prices (beginning in the early 18th century for these colonies) resulted in a shift away from Indian slavery.
A burial ground in Campeche, Mexico, suggests slaves had been brought there not long after Hernán Cortés completed the subjugation of Aztec and Mayan Mexico. Auguste Francois Biard (1800-1882 was a French genre painter Born at Lyon, he travelled around the world sketching on the way Campeche ( Ahk'ìin Pech in Modern Maya) is the capital city of the Mexican state of Campeche, located at,on The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca ( 1485&ndash December 2, Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican Civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the Pre-Columbian Americas The graveyard had been in use from about 1550 to the late 1600s .
The first side of the triangle was the export of goods from Europe to Africa. A number of African kings and merchants took part in the trading of slaves from 1440 to about 1900. Year 1900 ( MCM) was an exceptional Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar For each captive, the African rulers would receive a variety of goods from Europe. Many of them were confronted with the dilemma of trading with Europe or becoming slaves themselves. The second leg of the triangle exported enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to South America, the Caribbean islands, and North America. The third and final part of the triangle was the return of goods to Europe from the Americas. The goods were the products of slave-labor plantations and included cotton, sugar, tobacco, molasses and rum. Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Molasses or Treacle is a thick Syrup by-product from the processing of the Sugarcane or Sugar beet into Sugar. Rum is a Distilled beverage made from Sugarcane by-products such as Molasses and sugarcane Juice by a process of fermentation
However, Brazil (the main importer of slaves) manufactured these goods in South America and directly traded with African ports, thus not taking part in a triangular trade.
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Shortage of labor was one of the issues the Atlantic Slave Trade was made to deal with. In its narrowest definition a labor shortage is an economic condition in which there are insufficient qualified candidates (employees to fill the market-place demands Native peoples were the first used by Europeans as slaves until a large number died from overwork and Old World diseases. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century  Later, African slaves were available in quantity at affordable prices. Other incentives, such as indentured servitude also failed to provide a sufficient workforce. An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to
Many crops could not be sold for profit or even grown in Europe. It was also cheaper to import many crops and goods from the New World than from regions in Europe. Huge amounts of labor were needed for the plantations in the intensive growing, harvesting and processing of these prized tropical crops. Western Africa (part of which became known as 'the Slave Coast') and later Central Africa became the new source for slaves to meet the demand for labor. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. The Slave Coast is the name of the coastal areas of present Togo, Benin (formerly Dahomey) and western Nigeria, a fertile region of coastal Central Africa is a core Region of the African Continent often considered to include Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad
The basic reason for the constant shortage of labor was that, with large amounts of cheap land available and lots of landowners searching for workers, free European immigrants were able to become landowners themselves after a relatively short time, thus increasing the need for workers. 
The Atlantic slave trade was not the only slave trade taking a toll on Africa, although it was one of the largest in volume and intensity. As Elikia M’bokolo wrote in Le Monde diplomatique: "The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed "Le Diplo" by its French readers is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics culture and current affairs Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى aṣ-ṣaḥrā´ al-kubra, "The Great Desert" is the world's largest hot Desert and the world's second largest At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth). The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings . . . Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean. The Red Sea is a Salt water Inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. Swahili (called Kiswahili in the language itself is the First language of the Swahili people (Waswahili who inhabit several large stretches The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface Trans-Saharan trade is trade across the Sahara between Mediterranean countries and West Africa. "
Europeans usually bought slaves who were captured in tribal wars between African kingdoms and chiefdoms, or from Africans who had made a business out of capturing other Africans and selling them. Endemic warfare is the state of continual low-threshold Warfare in a tribal Warrior society Europeans provided a large new market for an already-existing trade, and while an African held in slavery in his own region of Africa might escape or be traded back to his own people, a person shipped away was sure never to return. People living around the Niger River were transported from these markets to the coast and sold at European trading ports in exchange for muskets and manufactured goods such as cloth or alcohol. The Niger River (ˈnaɪdʒɚ NYE-jer) is the principal River of western Africa, extending about 4180 km (2600 miles A musket is a muzzle -loaded Smoothbore Long gun, which is intended to be fired from the shoulder
The Atlantic slave trade peaked in the late 18th century, when the largest number of slaves were captured on raiding expeditions into the interior of West Africa. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. These expeditions were typically carried out by coastal African kingdoms, such as the Oyo empire (Yoruba) and the kingdom of Dahomey. The Oyo Empire (c 1400 - 1835 was a West African empire of what is today western Nigeria. The Yoruba (Yo•row•ba ( Yorùbá in Yoruba Orthography) are one of the largest ethno-linguistic or Ethnic groups in West Africa 
Europeans rarely entered the interior of Africa, due to fear of disease and moreover fierce African resistance. Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions  The slaves would be brought to coastal outposts where they would be traded for goods. Enslavement became a major by-product of war in Africa as nation states expanded through military conflicts in many cases through deliberate sponsorship of benefiting Western European nations. During such periods of rapid state formation or expansion (Asante or Dahomey being good examples), slavery formed an important element of political life which the Europeans exploited: As Queen Sara's plea to the Portuguese courts revealed, the system became "sell to the Europeans or be sold to the Europeans". In Africa, convicted criminals could be punished by enslavement and with European demands for slaves, this punishment became more prevalent. Since most of these nations did not have a prison system, convicts were often sold or used in the scattered local domestic slave market. 
