Common name: Metro Atlanta
- Sandy Springs
|Population||Ranked 9th in the U.S.|
|- Total||5,278,904 (2007 est. Sandy Springs is a newly incorporated city incorporated in December 2005 Roswell is a City located in northern Fulton County Georgia. As of the 2000 census the city had a total Population of 79334 Marietta is a City located in central Cobb County Georgia, and is its County seat. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology See also Metropolitan Statistical Area, Core Based Statistical Area Table of United States Core Based Statistical AreasThe United States Census Bureau has defined )|
|- Density||630/sq. mi. |
|Area||8,376 sq. Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. mi. |
|- Highest point||1808 feet (551 m)|
|- Lowest point||N/A feet (N/A m)|
The Atlanta metropolitan area, commonly referred to as metro Atlanta in Georgia, is the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the United States and consists of 28 counties in Georgia. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas|Table of United States Core Based Statistical AreasIn the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB has produced A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large Metropolis and its adjacent zone of influence or of more than one closely adjoining neighboring central The United States of America —commonly referred to as the According to the 2000 Census, the metropolitan area had a population of 4,247,981, though the 2007 Census estimate shows 5,278,904 people living in the area. 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology According to the 2007 population estimates, the 28-county Atlanta metropolitan area is currently the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States based on numerical gains. The city of Atlanta is only the 35th-largest city in the country, largely due to the area's patterns of urban sprawl and the city's inability to annex as have such cities as Charlotte, San Diego, Dallas, Houston and Phoenix. Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is the spreading of a city and its Suburbs over rural land at the fringe of an urban area Annexation ( Latin ad, to and nexus, joining is the legal incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity (either adjacent or non-contiguous Phoenix (ˈfiːˌnɪks O'odham Skikik, Yavapai Wasinka, Western Apache Fiinigis, Navajo Hoozdo, Atlanta's combined statistical area, or CSA, had a population in 2000 of 4,584,234. Table of United States Combined Statistical AreasThe United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB defines micropolitan and metropolitan statistical areas. As of July 1, 2007 the population of the CSA is estimated to be 5,626,400. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century.
According to the ranking of world cities undertaken by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network and based on the level of presence of global corporate service organizations, Atlanta is considered a "Gamma World City. "
These are communities with more than 10,000 inhabitants within their city limits or CDP boundary. Barrow County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Bartow County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Butts County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. It was created on December 24 1825 Carroll County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Cherokee County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Clayton County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Cobb County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Its County seat and largest city is Marietta, located in the center Coweta County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Dawson County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. DeKalb County is located in the US state of Georgia. In 2000 the population of the County was 686712 Douglas County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Fayette County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Forsyth County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Fulton County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Gwinnett County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Haralson County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Heard County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. It was created on December 22 1830 Henry County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. As of the 2000 census the population was 119341 Jasper County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Lamar County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. As of 2000 the population is 15912 Meriwether County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Newton County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Paulding County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Pickens County is a County located in the US state of Pike County is a County located in the US state of Georgia Rockdale County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Spalding County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Walton County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Fulton County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Gwinnett County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. DeKalb County is located in the US state of Georgia. In 2000 the population of the County was 686712 Cobb County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Its County seat and largest city is Marietta, located in the center Clayton County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Cherokee County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Henry County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. As of the 2000 census the population was 119341 Forsyth County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Paulding County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Douglas County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Coweta County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Carroll County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Fayette County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Newton County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Bartow County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Walton County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Rockdale County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Barrow County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Spalding County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Pickens County is a County located in the US state of Haralson County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Butts County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. It was created on December 24 1825 Meriwether County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Dawson County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Pike County is a County located in the US state of Georgia Lamar County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. As of 2000 the population is 15912 Jasper County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. Heard County is a County located in the US state of Georgia. It was created on December 22 1830 Edge city is an American term for a relatively new concentration of business shopping and entertainment outside a traditional Urban area in what had recently been Perimeter Center is a major Edge city within Metro Atlanta. It is located north-northeast of Atlanta proper and is centered on Perimeter Mall Sandy Springs is a newly incorporated city incorporated in December 2005 The Cumberland area (also known as Cumberland/Galleria of the seminal office park that spurred its growth is a modern Edge city of Atlanta Georgia with approximately Alpharetta is an City in north Fulton County, Georgia, United States. ----The term city limits (or city boundary) refers to the defined boundary of a City.
These are communities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. Acworth is a city in Cobb County, Georgia, United States. As of the 2000 Census, the city had Alpharetta is an City in north Fulton County, Georgia, United States. Belvedere Park is a Census-designated place (CDP in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Buckhead is an Uptown District within the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Buford is a city in Gwinnett and Hall counties in the US state of Georgia. Candler-McAfee is a Census-designated place (CDP in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Canton is a city in and the County seat of Cherokee County, Georgia, United States. Carrollton is a city in west central Georgia, in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. Cartersville is a city in Bartow County, Georgia, in the United States. College Park is a city located partly in Fulton County Georgia and partially in Clayton County Georgia, in the United States. Conyers is a the only city in Rockdale County, Georgia, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 10689 Covington is a city in Newton County, Georgia, United States. For the south-western Georgia County, see Decatur County Georgia. The City of Douglasville is the County seat of Douglas County Georgia, United States. Druid Hills is a Census-designated place in DeKalb County, Georgia (part of the greater Atlanta metropolitan area Duluth is a city in Gwinnett County Georgia, and a suburb of Atlanta located in the Metro Atlanta area The City of East Point is southwest of the neighborhoods of Atlanta in Fulton County, Georgia, United States. Fayetteville is a city in Fayette County, Georgia, United States. Flowery Branch is a town in Hall County, Georgia, United States. Forest Park is a city in Clayton County, Georgia, United States. Gainesville is a city in Hall County in Georgia, United States of America. Griffin is a city in Spalding County, Georgia, United States. Johns Creek ( Population Approximately 62049 is a city of Fulton County Georgia which was incorporated on December 1, 2006. Kennesaw is a city in Cobb County, Georgia, United States. The population was 21675 at the 2000 census Lawrenceville is a city in and the County seat of Gwinnett County, Georgia, in the United States. Lilburn is a city in Gwinnett County, Georgia, in the United States. Lithonia is a town in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States, and is incorporated as a city the only type of Municipality in the state Mableton is a Census-designated place in Cobb County, Georgia, United States. Marietta is a City located in central Cobb County Georgia, and is its County seat. McDonough is a city in Henry County, Georgia, United States. The population was 8493 at the 2000 census Milton ( Population Approximately 20000 is an area of Fulton County Georgia which became incorporated Monroe is a city in Walton County, Georgia, United States. The population was 11409 at the 2000 census Mountain Park is an unincorporated Census-designated place in Gwinnett County, Georgia, United States. Newnan is a city in Coweta County, Georgia, 39 miles (63 km southwest of Atlanta. North Atlanta is a Census-designated place in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. North Decatur is a Census-designated place (CDP in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. North Druid Hills is a Census-designated place (CDP in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Panthersville is a Census-designated place (CDP in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Peachtree City ( Zip code 30269 is a city in Fayette County, Georgia, United States. Powder Springs is a city in Cobb County, Georgia, United States. Redan is a Census-designated place (CDP in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Riverdale is a city in Clayton County, Georgia, United States. Roswell is a City located in northern Fulton County Georgia. As of the 2000 census the city had a total Population of 79334 Sandy Springs is a newly incorporated city incorporated in December 2005 Smyrna is a City in Cobb County, Georgia, United States. As of the 2000 Census, the city had a total Population Snellville is a city in Gwinnett County, Georgia, east of Atlanta. Stockbridge is a city in Henry County, Georgia, United States. Sugar Hill is a city in Northern Gwinnett County Georgia. The population was 11399 at the 2000 census Suwanee is a city in Gwinnett County, Georgia. Portions of Forsyth County and Fulton County also have Suwanee and its zip code (30024 as a mailing address Tucker is a Census-designated place in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Union City is a city in Fulton County, Georgia, United States. Villa Rica (ˌvɪləˈrɪkə is a city in Carroll and Douglas Counties in the U Winder is a city in Barrow County, Georgia, United States. The population was 10201 at the 2000 census Woodstock is a city in Cherokee County, Georgia, United States.