The majority of European conquests occurred toward the end or after the transatlantic slave trade. One exception to this is the conquest of Ndongo in current day Angola where Ndongo's slaves, warriors, free citizens and even nobility were taken into slavery by the Portuguese conquerors after the fall of the state. The Kingdom of Ndongo (or Kingdom of Ngola) is the name of a pre-colonial African state in modern day Angola built by the Mbundu a Bantu -speaking people inhabiting Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola Pronounced ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈgɔlɐ Repubilika ya Ngola is a country in south-central Nobility is a government-privileged title which may be either hereditary (see Hereditary titles) or for a lifetime
Slavery in African cultures was generally indentured servitude: slaves were not chattel, nor enslaved for life. This article discusses systems of slavery within Africa the history and effects of the slavery trade upon Africa An indentured servant is a form of Debt bondage worker The Laborer is under Contract of an Employer for some period of time usually three to Personal property is a type of Property. In the Common law systems personal property may also be called chattels or personalty. African slaves were paid wages and were able to accumulate property. They often bought their own freedom and could then achieve social promotion — just as freedmen in ancient Rome — some even rose to the status of rulers (e. A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC g. Jaja of Opobo and Sunni Ali Ber). Sonni Ali, also known as Sunni Ali Ber or "Sunni Ali" who Reigned from about 1464 to 1492 was the first great king of the Songhai Empire, located Similar arguments were used by Western slave owners during the time of abolitionism, for example by John Wedderburn in Wedderburn v. Knight, the case that ended legal recognition of slavery in Scotland in 1776. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies Slavery at common law refers to the legal status of Slavery and the Slave trade under the system of Law used in England and adopted by its former colonies Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Regardless of the legal options open to slave owners, rational cost-earning calculation and/or voluntary adoption of moral restraints often tended to mitigate.
There were eight principal areas used by Europeans to buy and ship slaves to the Western Hemisphere. The number of slaves sold to the new world varied throughout the slave trade. As for the distribution of slaves from regions of activity, certain areas produced far more slaves than others. Between 1650 and 1900, 10. 24 million African slaves arrived in the Americas from the following regions in the following proportions:
There were over 173 city-states and kingdoms in the African regions affected by the slave trade between 1502 and 1853, when Brazil became the last Atlantic import nation to outlaw the slave trade. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Of those 173, no fewer than 68 could be deemed nation states with political and military infrastructures that enabled them to dominate their neighbors. Nearly every present-day nation had a pre-colonial predecessor, sometimes an African Empire with which European traders had to barter and eventually battle. There have been a number of Empires located in Africa throughout history Below are 29 nation states by country that actively or passively participated in the Atlantic Slave Trade:
The different ethnic groups brought to the Americas closely corresponds to the regions of heaviest activity in the slave trade. The Empire of Great Fulo, also known as the Denanke Kingdom or Denianke Kingdom (1514-1776 was a pre-Islamic Fula kingdom of Senegal, which The Kingdom of Fouta Tooro or the Kingdom of Fuua Tooro (1776-1891 was a pre-colonial West African state of the Fula-speaking people ( Fulɓe Khasso or Xaaso was a West African kingdom of the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries occupying territory in what is today Senegal and the The Kingdom of Saloum in Senegal is a traditional kingdom which was founded in the late 15th century by the "Gelwaar" or nobles from the Kingdom The Kingdom of Kaabu (ver Gabu, Ngabou or N’Gabu') (1537-1867 was a Mandinka Kingdom of Senegambia (centered on modern northeastern The Kingdom of Fouta Djallon (also the Kingdom of Fuuta Jallon and the Timbo Almamate) (1725-1896 was a pre-colonial West African state based in the The Kingdom of Koya or Koya Temne or Temne Kingdom (1505-1896 was a pre-colonial African state in the north of present-day Sierra Leone. The Kong Empire (1710-1895 also known as the Wattara Empire or Ouattara Empire for its founder was a pre-colonial African state centered in north eastern Cote Gyaman also spelled Jamang (1450-1895 was a medieval African state of the Akan people, located in what is now Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. Ashanti, or Asante, are a major Ethnic group of Ashanti Region in Ghana. The Mankessim Kingdom (1252–1873 was a pre-colonial African state in modern-day Ghana. The Oyo Empire (c 1400 - 1835 was a West African empire of what is today western Nigeria. The Benin Empire or Edo Empire (1440-1897 was a large pre-colonial African state of modern Nigeria. The Aro Confederacy (1690-1902 was a slave trading political union orchestrated by the Igbo subgroup the Aro people, centered in Arochukwu in present The Mandara Kingdom (sometimes called Wandala) was a West African kingdom in the Mandara Mountains of what is today Cameroon. The Kingdom of Orungu (c 1700 - 1927 was a small pre-colonial state of what is now Gabon in West Africa. The Kingdom of Loango was a pre-colonial African state from approximately the 15th to the 19th century in what is now the Republic of Congo. The Anziku Kingdom, also called the Teke Kingdom, the Tyo Kingdom or Tio Kingdom, was a pre-colonial West Central African state of modern Republic The Kingdom of Kongo (1400 – 1914 ( Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what The Kingdom of Ndongo (or Kingdom of Ngola) is the name of a pre-colonial African state in modern day Angola built by the Mbundu a Bantu -speaking people inhabiting The Kingdom of Matamba was a pre-colonial African state located in what is now the Baixa de Cassange region of Malanje Province of modern day Angola. Over 45 distinct ethnic groups were taken to the Americas during the trade. Of the 45, the ten most prominent according to slave documentation of the era are listed below. 
The transatlantic slave trade resulted in a vast and as yet still unknown loss of life for African captives both in and outside of America. The Gbe languages (ɡ͡bè form a cluster of about twenty related Languages stretching across the area between eastern Ghana and western Nigeria. The Mbundu people are the second largest ethnic group in Angola. The Bakongo or the Kongo people (meaning "hunter" also sometimes referred to as Congolese, live along the Atlantic coast of Africa The Yoruba (Yo•row•ba ( Yorùbá in Yoruba Orthography) are one of the largest ethno-linguistic or Ethnic groups in West Africa Mandé is an Ethnic group of West Africa. Speakers of the Mande languages are found in Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau Approximately 8 million Africans were killed during their storage, shipment and initial landing in the New World. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia.  The amount of life lost in the actual procurement of slaves remains a mystery but may equal or exceed the amount actually enslaved.  If such a figure is to be believed, the total number of deaths would be between 16 and 20 million.
The savage nature of the trade, in which most of the slaves were prisoners from African wars, led to the destruction of individuals and cultures. The following figures do not include deaths of African slaves as a result of their actual labor, slave revolts or diseases they caught while living among New World populations.
A database compiled in the late 1990s put the figure for the Transatlantic Slave Trade at more than 11 million people. Estimates as high as 50 million have been floated. For a long time an accepted figure was 15 million, although this has in recent years been revised down. Most historians now agree that at least 12 million slaves left the continent between the fifteenth and nineteenth century, but 10 to 20% died on board ships. Thus a figure of 11 million slaves transported to the Americas is the nearest demonstrable figure historians can produce. 
According to David Stannard's American Holocaust, 50% of African deaths occurred in Africa as a result of wars between native kingdoms, which produced the majority of slaves. The Kingdom of Kongo (1400 – 1914 ( Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what David Edward Stannard (born 1941 was born to Florence E Harwood Stannard and David L  This includes not only those who died in battles, but also those who died as a result of forced marches from inland areas to slave ports on the various coasts.  The practice of enslaving enemy combatants and their villages was widespread throughout Western and West Central Africa, although wars were rarely started to procure slaves. The slave trade was largely a by-product of tribal and state warfare as a way of removing potential dissidents after victory or financing future wars. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units  However, some African groups proved particularly adept and brutal at the practice of enslaving such as Kaabu, Asanteman, Dahomey, the Aro Confederacy and the Imbangala war bands. The Kingdom of Kaabu (ver Gabu, Ngabou or N’Gabu') (1537-1867 was a Mandinka Kingdom of Senegambia (centered on modern northeastern The Ashanti Empire or Asante Empire, also known as the Ashanti Confederacy or Asanteman (independent from 1701-1896 was a pre-colonial West The Aro Confederacy (1690-1902 was a slave trading political union orchestrated by the Igbo subgroup the Aro people, centered in Arochukwu in present The Imbangala or Mbangala were 17th century groups of Angolan warriors and marauders whom founded the kingdom of Kasanje.  By the end of this process, no less than 18. 3 million people would be herded into "factories" to await shipment to the New World.
In letters written by the Manikongo, Nzinga Mbemba Affonso, to the King João III of Portugal, he writes that Portuguese merchandise flowing in is what is fueling the trade in Africans. The Manikongo or MweneKongo was the title of the rulers of the Kingdom of Kongo, a kingdom that existed from the fourteenth to the nineteenth Nzinga Mvemba (c 1456 - 1542 or 1543 also known as King Afonso I was a ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo in the first half of the 16th century John III ( Portuguese: João III ʒuˈɐ̃ũ ( June 7, 1502 &ndash June 11, 1557) nicknamed o Piedoso Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. He requests the King of Portugal to stop sending merchandise but should only send missionaries. In one of his letter he writes:
Before the arrival of the Portuguese, slavery had already existed in Kongo. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west The Kingdom of Kongo (1400 – 1914 ( Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what Despite its establishment within his kingdom, Afonso believed that the slave trade should be subject to Kongo law. Nzinga Mvemba (c 1456 - 1542 or 1543 also known as King Afonso I was a ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo in the first half of the 16th century When he suspected the Portuguese of receiving illegally enslaved persons to sell, he wrote in to King João III in 1526 imploring him to put a stop to the practice. 
The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery, who otherwise would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. Every year in the Kingdom of Dahomey, a huge festival in honor of the ancestors was organized called the annual "customs". As one of West Africa's principal slave states, Dahomey became extremely unpopular with neighbouring peoples.  Like the Bambara Empire to the east, the Khasso kingdoms depended heavily on the slave trade for their economy. The Bamana Empire (also Bambara Empire or Ségou Empire) was a large pre-colonial West African state based at Ségou, now in Mali Khasso or Xaaso was a West African kingdom of the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries occupying territory in what is today Senegal and the This article discusses systems of slavery within Africa the history and effects of the slavery trade upon Africa A family's status was indicated by the number of slaves it owned, leading to wars for the sole purpose of taking more captives. This trade led the Khasso into increasing contact with the European settlements of Africa's west coast, particularly the French. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  Benin grew increasingly rich during the 16th and 17th centuries on the slave trade with Europe; slaves from enemy states of the interior were sold, and carried to the Americas in Dutch and Portuguese ships. The Benin Empire or Edo Empire (1440-1897 was a large pre-colonial African state of modern Nigeria. The Bight of Benin's shore soon came to be known as the "Slave Coast". 