These are far-out communities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. Adamsville is a predominantly African-American Neighborhood on the west side of Atlanta Georgia. Auburn is a city in Barrow and Gwinnett Counties, Georgia. The population was 6904 at the 2000 census Austell is a city in Cobb and Douglas Counties in the US state of Georgia. Avondale Estates is a city in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Ball Ground is a City in Cherokee County, Georgia, United States. Berkeley Lake is a city in Gwinnett County, Georgia, United States. Braselton is a Town in Barrow, Gwinnett, Hall, and Jackson Counties in the U Bremen is a city in Haralson County, United States. The population was 4579 at the 2000 census Carl is a town in Barrow County, Georgia, United States. The population was 205 at the 2000 census Cassville is an unincorporated community in Bartow County in the U Chamblee is a city in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. The population was 9552 at the 2000 census Clarkston is a city in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Conley is a Census-designated place (CDP in DeKalb County and Clayton County Georgia. Cumming is a city in Forsyth County, Georgia, United States. The population was 4220 at the 2000 census Dacula is a city in Gwinnett County, Georgia, United States. The population was 3848 at the 2000 census Dallas is a city in Paulding County, Georgia, United States. The population was 5056 at the 2000 census Doraville is a city in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. East Griffin is a Census-designated place (CDP in Spalding County, Georgia, United States. East Newnan is a Census-designated place (CDP in Coweta County, Georgia, United States. Emerson is a city in far southern Bartow County, Georgia, United States, on highways 41 293 and 75 Fair Oaks is a Census-designated place (CDP in Cobb County, Georgia, United States. Fairburn is a city in Fulton County, Georgia with a postal service area that extends into Fayette County Georgia. Flowery Branch is a town in Hall County, Georgia, United States. Grayson is a city in Gwinnett County, Georgia, United States. Greenville is a city in Meriwether County, Georgia, United States. Gresham Park is a Census-designated place (CDP in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Hampton is a City in western Henry County, Georgia, United States. Hapeville is a city in Fulton County, Georgia, United States located directly adjacent to the City of Atlanta Haralson is a town in Coweta and Meriwether Counties in the U Hiram is a city in Paulding County, Georgia, United States. The population was 1361 at the 2000 census Holly Springs is a city in Cherokee County, Georgia, United States. Irondale is a Census-designated place (CDP in Clayton County, Georgia, United States. Jasper is a city in Pickens County, Georgia, United States. The population was 2167 at the 2000 census Jonesboro is a city in Clayton County, Georgia, United States. Lake City is a city in Clayton County, Georgia, United States. Lakeview Estates is a Census-designated place (CDP in Rockdale County, Georgia, United States. Lebanon Georgia is a community that is now absorbed into Holly Springs. Lithia Springs is an unincorporated area formerly incorporated as city located in northeastern Douglas County Georgia. Lithonia is a town in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States, and is incorporated as a city the only type of Municipality in the state Locust Grove is a city in Henry County, Georgia, United States. Loganville is a city located mostly in Walton County with a small portion of the city located in Gwinnett County, Georgia, United States. Lovejoy is a city in Clayton County, Georgia, United States. As of the 2000 Census, the city had a total Population of 2495 Morrow is a city in Clayton County, Georgia, United States. The population was 4882 at the 2000 census Mountain Park is a City primarily in the western part of northern Fulton county in the U Norcross is a city in Gwinnett County, Georgia, United States. Oakwood is a city in Hall County, Georgia, United States. The population was 2689 at the 2000 census Oxford is a city in Newton County, Georgia, in the United States. Palmetto (established 1853 is a city located mostly in Fulton (originally Campbell) and now partly in Coweta counties in Georgia. Pine Lake is the smallest city in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Porterdale is a town in Newton County, Georgia, United States. Rest Haven is a town primarily in northern Gwinnett and partly in southern Hall counties in the U Scottdale is a Census-designated place (CDP in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Senoia (pronounced "Se-noy-uh" is a city in Coweta County, Georgia, United States. Sharpsburg is a town in Coweta County, Georgia, United States. Social Circle is a city in Walton and Newton counties in the U Stone Mountain is a city in DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. Tallapoosa (pronounced \ta-lə-pü-sə\)is a city in Haralson County, Georgia, United States. Temple is a city in Carroll and Haralson Counties in the US state of Georgia. Tyrone is a town in Fayette County, Georgia, United States. The population was 3916 at the 2000 census Vinings is a Census-designated place and an unincorporated Town in Cobb County, Georgia, just across the Chattahoochee River Waleska is a city in Cherokee County, Georgia, United States.
Georgia has the smallest average county size of any state which operates county governments. Adairsville is a city in Bartow County, Georgia, United States. Bethlehem is a town in Barrow County, Georgia, United States. Between is a town in Walton County, Georgia, United States. The population was 148 at the 2000 census Blacksville is a Census-designated place (CDP in Henry County, Georgia, United States. Bonanza is a Census-designated place (CDP in Clayton County, Georgia, United States. Bowdon is a city in Carroll County, Georgia, United States. As of the 2000 Census, the city had a total Population of 1959 Braswell is a city in Polk and Paulding Counties in the US state of Georgia (U Brooks is a town in Fayette County, Georgia, USA. The population was 553 at the 2000 census Corinth is a Town in Coweta and Heard Counties in the US state of Georgia. Euharlee is a city in Bartow County, Georgia, United States. The population was 3208 at the 2000 census Experiment is a Census-designated place (CDP in Spalding County, Georgia, United States. Good Hope is a town in Walton County, Georgia, United States. Grantville is a city in Coweta County, Georgia, United States. Jersey is a town in Walton County, Georgia, United States. The population was 163 at the 2000 census Kingston is a city in Bartow County, Georgia, United States. The population was 659 at the 2000 census the 2005 official estimate listed a population of Mansfield is a city in Newton County, Georgia, United States. Moreland is a town in Coweta County, Georgia, in the United States. There are also other places named Mount Zion. Mount Zion is a city in Carroll County, Georgia, United Newborn is a town in Newton County, Georgia, United States. The population was 520 at the 2000 census Orchard Hill is a town in Spalding County, Georgia, United States. Roopville is a town in Carroll County, Georgia, United States. Statham is a city in Barrow County, Georgia, United States. The population was 2040 at the 2000 census Sunny Side is a city in Spalding County, Georgia, United States. Taylorsville is a town in Bartow and Polk counties in the US state of Georgia. Turin is a town in Coweta County, Georgia, United States. The population was 165 at the 2000 census Walnut Grove is a town in Walton County, Georgia, United States. White is a city in Bartow County, Georgia, United States. The population was 693 at the 2000 census Whitesburg is a town in Carroll County, Georgia, United States. Woolsey is a town in Fayette County, Georgia, United States. The population was 175 at the 2000 census This focuses government more locally but allows greater conflict between jurisdictions. The first significant intergovernmental agency in metro Atlanta was the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, which runs the MARTA public transportation system. Alongside other factors, problems associated with the inner city of Atlanta (crime, poverty, racism, poor public school performance, etc) influenced Cobb, Gwinnett, and Clayton county voters to refuse MARTA into their respective counties during the 1970s. The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and This article is about the Decade 1970-1979 For the Year 1970 see 1970.
The Atlanta Regional Commission is so far the closest that the area has come to a metropolitan government. The Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC is the regional planning and intergovernmental coordination agency for the Atlanta, Georgia region as defined as a 10-county area including In American Local government, a consolidated city-county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction It only approves projects deemed to have an impact beyond the immediate area in which they are placed. The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority is somewhat of a cross between ARC and MARTA, searching mainly for alternative transportation such as buses and trains. The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority or GRTA ( Pronounced like the Name "Greta" is a Government agency in the U GRTA also operates XPress buses from counties that have otherwise refused to join in public transport initiatives, and could operate commuter rail service in the future. The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority or GRTA ( Pronounced like the Name "Greta" is a Government agency in the U In Political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizen's initiative) provides a means by which a Petition signed by a certain Commuter rail, regional rail or suburban rail is a Passenger rail transport service between a city center and outer suburbs and Commuter towns Currently, plans for commuter rail and eventual intercity rail are the responsibility of the Georgia Rail Passenger Authority. Inter-city rail services are express Train passenger services which cover longer distances than Commuter trains Africa Inter-city services are reasonably The Georgia Rail Passenger Program (GRPP is a set of plans as yet unbuilt for intercity and commuter rail in the U
Despite meeting in Atlanta, on land donated to it by the city for the Georgia State Capitol, the Georgia General Assembly has often been at odds with the city. The Georgia State Capitol, in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States, is an architecturally and historically significant building The Georgia General Assembly is the state legislature of the U During the mid-2000s, the legislature voted to force Atlanta to abandon its living wage law. Living wage is a term used to describe the minimum hourly wage necessary for a person to achieve some specific standard of living It also tried to vote against the city's tree-protection ordinance, a move which which would have allowed any tree in Georgia to be destroyed for any reason had it passed.
Funding formulas for roads have also been skewed toward rural legislators' political districts, particularly the Governor's Road Improvement Plan (GRIP), which encouraged divided highways even in places where they were not justified by actual or projected traffic. A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures goals or loyalty This, combined with a state constitution which prohibits motor fuel taxes from being used on anything other than roads (including on public transportation that eases traffic on those roads) has left the metro area in a very difficult situation when it comes to transportation. A fuel tax (also known as a petrol tax, gasoline tax, gas tax or fuel duty) is a Sales tax imposed on the sale of Fuel. Traffic on Roads may consist of Pedestrians ridden or herded Animals Vehicles Streetcars and other Conveyances either singly Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another
There have been proposals in 2007 to allow new multi-county sales taxes, in addition to existing county sales taxes for roads, which would pay for regional transportation initiatives.  However, long-time powerful road lobbyists in the state have pushed for proposals heavily skewed toward more roads and little or no alternative transportation systems, like the ones which are being expanded in other major metro areas of the South like Nashville, Charlotte, and Miami. Lobbying includes all attempts to influence Legislators and officials whether by other legislators constituents or organized groups
Before Atlanta was even a city, it was a railroad hub. From this came the joke, popular among other Southerners, that "regardless of whether one goes to heaven or hell, everyone must go through Atlanta first. Heaven may refer to the physical heavens the sky or the seemingly endless expanse of the Universe beyond Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering " Many of its suburbs pre-date it as depots or train stations along the major lines in and out of town. DEPOT is an acronym for Distributed Ensemble of Pages that is Outage Tolerant |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains Through mergers, the main railroads in the area are now Norfolk Southern and CSX. This article is about the present railroad formed in 1990 For the former regional railroad in Virginia and North Carolina a small part of the new one see Norfolk Southern The Georgia Northeastern Railroad is a short line that also services part of the area. The Georgia Northeastern Railroad is a Short line Freight Railroad which runs from the town of Elizabeth Georgia (now within Marietta, near
Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport is the only international airport for the region (and only major international airport for the state), and as with rail travel, it became the ubiquitous place through which everyone must travel at some point. An international airport is an Airport typically equipped with Customs and Immigration facilities to handle international flights to and from other Other airports include Charlie Brown Field, McCollum Field, Cartersville Airport, DeKalb Peachtree Airport, Briscoe Field, and the Clayton County Airport. For other airports with this name see Fulton County Airport. Fulton County Airport at Charlie Brown Field is a local Class Cobb County Airport - McCollum Field is a public Airport located 21 miles (34 km northwest of the Central business district of Atlanta, immediately Cartersville Airport is a public Airport located 3 miles (5 km southwest of the city of Cartersville in Bartow County, Georgia, USA DeKalb-Peachtree Airport is a municipal General aviation Airport located in Chamblee, Georgia, just northeast of Atlanta. Gwinnett County Airport at Briscoe Field is a Municipal Airport located about two miles (3km northeast of Lawrenceville, Georgia Clayton County Airport - Tara Field, formerly known as Henry County Airport - Morris Field, or Bear Creek Airport is a Municipal Airport Atlanta's second airport is in the very preliminary discussion and study phase. Atlanta's second airport is an idea being studied by the city of Atlanta Georgia.
There are many historic roads across the area, named after its mills and early ferries, and the bridges later built to replace the ferries. There were several Historic mills around the Metro Atlanta area for which many of its current-day Roads are still named There were several Historic Ferries around the Metro Atlanta, Georgia area for which many of its current-day Roads are named Pace's Ferry is perhaps the best known. Through much of the 19th century Pace's Ferry was an important Ferry across the Chattahoochee River near Atlanta.
Owing to the area's long history of settlement (unlike the Las Vegas metropolitan area, for example) and uneven terrain, most arterial roads are not straight, and instead curve around. The Las Vegas metropolitan area includes the Las Vegas Valley a 600-square-mile (1600 km² basin and surrounding areas that is part of Clark County in southern An arterial road is a moderate or high-capacity Road which is immediately below a Highway Level of service. This can be confusing for visitors, much more so than the famed proliferation of Atlanta city streets with "Peachtree" in the name.
The region maintains the nomenclature of each county naming its roads for the towns they connect with in surrounding counties. Thus, from Dallas to Roswell, Georgia 120 is Marietta Highway to the Paulding/Cobb county line, Dallas Highway to the city of Marietta, Whitlock Avenue to the town square, South Park Square for just one city block, Roswell Street to Cobb Parkway (at the Big Chicken), Roswell Road to the Cobb/Fulton county line, and finally Marietta Street to the town square in Roswell. Public square and city square redirect here For Public Square Cleveland see Public Square and for City Square in Leeds see Leeds City Square. A city block, urban block or simply block is a central element of Urban planning and Urban design. Cobb Parkway (locally often just " 41 " is a major Arterial road which runs northwest and southeast through Cobb County Georgia. The Big Chicken is a KFC restaurant in Marietta Georgia, which features a large steel-sided structure designed in the appearance of a chicken rising up from the top
There are many roads like this throughout the area, leading to duplication of names in different counties. In Fulton, "Roswell Road" refers to Georgia 9 through northern Atlanta and across Sandy Springs, in addition to the above-mentioned use in Cobb, for example. State Route 9 is a north-south highway running from Atlanta to just north of Dahlonega. Numeric street addressing is done by county as well, with the origin usually being at one corner of the town square in the county seat. An address is a Code and abstract concept expressing the fixed location of a home business or other building on the earth's surface The U.S. Postal Service ignores these actual and logical boundaries however, overlapping ZIP codes and their associated place names across counties. The ZIP code is the system of Postal codes used by the United States Postal Service (USPS The Cumberland/Galleria area has Cobb's numbers and an "SE" suffix, but is called "Atlanta" by the USPS, which can confuse visitors to think it is far away in southeast Atlanta.
Where more than one town in the same county has a road to the same place, the smaller towns have their own name prefixed to it, while the county seat does not. A county seat is a term for an Administrative center for a County, primarily used in the United States. The road need not go directly to the other place, but may connect through other roads. Examples include Due West Road west from Marietta, Kennesaw Due West Road southwest from Kennesaw, and Acworth Due West Road south from Acworth. Some are usually hyphenated, like Peachtree-Dunwoody Road, Ashford-Dunwoody Road, Chamblee-Dunwoody Road, and Chamblee-Tucker Road. A hyphen ( -) is a Punctuation mark It is used for both Words to join and to separate Syllables It is often confused with the dashes Chamblee-Tucker Road is a multilane road that connects Tucker to Chamblee, in Metro Atlanta.
There are also several roads named for communities which have been overwhelmed by the urban and suburban sprawl, and so are usually not recognized by newcomers. These include Sandy Plains, Crabapple, Toonigh, Ashford, and Due West. Centered today at the crossroads of Georgia Highways 140 and 372 (also known as "the Silos area" Crabapple Georgia, is one of the oldest parts of Toonigh, located between Holly Springs and Woodstock, is also (and more commonly known as Lebanon. Some of these communities are in the middle of the road, while some are at or very near one end. Some places get renamed, either over time (Sandy Plains gradually became "Sprayberry" when Sprayberry High School moved there and similarly-named shopping centers popped up around it), by the USPS (Toonigh is identified as "Lebanon"), or by new suburbanites who don't think the existing name is good enough (Hog Mountain is now "Hamilton Mill". Sprayberry High School was founded the day after Labor Day in 1952 in Cobb County Georgia, United States. In this case, the roads usually maintain their names even if the places do not.
Several of these roads have become arterials, while others remain pleasant two-lane drives. Many are state roads as well, though GDOT has the habit of moving numbered routes onto other roads, sometimes arbitrarily, and occasionally sending them through an entirely different town. The Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT is the organization in charge of developing and maintaining all state and federal roadways in the state of Georgia. State highway numbers also tend to curve around arbitrarily while their directional signs do not, rendering them useless where they indicate "north" and "south" in places the road goes east and west. There are also a few U.S. highways that cross the area, including 19, 23, 41, and 78. The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U US Route 19 is a north-south US Highway. Despite encroaching Interstate Highways the route has remained a long-haul route connecting Lake Erie with US Route 23 is a long north-south US highway between Jacksonville Florida, and Mackinaw City Michigan. US Route 41 is a north-south United States Highway that runs from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to Miami Florida. US Highway 78 is an east-west United States highway that runs for 715 miles (1151 km from Memphis Tennessee, to Charleston South Carolina.
Other arterials are completely new, like much of Barrett Parkway and South Fulton Parkway, both constructed by their counties but partly covered with a state route number. Ernest W Barrett Parkway (more commonly Barrett Parkway) is a major thoroughfare between western and northern Cobb County, Georgia that runs from southwest South Fulton Parkway is a Divided highway in south Fulton County Georgia, United States. Occasionally, roads are realigned or extended to meet each other directly at a cross-road, leading to odd curves and name changes.