King Gezo of Dahomey said in the 1840s:
In 1807, the UK Parliament passed the Bill that abolished the trading of slaves. The King of Bonny (now in Nigeria) was horrified at the conclusion of the practice:
After being marched to the coast for sale, slaves waited in large forts called factories. The amount of time in factories varied, but Milton Meltzer's Slavery: A World History states this process resulted in or around 4. Milton Meltzer (born May 8 1915) is an American historian and author best known for his history nonfiction books on Jewish African-American 5% of deaths during the transatlantic slave trade.  In other words, over 820,000 people would have died in African ports such as Benguela, Elmina and Bonny reducing the number of those shipped to 17. Benguela (São Felipe de Benguela formerly spelled Benguella) is a city in western Angola, south of Luanda, and capital of Benguela Province Elmina is a town situated on a south-facing bay on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana, lying west of Cape Coast. Bonny (formerly Ibani or Ubani) is a town in Rivers State in southeast Nigeria, on the Bight of Biafra. 5 million. 
After being captured and held in the factories, slaves entered the infamous Middle Passage. Middle Passage refers to the forcible passage of African people from Africa to the New World, as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Meltzer's research puts this phase of the slave trade's overall mortality at 12. 5%.  Around 2. 2 million Africans died during these voyages where they were packed into tight, unsanitary spaces on ships for months at a time. Measures were taken to stem the onboard mortality rate such as enforced "dancing" (as exercise) above deck and the practice of force-feeding any slaves that attempted to starve themselves.  The conditions on board also resulted in the spread of fatal diseases. Other fatalities were the result of suicides by jumping over board by slaves who could no longer endure the conditions.  Before the shipping of slaves was completely outlawed in 1853, 15. 3 million "immigrants" had arrived in the Americas.
Raymond L. Cohn, an economics professor whose research has focused on economic history and international migration, has researched the mortality rates among Africans during the voyages of the Atlantic slave trade. Economic history is the study of how economic phenomena evolved in the past International migration occurs when persons cross state boundaries and stay in the host state for some minimum length of time Mortality rate is a measure of the number of Deaths (in general or due to a specific cause in some population scaled to the size of that population per unit time He found that mortality rates decreased over the history of the slave trade, primarily because the length of time necessary for the voyage was declining. "In the eighteenth century many slave voyages took at least 2-1/2 months. In the nineteenth century, 2 months appears to have been the maximum length of the voyage, and many voyages were far shorter. Fewer slaves died in the Middle Passage over time mainly because the passage was shorter. "
Meltzer also states that 33% of Africans would have died in the first year at seasoning camps found throughout the Caribbean.  Many slaves shipped directly to North America bypassed this process; however most slaves (destined for island or South American plantations) were likely to be put through this ordeal. The slaves were tortured for the purpose of "breaking" them (like the practice of breaking horses) and conditioning them to their new lot in life. Horse breaking, sometimes called starting or gentling, refers to the process used by humans to get horses to let themselves be ridden or harnessed Jamaica held one of the most notorious of these camps. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. All in all, 5 million Africans died in these camps reducing the final number of Africans to about 10 million.
The trade of enslaved Africans in the Atlantic has its origins in the explorations of Portuguese mariners down the coast of West Africa in the 15th century. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west Before that, contact with African slave markets was made to ransom Portuguese that had been captured by the intense North African Barbary pirate attacks to the Portuguese ships and coastal villages, frequently leaving them depopulated. The Barbary pirates, also sometimes called Ottoman corsairs, were Muslim Pirates and Privateers that operated from North Africa, from  The first Europeans to use African slaves in the New World were the Spaniards who sought auxiliaries for their conquest expeditions and laborers on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola, where the alarming decline in the native population had spurred the first royal laws protecting the native population (Laws of Burgos, 1512-1513). The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous Island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of The first African slaves arrived in Hispaniola in 1501 . After Portugal had succeeded in establishing sugar plantations (engenhos) in northern Brazil ca. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld 1545, Portuguese merchants on the West African coast began to supply enslaved Africans to the sugar planters there. While at first these planters relied almost exclusively on the native Tupani for slave labor, a titanic shift toward Africans took place after 1570 following a series of epidemics which decimated the already destabilized Tupani communities. The Tupi people is one of the main Ethnic groups of Brazilian indigenous people, together with the related Guaraní. By 1630, Africans had replaced the Tupani as the largest contingent of labor on Brazilian sugar plantations, heralding equally the final collapse of the European medieval household tradition of slavery, the rise of Brazil as the largest single destination for enslaved Africans and sugar as the reason that roughly 84% of these Africans were shipped to the New World. Slavery in early Medieval Europe was relatively common It was widespread at the end of antiquity.