Metro Atlanta is served by six major interstate highway routes to and from the city. The Dwight D Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate System) I-75 is the busiest and carries a great deal of truck traffic, running south-southeast to Macon and onward to Florida and northwest to Chattanooga (and I-575 to Canton). Interstate 75 (I-75 is a major north-south Interstate Highway in the midwest and southeastern United States. This article is about the semi-truck For the North American use of the word see Pickup truck. Macon is a city located in central Georgia, USA It is among the largest metropolitan areas in Georgia and the county seat of Bibb County. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the Canton is a city in and the County seat of Cherokee County, Georgia, United States. I-85 runs southwest to Auburn and Montgomery (and I-185 to Columbus), and northeast to Greenville/Spartanburg and Charlotte (and I-985 to Gainesville). Interstate 85 (I-85 is an Interstate highway in the southeastern United States. Auburn is a city in Lee County, Alabama, United States. It is the largest city in eastern Alabama with a 2007 population of 54348 Montgomery (məntˈgəmɜriː is the Capital, second most populous city and the 4th most populous metropolitan area in the Southern U Columbus is a City in Muscogee County, Georgia, United States. Greenville is a mid-sized city located in the upstate of South Carolina. Spartanburg is the largest city in and the County seat of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, United Gainesville is a city in Hall County in Georgia, United States of America. I-20 runs east to Augusta and Columbia, and west to Anniston and Birmingham. Augusta Georgia is a city in Richmond County, Georgia, United States. Columbia is the state capital and largest city in the US state of South Carolina. Anniston is a city in Calhoun County in the state of Alabama, United States. Birmingham (ˈbɝmɪŋhæm is the largest City in the US state of Alabama and is the County seat of Jefferson County.
I-285 encircles the city, and is called the Perimeter. Interstate 285 (I-285 is a Beltway Interstate highway encircling Atlanta Georgia, for 63 I-75/85 is joined through downtown Atlanta, called the Downtown Connector. Downtown is a term primarily used in North America to refer to a city's core usually in a geographical commercial and community sense In Atlanta Georgia, the Downtown Connector or 75/85 (pronounced "seventy-five eighty-five" is the overlapped connector of I-675 joins I-75 in the south metro to the southeastern end of I-285. Georgia 400 runs north to Alpharetta, then somewhat northeast to Dahlonega in the mountains. Georgia State Route 400 (known commonly as Georgia 400 or just 400) is a Highway in the U Alpharetta is an City in north Fulton County, Georgia, United States. Dahlonega is a city in Lumpkin County, Georgia, United States, and is its County seat. A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak The GDOT had originally planned to connect 400 and 675 as I-475, but this was cancelled, as was east-west Interstate 420 and Interstate 485
Currently, I-75 is 15 lanes wide north of the Windy Hill Road interchange (8 northbound, 7 southbound), and as such, is the widest freeway in the United States. The Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT is the organization in charge of developing and maintaining all state and federal roadways in the state of Georgia. Interstate 420 (I-420 was a highway planned to split off Interstate 20 at Douglasville Georgia on the west side of Metro Atlanta, then continue eastward Interstate 485 (I-485 was a proposed Interstate Highway in Atlanta Georgia, United States, heading east and north from downtown. The Northwest Corridor HOV/BRT project from GRTA aims to add HOV lanes to I-75 and I-575 for cars and BRT, adding new lanes and exits, as well as lanes for tractor-trailers only. The Northwest Corridor HOV/BRT is a Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT Plan to put HOV lanes and Bus rapid transit along Interstate The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority or GRTA ( Pronounced like the Name "Greta" is a Government agency in the U In Transportation engineering and Transportation planning, a high-occupancy vehicle lane (or HOV lane) is a lane reserved for Vehicles with truckcartransporterarp750pixjpg|thumb|right|A tractor with an auto-transport Semi-trailer. The project plans to expand the freeway from I-285 northward to the Wade Green Road interchange, making it to 26 lanes (13 lanes each both northbound and southbound) at Windy Hill. Construction costs for the project are expected to be about 10 billion dollars and it should take about 15 years to complete. Hundreds of homes and businesses would be taken for the project.
The intersection of I-285 and Georgia 400 (a freeway running from Atlanta to Cumming and Dahlonega) is slated to become the biggest stack interchange in the world, which will encompass collector-distributor lanes, as well as 130-foot (40m) flyover lanes, from 285 to 400, and from 400 to 285. A stack interchange is a free-flowing junction between two or more roads that allows turning in all directions Construction costs are expected to be around 2 billion dollars.
Although Atlanta has always been a railroad town, and the city once had an extensive streetcar system as far out as Marietta (about 15 miles or 25km northwest), modern rapid transit has been an exceedingly difficult and drawn-out process, putting the metro area well-behind comparable cities. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train
MARTA operates rapid transit in Fulton and Dekalb counties, while Gwinnett, Cobb, and Clayton counties operate their own buses with no current rail transit. A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway or metro(politan system is an electric passenger railway This is a result of those counties refusal to join the MARTA system, a situation which was originally closely related to white flight from the city. White flight is a term for the demographic trend in which working and Middle-class White people move away from Suburbs It is the only U. S. system in which the state fails to provide any funds for operation or expansion, instead relying entirely on a 1% sales tax. A sales tax is a Consumption tax charged at the Point of purchase for certain goods and services
Plans are underway for commuter rail and bus rapid transit (BRT), though these are some years away. Bus rapid transit ( BRT) is a broad term given to a variety of transportation systems that through improvements to infrastructure vehicles and scheduling attempt to use The first commuter rail line would run south of the city, eventually extended to Lovejoy and possibly Hampton near Atlanta Motor Speedway. Commuter rail, regional rail or suburban rail is a Passenger rail transport service between a city center and outer suburbs and Commuter towns Lovejoy is a city in Clayton County, Georgia, United States. As of the 2000 Census, the city had a total Population of 2495 Hampton is a City in western Henry County, Georgia, United States. Atlanta Motor Speedway (formerly Atlanta International Raceway) is an Intermediate track in Hampton Georgia, twenty miles (32 km south of This project took two decades under Democrats, and has now been threatened by some Republicans in the Georgia General Assembly as being "wasteful", despite being successful in every other U. The Georgia General Assembly is the state legislature of the U S. city that has it. The "Brain Train" would likely be the second route, connecting the University of Georgia in Athens to Emory University and Georgia Tech in Atlanta. The Georgia Rail Passenger Program (GRPP is a set of plans as yet unbuilt for intercity and commuter rail in the U The University of Georgia ( UGA) is a public research University located in Athens, Georgia, the oldest and largest of the Emory University is a Private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly known as Georgia Tech, or Tech, is a public, Coeducational Research university in
As planned, all commuter trains would arrive at the Atlanta Multimodal Passenger Terminal, the long-delayed facility just across Peachtree Street from the Five Points MARTA station, where all of its lines meet. Peachtree Street is the main north-south Street of Atlanta Georgia. Five Points station is the transfer point between the North-South and East-West Lines for the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority system and is considered its hub The planning for the system, and its extension as intercity rail across the state, is the responsibility of the Georgia Rail Passenger Authority. Inter-city rail services are express Train passenger services which cover longer distances than Commuter trains Africa Inter-city services are reasonably The Georgia Rail Passenger Program (GRPP is a set of plans as yet unbuilt for intercity and commuter rail in the U
The area is the world's largest toll-free calling zone and has three telephone area codes. Basic principle A traditional landline telephone system also known as "plain old telephone service" (POTS, commonly handles both signaling and audio information A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating Telephone number ranges to countries regions areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks 404, which originally covered all of northern Georgia until 1992, now covers mostly the area inside the Perimeter (Interstate 285). Area code 404 covers Atlanta and its immediate Neighbors roughly within Interstate 285. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule Interstate 285 (I-285 is a Beltway Interstate highway encircling Atlanta Georgia, for 63 In 1995, the suburbs were put into 770, and 678 was overlaid onto both in 1998, requiring mandatory ten-digit dialing even for local calls under FCC rules. South San Jose (cropjpg||thumb|A suburban development in San Jose California. 770 is a Telephone Area code in the NANP, assigned to metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia 's Suburbs and Exurbs It 678 is a Telephone Area code assigned to metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia and its Suburbs and exurbs. Cellphones, originally only 404, may now have any local area code regardless of where in the region they were issued. Area code 470 will be the next area code, overlaid as was 678.
Atlanta enjoys the world's biggest fiber optic bundle, and was America's first city to employ ten-digit dialing, which was begun by BellSouth right before the Centennial 1996 Olympic Games came to Atlanta. BellSouth Corporation is an American Telecommunications holding company based in Atlanta Georgia. The 1996 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially known as the Centennial Olympics, were an International
Metro Atlanta primarily uses natural gas for central heating and water heaters, with the major exception of heat pumps in apartments built during and since the 1980s. An optical fiber (or fibre) is a Glass or Plastic fiber that carries Light along its length Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the Ocean. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, For the Grand Central Records albums see Central Heating (Grand Central album and Central Heating 2. Water heating is a thermodynamic process using an energy source to heat Water above its initial Temperature. A heat pump is a machine or device that moves Heat from one location (the 'source' to another location (the 'sink' or 'heat sink' using work. Because winters are mild, and units share walls in a large building, they generally need a lot of heat only on the coldest nights. Backup heat (also used during defrosting) is usually supplied by electric resistance heating, though some homes have hybrid heating units which use gas backup when it is cold. Defrosting is a procedure performed periodically on Refrigerators and Freezers to maintain their operating efficiency In Physics, thermal conductivity, k is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct Heat. A Hybrid heat system reacts to changing temperatures and automatically adjusts to the most efficient Energy saving method available to heat or cool a home Exurban homes may also use all-electric instead of gas, if gas mains have not been extended to an area.