Merchants from various European nations were later involved in the Atlantic Slave trade: Portugal, Spain, France, England, Scotland, Brandenburg-Prussia, Denmark, Holland. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Brandenburg-Prussia (Brandenburg-Preußen was a German Monarchy established by the Personal union between the Duchy of Prussia and the The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Holland is a region in the western part of the Netherlands. A maritime and economic power in the 17th century Holland today consists of the Dutch provinces of As Britain rose in naval power and settled continental North America and some islands of the West Indies, they became the leading slave traders. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting At one stage the trade was the monopoly of the Royal Africa Company, operating out of London, but following the loss of the company's monopoly in 1689, Bristol and Liverpool merchants became increasingly involved in the trade . The Royal African Company was a slaving company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants once the former retook the English throne in London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Bristol ( ˈbrɪstəl is a city, Unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, west of London Liverpool ( is a City and Metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary By the late 17th century, one out of every four ships that left Liverpool harbour was a slave trading ship. Slave ships were cargo Ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves, especially newly purchased African slaves  Other British cities also profited from the slave trade. Birmingham, the largest gun producing town in Britain at the time, supplied guns to be traded for slaves. Birmingham ( ˈbɜːmɪŋəm Ber -ming-um The Gun Quarter is the name given to an area of the city of Birmingham, in England, traditionally (and still associated with the manufacture of firearms and sporting 75% of all sugar produced in the plantations came to London to supply the highly lucrative coffee houses there. A coffeehouse ( French / Portuguese: café; Spanish: cafetería; Italian: caffè 
In general, early Christians, such as Paul, St. Augustine, or St. Thomas Aquinas did not oppose slavery. Christianity does not have a clear position regarding slavery, in favour or against Paul the apostle (שאול התרסי Šaʾul HaTarsi, meaning " Saul of Tarsus " Σαούλ Saul and Σαῦλος Saulos and Pope Nicholas V even encouraged enslaving non-Christian Africans in his Papal Bull Romanus Pontifex of 1454. See also Antipope Nicholas V. Pope Nicholas V (Italian Niccolò V; November 15, 1397 &ndash March A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. Romanus Pontifex is a papal bull written January 8 1455 by Pope Nicholas V to King Afonso V of Portugal. Since then other popes stated that slavery was against Christian teachings, as is now generally held. Even earlier, in 1435, Pope Eugene IV condemned the enslavement of the inhabitants of the Canary Islands. Pope Eugene IV (1383 &ndash February 23, 1447) born Gabriele Condulmer, was Pope from March 3, 1431, to his death The Canary Islands ( English pronunciation kəˈnæriː ˈaɪləndz Spanish: Islas Canarias, ˈizlas kaˈnarjas are a Spanish In 1537, Pope Paul III forbade the enslavement of the Indians and other indigenous peoples with the papal bull Sublimus Dei. Pope Paul III ( February 29, 1468 &ndash November 10, 1549) born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Sublimus Dei (also seen as Sublimus Deus and Sublimis Deus) is a Papal bull promulgated by Pope Paul III on May 29 A list of papal statements against slavery (and also claims that the popes nonetheless owned and bought slaves) is found in the discussion Christianity and Slavery. Christianity does not have a clear position regarding slavery, in favour or against
Most Christian sects found some way to soothe the consciences of their slave-owning members. One notable exception was the Society of Friends (Quakers), who advocated the abolition of slavery from earliest times. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies
The first slaves to arrive as part of a labor force appeared in 1502 on the island of Hispaniola (now Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous Island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with Cuba received its first four slaves in 1513. The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Slave exports to Honduras and Guatemala started in 1526. Honduras in Spanish, República de Honduras) is a democratic republic in Central America. Guatemala (República de Guatemala) is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west the Pacific Ocean to the southwest The first African slaves to reach what would become the US arrived in January of 1526 as part of a Spanish attempt at colonizing South Carolina near Jamestown. South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. Jamestown is a town in Berkeley County, South Carolina, United States. By November the 300 Spanish colonist were reduced to a mere 100 accompanied by 70 of their original 100 slaves. The slaves revolted and joined a nearby native population while the Spanish abandoned the colony altogether. Colombia received its first slaves in 1533. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. El Salvador, Costa Rica and Florida began their stint in the slave trade in 1541, 1563 and 1581 respectively. El Salvador ( República de El Salvador,) is a country in Central America. Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the
The 17th century saw an increase in shipments with slaves arriving in the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. The James Settlement was the first permanent English settlement in North America. Irish immigrants brought slaves to Montserrat in 1651. Montserrat (ˌmɒntsəˈræt is British overseas territory located in the Leeward Islands, part of the chain of islands called the Lesser Antilles And in 1655, slaves arrive in Belize. Belize (bəˈliːz formerly British Honduras, is a country in Central America.
Distribution of slaves (1450-1900) 
|Spanish Empire||22. 1%|
|British West Indies||17. 7%|
|French West Indies||14. 1%|
|British North America and future United States||4. 4%|
|Dutch West Indies||4. 4%|
|Danish West Indies||0. 2%|
The plantation economies of the New World were built on slave labor. A plantation economy is an Economy which is based on Agricultural mass production usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called Plantations Seventy percent of the slaves brought to the new world were used to produce sugar, the most labor-intensive crop. Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. The rest were employed harvesting coffee, cotton, and tobacco, and in some cases in mining. CoFFEE is an Open source Software for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL in a digital classroom Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body The West Indian colonies of the European powers were some of their most important possessions, so they went to extremes to protect and retain them. For example, at the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763, France agreed to cede the vast territory of New France to the victors in exchange for keeping the minute Antillean island of Guadeloupe. The Seven Years' War (1756&ndash1763 involved all of the major European powers of the period causing 900000 to 1400000 deaths The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Guadeloupe is an island group or Archipelago located in the eastern Caribbean Sea at, with a land area of 1628 square kilometres (629  sq
Slave trade profits have been the object of many fantasies. Returns for the investors were not absurdly high (around 6% in France in the 18th century), but they were considerably higher than domestic alternatives (in the same century, around 5%). Risks — maritime and commercial — were important for individual voyages. Investors mitigated it by buying small shares of many ships at the same time. In that way, they were able to diversify a large part of the risk away. Between voyages, ship shares could be freely sold and bought. All these made the slave trade a very interesting investment. 
By far the most successful West Indian colonies in 1800 belonged to the United Kingdom. After entering the sugar colony business late, British naval supremacy and control over key islands such as Jamaica, Trinidad, and Barbados and the territory of British Guiana gave it an important edge over all competitors; while many British did not make gains, a handful of individuals made small fortunes. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Trinidad ( Spanish: " Trinity " is the largest and most populous of the two major islands and Barbados ( Portuguese word for bearded-ones, bɑrˈbeɪdoʊz -dɒs situated just east of the Caribbean Sea, is an independent Island nation British Guiana was the name of the British Colony on the northern coast of South America, now the independent nation of Guyana. This advantage was reinforced when France lost its most important colony, St. Dominigue (western Hispaniola, now Haiti), to a slave revolt in 1791 and supported revolts against its rival Britain, after the 1793 French revolution in the name of liberty (but in fact opportunistic selectivity). Saint-Domingue was a French Colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804 when it became the independent nation of Before 1791, British sugar had to be protected to compete against cheaper French sugar.
After 1791, the British islands produced the most sugar, and the British people quickly became the largest consumers. West Indian sugar became ubiquitous as an additive to Indian tea. Nevertheless, the profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to less than 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution in the latter half of the 1700s. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting This is a history of the economy of the United Kingdom and of the countries that joined to form it in 1707 and 1801 The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the 
|Latin America and the Caribbean||16||24||38||74||167||511|
|Africa||13. 4||10. 9||8. 8||8. 1||8. 8||12. 8|
|Asia||63. 5||64. 9||64. 1||57. 4||55. 6||60. 8|
|Europe||20. 6||20. 8||21. 9||24. 7||21. 7||12. 2|
|Latin America and the Caribbean||2. 0||2. 5||3. 0||4. 5||6. 6||8. 5|
|Northern America||0. 3||0. 7||2. 1||5. 0||6. 8||5. 1|
|Oceania||0. 3||0. 2||0. 2||0. 4||0. 5||0. 5|
Historian Walter Rodney has argued that at the start of the slave trade in the 16th century, even though there was a technological gap between Europe and Africa, it was not very substantial. Walter Rodney ( March 23, 1942 &ndash June 13, 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian and political figure Both continents were using Iron Age technology. The major advantage that Europe had was in ship building. During the period of slavery the populations of Europe and the Americas grew exponentially while the population of Africa remained stagnant. Rodney contended that the profits from slavery were used to fund economic growth and technological advancement in Europe and the Americas. Based on earlier theories by Eric Williams, he asserted that the industrial revolution was at least in part funded by agricultural profits from the Americas. He cited examples such as the invention of the steam engine by James Watt, which was funded by plantation owners from the Caribbean. The timeline of James Watt ( 19 January 1736 &ndash 25 August 1819 Boulton proved to be an excellent businessman and both men eventually made fortunes
Other historians have attacked both Rodney's methodology and factual accuracy. Joseph C. Miller has argued that the social change and demographic stagnation (which he researched on the example of West Central Africa) was caused primarily by domestic factors. Joseph Inikori provided a new line of argument, estimating counterfactual demographic developments in case the Atlantic slave trade had not existed. Patrick Manning has shown that the slave trade did indeed have profound impact on African demographics and social institutions, but nevertheless criticized Inikori’s approach for not taking other factors (such as famine and drought) into account and thus being highly speculative. 
No scholars dispute the harm done to the slaves themselves, but the effect of the trade on African societies is much debated due to the apparent influx of capital to Africans. Cowry, also sometimes spelled cowrie, plural always cowries, is the Common name for a group of small to large sea Snails marine Proponents of the slave trade, such as Archibald Dalzel, argued that African societies were robust and not much affected by the ongoing trade. Archibald Dalzel (1740-1811 was a British adventurer and Governor of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) In the 19th century, European abolitionists, most prominently Dr. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies David Livingstone, took the opposite view arguing that the fragile local economy and societies were being severely harmed by the ongoing trade. Dr David Livingstone (19 March 1813 &ndash 1 May 1873 was a British Congregationalist pioneer medical Missionary with the London Missionary Society This view continued with scholars until the 1960s and 70s such as Basil Davidson, who conceded it might have had some benefits while still acknowledging its largely negative impact on Africa. Basil Davidson (born 9 November 1914 in Bristol, England) is an acclaimed British Historian, writer and Africanist  Historian Walter Rodney estimates that by c. Walter Rodney ( March 23, 1942 &ndash June 13, 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian and political figure 1770, the King of Dahomey was earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling captive African soldiers and even his own people to the European slave-traders.