Cooktops and ovens are a mix of gas and electric, while gas clothes dryers are rather rare. An oven is an enclosed compartment for Heating, Baking or Drying. A clothes dryer or tumble dryer is a household appliance that is used to remove the moisture from a load of Clothing and other Textiles, generally Nearly all homes have a fireplace with a manual-valve gas starter, and some are now equipped with permanent gas logs with electric switch start. A fireplace is an architectural element consisting of a space designed to contain a Fire, generally for Heating but sometimes also for Cooking For other uses see Valve (disambiguation. For the electronic component see Thermionic valve. A switch is a mechanical device used to connect and disconnect an electric Circuit at will Some homes also have natural gas barbecue grills, formerly sold at utility company stores. There are multiple varieties of grills, with most falling into one of two categories Gas - Fueled and Charcoal.
Georgia Power is the main electric power company across the state and the metro area, beginning in 1902 as Georgia Railway and Power Company, Atlanta's streetcar (trolley) company. Georgia Power ( is an Electricity Corporation based in Georgia. Electric power is defined as the rate at which Electrical energy is transferred by an Electric circuit. Year 1902 ( MCMII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Georgia Power ( is an Electricity Corporation based in Georgia. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train Several electric membership corporations also serve the suburbs, including Cobb EMC and Sawnee EMC. A utility cooperative is a type of Cooperative that is tasked with the delivery of a Public utility such as Electricity, Water or Telecommunications The city of Marietta operates its own electric utility, Marietta Power, under the Board of Lights & Water (BLW). It is also a member of the Municipal Electric Association of Georgia (MEAG).
Atlanta Gas Light is the natural gas utility for the region, and has been so for well over a century, since it installed gas lamps in Atlanta. Atlanta Gas Light Company ( AGLC) commonly still known as Atlanta Gas Light ( AGL) is the largest Natural gas Wholesaler in the Natural gas is a Gaseous Fossil fuel consisting primarily of Methane but including significant quantities of Ethane, Propane, A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred is One hundred consecutive Years Centuries are numbered ordinally (e Gas lighting refers to a technology used to produce light from gas usually methane but also including hydrogen and ethylene It operated as a regulated monopoly until November 1998, the after the state legislature voted in early 1997 to deregulate natural gas marketing, and make customers choose among nearly 20 different marketers still selling the same AGL-wholesaled gas. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Deregulation, a term which gained widespread currency in the period 1970-2000 can be seen as a process by which governments remove reduce or simplify Restrictions on Business In popular usage "marketing" is the promotion of products especially Advertising and Branding However in professional usage the term has a wider meaning of Wholesaling is the sale of Goods or Merchandise to Retailers to industrial commercial institutional or other professional Business users Most of the gas comes from Louisiana. The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America
Water is provided by various county and a few city systems. Several of these systems actually serve parts of neighboring counties and cities as well. The Cobb-Marietta Water Authority serves not only Cobb, but also parts of neighboring Paulding and Cherokee counties, for example. During drought or other emergency, cities and counties can enact outdoor water-use restrictions, however some cross-jurisdiction water systems have also acted to put bans in place. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply An emergency is a situation which poses an immediate risk to Health, Life, Property or environment. An outdoor water-use restriction is a Ban or other lesser Restrictions put into effect that restricts the outdoor use of water Supplies. In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority Tap water ( running water) is part of indoor Plumbing, which became available in the late 19th century and common in the mid-20th century In late September 2007, the state Environmental Protection Division of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, stepped-in with its first-even ban, covering most of the north-northwestern half of the state. September 2007 is the ninth month of that year It began on a Saturday The Georgia Department of Natural Resources is an administrative agency of the U While surface water is by far the primary source of water for the region, the drought has many systems (and a few wealthy homeowners) drilling new wells for ground water, though the local water table is around 400 feet or 120 meters deep, on average. For Water masses on the surface of the world ocean see Surface water (ocean. Groundwater is Water located beneath the Ground surface in Soil pore spaces and in the Fractures of lithologic formations The water table is the level at which the ground water pressure is equal to Atmospheric pressure. In Mathematics, an average, or central tendency of a Data set refers to a measure of the "middle" or " expected " value of
Sewerage is also handled by the water utilities, however the various water and sewer networks may not conform to the same boundaries, resulting in interbasin water transfers. This is for practical reasons, because the area is hilly and divided by several watersheds, because the area has developed irregularly and erratically, and because water treatment plants are usually not near sewage treatment plants. A drainage divide, water divide, divide or (outside North America) watershed is the line separating neighbouring Drainage basins Wastewater treatment plant also called wastewater treatment works Sewage treatment – treatment and disposal of human waste Septic tanks are still used in the older homes of some exurbs. Description A septic tank generally consists of tanks between the size of 1000 and 2000 gallons (4000 - 7500 litres which is connected to an inlet wastewater pipe at one end and
Atlanta is a city known in the South for its many shopping areas. The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The Atlanta area is home to one of the South's largest shopping malls, the Mall of Georgia, which is located in nearby Gwinnett County. Mall of Georgia is a regional Shopping mall located in the Mill Creek District of Gwinnett County Georgia, near the city of Buford, northeast of
The other larger shopping establishments in Metro Atlanta include:
Lenox Square hosts the largest fireworks display in the Southeast every Independence Day, a major tradition in Atlanta. A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes In the United States, Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July (or the Fourth) is a Federal holiday commemorating the adoption The word tradition comes from the Latin traditionem acc of traditio which means "a giving up delivering up surrendering" and is used in a number of
The major supermarkets in the area are long-time Kroger (including former Harris Teeter locations), and since the 1990s, Publix. Customer divider barjpg|thumb|In supermarkets sellers periodically change prices for classes of goods in response to market conditions rather than negotiating the price of each good The Kroger Co ( is an American Retail Supermarket chain and Parent company, founded by Bernard Henry Kroger in 1883 in Cincinnati Harris Teeter is a chain of Supermarkets based in Matthews North Carolina, just outside Charlotte. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 Publix Super Markets Inc (commonly known as Publix) is an American Supermarket chain based in Lakeland, Florida. Previously, this also included Winn-Dixie (some were later SaveRite), A&P, Big Star, Cub Foods, Bruno's, and Food Lion. Winn-Dixie Stores Inc ( is an American Supermarket chain based in Jacksonville, Florida. Save Rite is a US chain of discount grocery stores owned by Winn-Dixie. Cub Foods is a grocery store chain with eighty-four stores in Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Ohio. Bruno's Supermarkets is an American chain of Grocery stores founded in Birmingham Alabama. Food Lion LLC is an American Grocery store company headquartered in Salisbury North Carolina that operates approximately 1300 supermarkets in 11 Food Depot is a recent startup, with only a few locations. Ingles has a few locations in the far suburbs, mainly because sprawl has come out to meet them, rather than actively trying to enter the market. This article is about an American supermarket chain For a town in Gran Canaria, see Playa del Inglés. Local chain Harry's Farmers Market is owned since 2001 by Whole Foods, the "Harry's In a Hurry" locations were not acquired and closed soon after. Whole Foods Market ( is an Austin, Texas -based foods Grocer. "Whole Foods" redirects here See also Whole Foods Market and Whole food supplements.
Drugstores include Rite-Aid (all converted from Eckerd Drug), CVS/pharmacy, and since the 2000s, Walgreens. Rite Aid ( is an American Retailer and Pharmacy chain, operating over 5000 stores in 31 states and the District of Columbia. CVS/pharmacy (commonly called CVS) is a Pharmacy and Convenience store chain in the United States. Walgreen Co ( d/b/a Walgreens (without an Apostrophe) is a leading Pharmacy chain, mail service and pharmacy benefit manager While all Walgreens are new, Eckerd was composed of several of its own stores, in addition to Treasury Drug and local chain Dunaway Drugs. CVS is composed of what was Reed Drug in the 1980s, later Big B Drugs, and briefly Revco for just a year from 1996 to 1997. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. Big B Drugs began operation in 1968 as part of Birmingham based Bruno's Supermarkets. Revco Discount Drug Stores (known simply as Revco or Revco DS Drug Emporium was present for several years, while fellow superstore Phar-Mor had only a brief run. Drug Emporium is the name of a discount drug store Corporation, founded in 1977 in Columbus Ohio, that was sold to several different buyers during 2000 to 2001 Big-box store is a term that refers to a style of physically large Chain store, and by extension to the company behind the store Phar-Mor was a United States chain of discount Drug stores, based in Youngstown Ohio, and founded by Michael I
Century-old Atlanta furniture store Rhodes Furniture (see Rhodes Hall) went bankrupt, with most stores later reopening as Broyhill Furniture. Furniture is the Mass noun for the movable objects which may support the human body (seating furniture and beds, provide storage or hold objects on horizontal Rhodes Memorial Hall, commonly known as Rhodes Hall, was built as the home of Furniture magnate Amos Giles Rhodes, Proprietor of Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against It competes against Ashley Furniture, Thomasville Furniture, Bassett Furniture, and Rooms To Go. Ashley Furniture Industries Inc (also known as Ashley Furniture, or just simply as Ashley) is a privately owned manufacturer and importer of bedding and home Bassett Furniture is a furniture manufacturer headquartered in Bassett Virginia, USA. Rooms To Go Incorporated is a chain of Furniture stores based in the South Eastern United States, Puerto Rico, and Panama. Roberds is another closed retail chain, which also sold home appliances. Chain stores are Retail outlets that share a Brand and central management and usually have standardized business methods and practices Home appliances are electrical/mechanical Appliances which accomplish some Household functions such as Cooking or cleaning.