Eric Williams has attempted to show the contribution of Africans on the basis of profits from the slave trade and slavery, and the employment of those profits to finance England’s industrialization process. Eric Eustace Williams ( September 25, 1911 &ndash March 29, 1981) was the first Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago He argues that the enslavement of Africans was an essential element to the Industrial Revolution, and that European wealth is a result of slavery. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the However, he argued that by the time of its abolition it had lost its profitability and it was in Britain's economic interest to ban it. Most modern scholars disagree with this view. Seymour Drescher and Robert Anstey have both presented evidence that the slave trade remained profitable until the end, and that reasons other than economics led to its cessation. Joseph Inikori has shown elsewhere that the British slave trade was more profitable than the critics of Williams would want us to believe. Nevertheless, the profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to less than 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the 
The demographic effects of the slave trade are some of the most controversial and debated issues. More than 10 million people were removed from Africa via the slave trade, and what effect this had on Africa is an important question.
Walter Rodney argued that the export of so many people had been a demographic disaster and had left Africa permanently disadvantaged when compared to other parts of the world, and largely explains the continent's continued poverty. Walter Rodney ( March 23, 1942 &ndash June 13, 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian and political figure  He presented numbers showing that Africa's population stagnated during this period, while that of Europe and Asia grew dramatically. According to Rodney, all other areas of the economy were disrupted by the slave trade as the top merchants abandoned traditional industries to pursue slaving, and the lower levels of the population were disrupted by the slaving itself.
Others have challenged this view. J. D. Fage compared the number effect on the continent as a whole. John Donnelly Fage (1921-2002 was a British Historian noted for his work on African history. David Eltis has compared the numbers to the rate of emigration from Europe during this period. "Emigrant" redirects here For the Butterflies, see Catopsilia. In the nineteenth century alone over 50 million people left Europe for the Americas, a far higher rate than were ever taken from Africa. .
Other scholars accused Rodney of mischaracterizing the trade between Africans and Europeans. They argue that Africans, or more accurately African elites, deliberately let European traders join in an already large trade in slaves and were not patronized. 
As Joseph E. Inikori argues, the history of the region shows that the effects were still quite deleterious. He argues that the African economic model of the period was very different from the European, and could not sustain such population losses. Population reductions in certain areas also led to widespread problems. Inikori also notes that after the suppression of the slave trade Africa's population almost immediately began to rapidly increase, even prior to the introduction of modern medicines.  Shahadah also states that the trade was not only of demographic significance, in aggregate population losses but also in the profound changes to settlement patterns, exposure to epidemics, and reproductive and social development potential. Demographics or demographic data refers to selected population characteristics as used in government Marketing or opinion research or the Demographic profiles In Statistics, aggregate data describes data combined from several measurements 
Maulana Karenga states that the effects of slavery were "the morally monstrous destruction of human possibility involved redefining African humanity to the world, poisoning past, present and future relations with others who only know us through this stereotyping and thus damaging the truly human relations among peoples. Maulana Karenga (born Ronald McKinley Everett on July 14, 1941, and also known as Ron Everett) is an African American " He states that it constituted the destruction of culture, language, religion and human possibility. 
The Atlantic slave trade was without question a long-standing system which displaced many African people from their native lands, tribes, and families. The evidence of the populations of descendant Africans is most clear in the continents of North America and South America.
In Britain and in some parts of Europe, opposition developed against the slave trade. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies Led by the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) and establishment Evangelicals such as William Wilberforce, the movement was joined by many and began to protest against the trade, but they were opposed by the owners of the colonial holdings. William Wilberforce (24 August 1759 – 29 July 1833 was a British Politician, a Philanthropist Denmark, which had been active in the slave trade, was the first country to ban the trade through legislation in 1792, which took effect in 1803. The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Britain banned the slave trade (but not slavery itself) in 1807, imposing stiff fines for any slave found aboard a British ship (see Slave Trade Act 1807). See also Atlantic slave trade, Abolitionism The Slave Trade Act (citation 47 Geo III Sess The Royal Navy, which then controlled the world's seas, moved to stop other nations from filling Britain's place in the slave trade and declared that slaving was equal to piracy and was punishable by death. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering The United States outlawed the importation of slaves on January 1, 1808, the earliest date permitted by the constitution for such a ban. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1808 ( MDCCCVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Article One of the United States Constitution describes the powers of the legislative branch of the United States government, known as Congress
On Sunday 28 October 1787, William Wilberforce wrote in his diary: “God Almighty has set before me two great objects, the suppression of the slave trade and the Reformation of society. Events 306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor. 312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine Year 1787 ( MDCCLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common William Wilberforce (24 August 1759 – 29 July 1833 was a British Politician, a Philanthropist ” For the rest of his life, William Wilberforce dedicated his life as a Member of Parliament to opposing the slave trade and working for the abolition of slavery throughout the British Empire. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. On 22 February 1807, twenty years after he first began his crusade, and in the middle of Britain’s war with France, Wilberforce and his team’s labors were rewarded with victory. By an overwhelming 283 votes for to 16 against, the motion to abolish the slave trade was carried in the House of Commons. 
After the British ended their own slave trade, they felt forced by economics to press other nations to do the same, or else the British colonies would become uncompetitive. With peace in Europe from 1815, and British supremacy at sea secured, the Navy turned its attention back to the challenge and established the West Coast of Africa Station, known as the ‘preventative squadron’, which for the next 50 years operated against the slavers. By the 1850s, around 25 vessels and 2,000 officers and men were on the station, supported by nearly 1,000 ‘Kroomen’, experienced fishermen recruited as sailors from what is now the coast of modern Liberia. Service on the West Africa Squadron was a thankless and overwhelming task, full of risk and posing a constant threat to the health of the crews involved. The West Africa Squadron, established in 1808 after the passing of the Slave Trade Act in 1807 was a unit of the Royal Navy that was involved in the suppression Contending with pestilential swamps and violent encounters, the mortality rate was 55 per 1,000 men, compared with 10 for fleets in the Mediterranean or in home waters.  Between 1807 and 1860, the West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 ships involved in the slave trade and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard these vessels. . The last recorded slave ship to land on American soil was the Clotilde, which in 1859 illegally smuggled a number of Africans into the town of Mobile, Alabama.  The Africans on board were sold as slaves, however slavery was abolished 5 years later following the end of the civil war. The last survivor of the voyage was Cudjoe Lewis who died in 1935. Cudjoe Kazoola Lewis (ca 1840 – 1935 is considered the last person born on African soil to have been enslaved in the US 
Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against ‘the usurping King of Lagos’, deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.  The British campaign against the slave trade by other nations was an unprecedented foreign policy effort.
Although the slave trade had become illegal, slavery remained a reality in British colonies. The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. Wilberforce himself was privately convinced that the institution of slavery should be entirely abolished, but understood that there was little political will for emancipation. In parliament, the Emancipation Bill gathered support and received its final commons reading on 26 July 1833. Slavery would be abolished, but the planters would be heavily compensated. Thank God, said William Wilberforce, that I have lived to witness a day in which England is willing to give twenty millions sterling for the Abolition of Slavery. William Wilberforce (24 August 1759 – 29 July 1833 was a British Politician, a Philanthropist
At the 2001 World Conference Against Racism in Durban South Africa, African nations demanded a clear apology for slavery from the former slave-trading countries. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The World Conference against Racism ( WCAR) are international events organized by the UNESCO in order to struggle against racism ideologies and behaviours Durban (eThekwini is the third most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the EThekwini metropolitan municipality. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Some EU nations were ready to express an apology, but the opposition, mainly from the United Kingdom, Spain, Netherlands, Portugal and the United States blocked attempts to do so. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A fear of monetary compensation was one of the reasons for the opposition. Apologies on behalf of African nations, for their role in trading their countrymen into slavery, also remains an open issue.
On January 30, 2006, Jacques Chirac said that 10 May would henceforth be a national day of remembrance for the victims of slavery in France, marking the day in 2001 when France passed a law recognising slavery as a crime against humanity. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. In Public international law, a crime against humanity is an act of Persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people and is the highest level of 
On November 27, 2006, Tony Blair made a partial apology for Britain's role in the African slavery trade. Events 1095 - Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. However African rights activists denounced it as "empty rhetoric" that failed to address the issue properly. They feel his apology stopped shy to prevent any legal retort.  Mr Blair again apologized on March 14, 2007. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
On February 24, 2007 the Virginia General Assembly passed House Joint Resolution Number 728 acknowledging "with profound regret the involuntary servitude of Africans and the exploitation of Native Americans, and call for reconciliation among all Virginians. Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. " With the passing of that resolution, Virginia became the first of the 50 United States to acknowledge through the state's governing body their state's involvement in slavery. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The passing of this resolution came on the heels of the 400th anniversary celebration of the city of Jamestown, Virginia, which was the first permanent English colony to survive in what would become the United States. Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Jamestown is also recognized as one of the first slave ports of the American colonies. The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492 although there was at least one earlier colonization effort
On May 31, 2007, Alabama Governor Bob Riley signed a resolution expressing "profound regret" for Alabama's role in slavery and apologizing for slavery's wrongs and lingering effects. Events 1279 BC - Rameses II (The Great (19th dynasty becomes pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. Robert Renfroe "Bob" Riley (born October 3 1944 is an American Politician in the Republican Party. Alabama is the fourth Southern state to pass a slavery apology, following votes by the legislatures in Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States 
On August 24, 2007, Mayor Ken Livingstone of London, England apologized publicly for England's role in colonial slave trade. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar 's General Gaius Scribonius Curio is defeated in the Second Battle of the Bagradas River Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born 17 June 1945 is a British Socialist Politician. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history "You can look across there to see the institutions that still have the benefit of the wealth they created from slavery," he said pointing towards the financial district. He claimed that London was still tainted by the horrors of slavery. Jesse Jackson praised Mayor Livingstone, and added that reparations should be made. Jesse Louis Jackson Sr (born October 8 1941 is an American Civil rights activist and Baptist minister.