Circuit City no longer sells appliances, but Best Buy does. Circuit City ( is an American dealer and retailer in brand-name consumer electronics personal computers and entertainment software Best Buy Co Inc ( is a Fortune 100 company and the largest specialty retailer of Consumer electronics in the United States and Canada Since the mid-2000s, hhgregg has entered the market, selling appliances, electronics (but no computers, except notebooks), and beds, similar to Roberds. hhgregg Inc ( or Gregg Appliances Inc is a family-owned and operated appliance and electronics retailer in the Midwest and Southeast United States with over 3100 employees A personal computer ( PC) is any Computer whose original sales price size and capabilities make it useful for individuals and which is intended to be operated A laptop computer, also known as a notebook computer, is a small Personal computer designed for mobile use. A bed is a piece of Furniture (or a location primarily used as a place to Sleep, and often used for Relaxation. Service Merchandise also had stores in the area prior to their bankruptcy, and Lechmere was around for only a few years. Service Merchandise is a defunct chain of Catalog showroom stores carrying fine jewelry toys sporting goods and Electronics that existed from 1934 to Lechmere, litʃmɪər (sometimes described as Lechmere's) was a Retail store chain in New England, which closed in 1997 RadioShack operates many in-mall and strip mall locations. RadioShack Corporation (formerly Tandy Corporation) (  is a chain of electronics retail stores in the United States, as well as parts of North America
The Home Depot, started and based in metro Atlanta, has stores across the area. The Home Depot ( is an American Retailer of Home improvement and construction products and services Lowe's closed its mid-size stores, but returned a few years later with the superstores now located across the street from many Home Depots. Lowe's Companies Inc ( is a US -based chain of Retail Home improvement and appliance stores Both sell appliances and landscaping, while several Ace Hardware stores hold their ground, concentrating on being traditional hardware stores. Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land including but not limited to living elements, such as Ace Hardware Corp, based in Oak Brook, Illinois, United States is a hardware cooperative that was created in 1924 by Richard Hesse Hardware stores sell Hardware: for instance Fasteners keys, locks, Hinges Wire, chains Plumbing Pike Nurseries is a local plant nursery chain with several stores, the few Home Depot Landscape Supply stores ever opened closed in mid-November 2007. A nursery is a place where Plants are propagated and grown to usable size Home Depot Landscape Supply was a small Retail chain of Plant nurseries and other Landscaping supplies begun in 2002 by Home Depot November 2007 is the eleventh month of that year It began on a Thursday and 30 days later ended on a Friday
Rich's and Davison's, both the major names in Atlanta-area department stores, succumbed to parent Macy's after well over a century in business. Rich's was a Department store Retail chain, headquartered in Atlanta Georgia, that operated in the Southern U Davison's of Atlanta was the major competition to Rich's, a legendary Atlanta shopping institution A department store is a Retail establishment which specializes in selling a wide range of products without a single predominant merchandise line. Macy's is a chain of mid-range American Department stores Its Flagship store in Herald Square, New York City has been billed JC Penney and Sears have been in Atlanta for decades. J C Penney Company Inc ( most commonly known today by the name JCPenney or simply Penneys) is a mid-range chain of American Department stores Sears Roebuck and Company, commonly known as Sears, is an American mid-range chain of International Department stores founded by Richard Parisian was around for a decade or so before being bought by Belk, which has a well-established name outside the metro area. Parisian was a moderate to upscale US chain of Department stores headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama. The Rich's Great Tree has been a major local Christmas tradition since the 1940s, with its grand illumination ceremony every Thanksgiving. The Rich's Great Tree (now The Great Tree at Macy's) is a large (70 to 90-foot tall cut pine Christmas tree that has been an Atlanta Tradition The Christmas season is celebrated in different ways around the world varying by country and region The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949 Events and trends The 1940s was a period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s which also leads the period to be A Grand Illumination is an outdoor Ceremony involving the simultaneous activation of lights A ceremony is an activity infused with Ritual significance performed on a special occasion Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a traditional North American Holiday, which is a form of harvest festival.
Discount stores include Target and Wal-Mart, and Kmart, which closed at least half of its metro-area stores before buying Sears. A discount store is a type of Department store, which sell products at prices lower than those asked by traditional retail outlets Target Corporation ( is an American Retailing company that was founded in Minneapolis Minnesota in 1902 Wal-Mart Stores Inc (or Walmart as written in its new logo is an American public corporation that runs a chain of large discount department stores Kmart (sometimes spelled as " K-Mart " is a chain of department stores in the United States, Puerto Rico, the U Former discount stores include local Richway (now Target), and Zayre, Treasure Island, McCrory's, and Woolco. Richway was the Discount department store division of Atlanta -based Rich's. Not to be confused with Zaire, the African country now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Treasury was a chain of Discount stores owned by JC Penney. JG McCrory's or McCrory Stores was a chain of Five and dime stores in the United States based in York Pennsylvania. Woolco was an American-based discount retail chain It was founded in 1962 in the city of Columbus Ohio by the F Closeout stores include Big Lots (including some former MacFrugal's), TJ Maxx, Marshalls (some formerly Branden's), HomeGoods, Ross, and Burlington Coat Factory (the Marietta store in a former Woolworth). A closeout or clearance is the final Sale of an item or items to zero Inventory. Big Lots Inc ( is a Fortune 500 retail corporation with annual Revenues well over $4 billion TJ Maxx (sometimes referred to as TJ's or TJ) is a chain of American Department stores owned by TJX Companies Marshalls Inc, is a chain of American Department stores owned by TJX Companies. HomeGoods is a chain of home furnishing stores operated by TJX Companies and has 270 stores across the US as of February 2007 Ross Stores Inc is a chain of American off-price Department stores It is the nation's third largest off-price retailer (behind T Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corporation is a national Department store retailer focusing on clothing and shoes with over 360 stores in 42 states (as of 2006
Dollar stores include Dollar Tree and several independent stores which come and go. A variety store or price-point retailer is a Retail store that sells inexpensive items usually with a single Price point for all items in the Dollar Tree Stores Inc ( is an American chain of retail stores headquartered in Chesapeake Virginia. Around 2004, Little Bucks was a local 99¢ chain which opened several large stores and then closed just over a year later. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Around 2004 Little Bucks was a short-lived local Retail chain of Superstore -like Dollar stores around Metro Atlanta, and nearby areas of Super 88¢+ also has at least one location here. Other variety stores include Dollar General and Family Dollar. A variety store or price-point retailer is a Retail store that sells inexpensive items usually with a single Price point for all items in the Dollar General is a chain of Variety stores operating in 35 U Family Dollar ( is a Variety store chain that has locations across the United States.
Arts and crafts stores include Michael's, JoAnn, Hobby Lobby (several in former Kmart locations), Old Time Pottery, Hancock Fabrics, and four Garden Ridge superstores. Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with one's own hands and skill Michaels is the largest Arts and Crafts retail chain in the United States. Jo-Ann Stores Inc ( is a specialty retailer of crafts and fabrics based in Hudson Ohio, United States. Hobby Lobby is a privately held Retail chain of Arts and crafts stores based in Oklahoma City Oklahoma, and is formally called Hobby Lobby Creative Old Time Pottery is a Discount Home décor Retailer based in Murfreesboro Tennessee. Garden Ridge is a US Retail chain based in Houston, Texas. Starting with just one store then known as Garden Ridge Pottery, in Schertz Hobby stores include four HobbyTown USA stores (one superstore), Hobby Lobby, and a few independent hobby dealers. A hobby store is a place dedicated to the selling of things that people usually employ for their personal satisfaction ♦ HobbyTown USA or HobbyTown is a franchised retail hobby and toy store most stores offer a full line of radio control hobbies models games toys educational items A hobby is a spare-time Recreational pursuit Etymology A Hobby horse is a wooden or Wickerwork toy made to be
Other local chains include Georgia Backyard and former Seasonal Concepts for patio furniture. A patio (from the Spanish patio meaning 'back garden' or 'backyard' is an outdoor space generally used for dining or Recreation that often adjoins a The former sells fireplace accessories in fall and winter, the latter sold Christmas decorations to make it through the off season. A fireplace is an architectural element consisting of a space designed to contain a Fire, generally for Heating but sometimes also for Cooking Georgia Backyard also sells hot tubs, as does Recreational Factory Warehouse, which also sells billiards. A hot tub is a large home-made or manufactured tub or small pool full of heated water and used for soaking relaxation, Massage, or Games & Things sells billiards and other high-end games as well. A game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for Enjoyment and sometimes also used as an Educational tool
Outdoor recreation stores include Dick's Sporting Goods (all former Galyan's locations), The Sports Authority, and formerly Oshman's. Recreation or fun is the expenditure of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one's Body or Mind. Dick's Sporting Goods ( is a large US sporting goods retailer Dick's Sporting Goods ( is a large US sporting goods retailer Sports Authority is one of the USA's largest Sporting goods Retailers. Sports Authority is one of the USA's largest Sporting goods Retailers. Shoe-only stores include Payless Shoes, Foot Locker, The Athlete's Foot, more recent entry Discount Shoe Warehouse, and formerly Just For Feet, Kinney Shoes, and Thom McAn Shoes. A shoe is an item of Footwear. Shoes may vary from a simple Flip-flop to a complex Boot. Payless ShoeSource is a discount footwear retailer that was founded in 1956 in Topeka Kansas. Foot Locker Inc ( is an American sportswear and footwear retailer with its headquarters in New York City, and operating in approximately 20 countries worldwide The Athlete's Foot (TAF is the world's first and largest franchisor of athletic footwear Just For Feet was an athletic shoe and sportswear retailer headquartered Birmingham Alabama that closed its last stores in 2004. Kinney Shoes is a defunct chain of full-service shoe stores They carried a full line of shoes dress and casual for men women and children
Music stores are mostly gone now, but included local Turtles Music and Video, which later became Blockbuster Music and then Sound Warehouse, before becoming the current Wherehouse Music. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. Trans World Entertainment Corporation is a chain of entertainment media retail stores in the United States. Trans World Entertainment Corporation is a chain of entertainment media retail stores in the United States. Camelot Music was also common in indoor malls instead of the strip malls where Turtles usually was. Camelot Music was a leading mall-based retailer of prerecorded music and accessories and was one of the largest music retailers in the United States based on store count A strip mall (also called a shopping plaza or mini-mall) is an open area Shopping center where the stores are arranged in a row with a Sidewalk MARS Music sold musical instruments, sheet music, pro audio gear during the late 1990s, and Guitar Center still does. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. Sheet music is a hand-written or printed form of Musical notation; like its analogs -- books pamphlets etc Professional audio, also 'pro audio' can be used a term to refer to both a type of audio equipment as well as a type of audio engineering application Guitar Center is the largest chain of Musical instrument retailers in the world and is located throughout the United States. Long-time local chain Ken Stanton Music repositioned itself from school band instruments to also include pro audio. A school band is a group of Student musicians who rehearse and perform Instrumental Music together
Best Buy closed its Media Play chain, but Barnes & Noble and Borders Books continue. Media Play was a chain of retail stores founded in 1992 by Musicland that sold movies on video DVDs music Electronics, Video games, books Barnes & Noble Inc is the largest book retailer in the United States, operating mainly through its Barnes & Noble Booksellers chain of Bookstores Borders Group ( is an international bookseller based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Borders' subsidiary Waldenbooks and competitor B. Dalton Bookseller are found in most large malls. A subsidiary, in business matters is an entity that is controlled by a bigger and more powerful entity Waldenbooks (often called Waldens) operated by the Walden Book Company Inc Barnes & Noble Inc is the largest book retailer in the United States, operating mainly through its Barnes & Noble Booksellers chain of Bookstores
Second-hand stores include several Goodwill Industries and a few Salvation Army thrift stores, three America's Thrift Stores, local, and some very limited-hours stores of the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul. A charity shop, second-hand shop ( UK) thrift shop, thrift store, hospice shop ( U Goodwill Industries International is one of the world’s largest nonprofit providers of education training and career services for people with disadvantages such as welfare dependency The Salvation Army is a Christian charity and church that is internally organised like a military service. A charity shop, second-hand shop ( UK) thrift shop, thrift store, hospice shop ( U The Society of Saint Vincent de Paul is an international organization of Roman Catholic lay men and women of all ages whose primary mission is to help the poor and less For-profit local chains which buy and resell higher-quality goods include local chains Abbadabba's and Plato's Closet. It is unclear whether Value Village and Park Avenue Thrift are for-profit or non-profit thrift chains.
The area sprawls across the low foothills of the Appalachian Mountains to the north and the piedmont to the south. Foothills are geographically defined as gradual increases in hilly areas at the base of a Mountain range. The Appalachian Mountains ( often called the Appalachians, are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. Piedmont is a plateau region located in the eastern United States between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching The northern and some western suburbs tend to be higher and significantly more hilly than the southern and eastern suburbs.
The highest point in the immediate area is Kennesaw Mountain, followed by Sweat Mountain, Stone Mountain, and Little Kennesaw Mountain. Kennesaw Mountain is a Mountain between Marietta and Kennesaw, Georgia in the United States. Sweat Mountain is a low Mountain located in far northeastern Cobb County, Georgia, in the northern Suburbs of Atlanta. This article is about Stone Mountain in Georgia USA For other uses see Stone Mountain (disambiguation. Little Kennesaw Mountain is a Mountain in Cobb County Georgia, northwest of Marietta and south of Kennesaw. Others include Blackjack Mountain, Lost Mountain, Brushy Mountain, Pine Mountain, and Mount Wilkinson (Vinings Mountain). Blackjack Mountain may refer to Blackjack Mountain (Carroll County Georgia Blackjack Mountain (Cobb County Georgia Pine Mountain is a natural geographical feature located in Cobb County, Georgia, near the town of Kennesaw. Mount Wilkinson, commonly called Vinings Mountain, is a low Mountain immediately north-northwest of and directly Overlooking Downtown Vinings Mount Wilkinson, commonly called Vinings Mountain, is a low Mountain immediately north-northwest of and directly Overlooking Downtown Vinings Many of these play prominently in the various battles of the Atlanta Campaign during the American Civil War. The Atlanta Campaign was a series of battles fought in the Western Theater throughout northwest Georgia and the area around Atlanta Georgia, Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South If the further-north counties are included, Bear Mountain is highest, followed by Pine Log Mountain, Sawnee Mountain, and Hanging Mountain, followed by the others listed above.
An extinct fault line called the Brevard Fault runs roughly parallel to the Chattahoochee River, but its last movements were apparently prehistoric, thus it is considered extinct and not a threat to the region. In Geology a fault, or fault line, is a planar rock fracture which shows evidence of relative movement The Chattahoochee River runs from the Chattahoochee Spring in the Appalachian Mountains of northeastern Georgia, near the Carolinas to the southwestward Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" Still, minor earthquakes do rattle the area occasionally, the last one in April 2003 coming from the northwest, its epicenter just across the state line in northeastern Alabama. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth 's crust that creates Seismic waves Earthquakes are recorded with a Seismometer The 2003 Alabama earthquake took place on Tuesday April 29, 2003 at 359 A April 2003: January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September The epicenter or epicentre is the point on the Earth 's surface that is directly above the Hypocenter or focus the point where an Earthquake While many people slept through the 5AM quake, it caused a minor panic in others completely unaware of what was happening. A magnitude 4. 6 such as this occurs about every 30 to 40 years in the region, and is often felt much more widely across the stronger crust of eastern North America as compared to the west. In Geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon Because of this, the Great Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was also felt in Atlanta, and across the Southeast.
The area's subsoil is a dense clay soil, colored rusty by the iron oxide present in it. Rust is a general term for a series of Iron oxides, usually red oxides formed by the reaction of Iron with Oxygen in the presence of water or air Altogether there are sixteen known Iron Oxides and oxyhydroxides It becomes very muddy and sticky when wet, and hard when dry, and stains light-colored carpets and clothing easily. In computer gaming, a MUD ( Multi-User Dungeon, Domain or Dimension) is a multi-player computer game that combines elements of A stain is a discoloration that can be clearly distinguished from the sufrace A carpet is any loom-woven felted textile or grass floor covering Clothing (also called clothes, accoutrements, accouterments, or habiliments) protects the Human body from extreme Weather It also tends to have a low pH, further aggravating gardeners. pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. The fineness of it also means it is easily deposited into streams during heavy rains, creating silt problems where it is exposed due to construction. Silt is Soil or rock derived Granular material of a Grain size between sand and clay This transported red soil can be seen downstream on the riverbanks of south Georgia (where the native clay is white), and down to the Florida panhandle (where the native sand is also white). The Florida Panhandle is the region of the state of Florida which includes the westernmost 16 counties Sand is a naturally occurring Granular material composed of finely divided rock and Mineral particles Topsoil is present only in natural forest areas, created by the decomposition of leaves. Topsoil is the upper outermost layer of soil usually the top 2 to 8 inches Decomposition (or spoilage) refers to the break down of tissue of a formerly living Organism into simpler forms of matter
Atlanta has a humid subtropical climate with four distinct seasons. Humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa or Cwa) is a climate zone characterized by hot humid summers and chilly to mild winters A season is one of the major divisions of the Year, generally based on yearly periodic changes in Weather. January daily lows average around 33°F (1°C) and highs average near 52°F (11°C), but often reach 60-65°F (21-24°C). Snow is uncommon, with an average annual snowfall of about 2. 9 inches (5 cm), falling mostly in January and early February. Summers, by contrast, are consistently hot and humid, with July mornings averaging 71°F (22°C) and afternoons averaging 89°F (32°C), slight breezes, and typically a 20-30% chance of afternoon thunderstorms. During the summer afternoon thunderstorms, temperatures may suddenly drop to 70-75 degrees with locally heavy rainfall. Average annual rainfall is about 50. 2 inches (1370 mm), with late winter and early spring (as well as July) being the wettest and fall (especially October) being the driest. Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. Despite having far fewer rainy days, average yearly rainfall is higher here than in the Seattle area, especially due to heavy thunderstorms and occasional tropical depressions. A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding
Spring weather is pleasant but variable, as cold fronts often bring strong or severe thunderstorms to almost all of the eastern and central U. S. Pollen counts tend to be extraordinarily high in the spring, regularly exceeding 2000 particles per cubic meter in April and causing hay fever. Hay Fever is a comic play written by Noel Coward in 1924 and first produced in 1925 with Marie Tempest as the first Judith Bliss Pine pollen leaves a fine yellow-green film on everything for much of that month. The rain helps wash out Atlanta's abundant oak, pine, and grass pollens, and fuels beautiful blooms from native flowering dogwood trees, as well as azaleas, forsythias, magnolias, and peach trees (both flowering-only and fruiting). Cornus florida ( Flowering Dogwood, syn Benthamidia florida (L Azaleas are flowering Shrubs making up part of the genus Rhododendron. Forsythia is of Flowering plants in the family Oleaceae (olive family Magnolia is a large Genus of about 210 Flowering plant Species in the subclass Magnolioideae of the family The peach ( Prunus persica) is a species of Prunus native to China that bears an edible juicy fruit also called a peach The city-wide floral display runs during March and April, and inspires the Dogwood Festival, one of Atlanta's largest. Fall is also pleasant, with less rain and fewer storms, lower humidity, and leaves changing color from late October to mid-November, especially during drier (but not severely dry) years.
The area's geography affects the weather as well. An anticyclone over the Northeastern U.S. will blow cold air over the warmer Atlantic Ocean, forming a wedge or marine layer up against the mountains. In Meteorology, an anticyclone (that is opposite to a Cyclone) is a Weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U A marine layer is an air mass which develops over the surface of a large body of water such as the ocean or large lake in the presence of a Temperature inversion. This east or northeast wind will often blow down into the metro area in winter or even spring (sometimes fall and very rarely summer), dramatically lowering the temperature and bringing clouds and often fog or mist, along with a swift breeze. Wind is the flow of Air or other Gases that compose an Atmosphere (including but not limited to the Earth's) A cloud is a visible mass of droplets or frozen crystals floating in the atmosphere above the surface of the Earth or another Planetary body Fog is a cloud that is in contact with the ground Stratus clouds are usually the only clouds that touch the ground Mist is a phenomenon of small droplets suspended in Air. It can occur as part of natural Weather or Volcanic activity and is common in cold air above The temperature gradient across the sprawling metro Atlanta can be as much as 20°F or 10°C, occasionally even more. In Vector calculus, the gradient of a Scalar field is a Vector field which points in the direction of the greatest rate of increase of the scalar In winter this can be a curse, bringing freezing rain to exposed objects on the north and/or east sides of town, and occasionally very dangerously to the ground and roads. Freezing rain is a type of precipitation that begins as Snow at higher altitude falling from a Cloud towards earth melts completely on its way down while passing Later in the spring however, it can be a great blessing, as it often protects the area from severe thunderstorms and tornadoes, with the cool air acting like a fire extinguisher to the storms. A tornado is a violent rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a Cumulonimbus cloud or in rare cases the base of a Cumulus A fire extinguisher is an Active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires often in emergency situations The wedge may occasionally go the entire way through central Georgia and even into Alabama in the strongest conditions, while still leaving areas to the northwest much warmer than the metro area.
The local geography also plays a role in the day-to-day weather, with the shallow valleys to the southwest (rather than the mountains to the northeast) cooling rapidly on clear and calm nights, particularly when the humidity is low. In Geology, a valley (also called a vale, dale, glen or strath and near or in Appalachia, a draw) is A cloud is a visible mass of droplets or frozen crystals floating in the atmosphere above the surface of the Earth or another Planetary body Wind is the flow of Air or other Gases that compose an Atmosphere (including but not limited to the Earth's) Night or nighttime is the period of Time when the Sun is below the Horizon. Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air In daily language the term "humidity" is normally taken to mean Relative humidity. Peachtree City and especially Newnan often report dramatically lower temperatures (by as much as 10°C or nearly 20°F) on the 10PM and 11PM news, and will not drop much further, while the city (built on a ridge) will continue falling slowly but never reach that low. A ridge is a geological feature that features a continuous elevational crest for some distance This type of dramatic difference in microclimate is somewhat unusual for a place not near large mountains or bodies of water. A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the Climate differs from the surrounding area
The highest recorded temperatures at Atlanta were 105°F (41°C) on three days in the extraordinarily-hot July 1980, followed by 104°F (40°C) that month and in August 2007, the hottest month ever for the area. Year 1980 ( MCMLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar) August 2007 is the eighth month of that year It began on a Wednesday and 31 days later ended on a Friday. The lowest recorded temperatures were -6°F (-21°C) and -8°F (-22°C) on January 20 and 21 of 1985, and -9°F (-23°C) on February 13 of 1899. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common There was also an official record of -10°F (-23°C) in 1985 in Marietta. Marietta is a City located in central Cobb County Georgia, and is its County seat. The rainiest month ever was July of 1994, when Tropical Storm Alberto dumped massive amounts of rain on parts of the state and the south metro area, bringing 17. Tropical Storm Alberto was the first storm of the 1994 Atlantic hurricane season. 71 inches or 450mm at Atlanta, over three times a normal July. Flooding was a major problem in those areas, and further down-state it was disastrous. A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land a deluge
Hurricane Opal brought sustained tropical storm conditions to the area one night in early October 1995, uprooting hundreds of trees and causing widespread power outages, after soaking the area with rain for two days prior. Hurricane Opal was a major hurricane that formed in the Gulf of Mexico in September 1995 A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 A tree is a perennial Woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or A power outage (also known as power cut, power failure, power loss, or blackout) is the loss of the Electricity supply to an The western metro area caught the worst of the storm, gusting to nearly 70 MPH (just over 110km/h) officially at Marietta. Such events are very rare so far inland.
Since 1950, some metro counties have been hit more than 20 times, with Cobb (26) and Fulton (22) being two of the highest in the state. (Note that some tornados may have occurred at the same time, or in two different counties. ) The Dunwoody tornado in early April 1998 was the worst tornado to have struck the area. The Dunwoody tornado was a significant Tornado that tore across the northern Suburbs of Metro Atlanta on April 8, 1998. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) A tornado is a violent rotating column of air which is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a Cumulonimbus cloud or in rare cases the base of a Cumulus Since then, many counties have reinstalled civil defense sirens removed after the Cold War. A civil defense siren (also referred to as an air raid siren, tornado siren, tsunami siren, or other outdoor warning siren and also rarely referred Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the
A blizzard (see: 1993 North American Storm Complex) caught much of the Southeast off-guard in 1993, dumping four inches (10cm) at the Atlanta airport on March 13, about twice that in the northern suburbs, and many times that in the mountains. A blizzard is a severe Winter storm condition characterized by low Temperatures strong Winds and heavy blowing Snow Blizzards are formed when The Storm of the Century, also known as the ’93 Superstorm, No-Name Hurricane, the White Hurricane, or the ( Great) Blizzard Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Some people were awakened by thunder and lightning in a very rare thundersnow event. Thunder is the sound made by Lightning. Depending on the nature of the lightning and distance of the listener it can range from a sharp Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of Electricity, which typically occurs during Thunderstorms and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or Thundersnow also known as a winter thunderstorm or a thunder snowstorm is a rare Thunderstorm with Snow falling as the primary precipitation The only other recorded winter storm of comparable severity was in February 1899. A winter storm is an event in which the dominant varieties of precipitation are forms that only occur at cold Temperatures such as Snow or Year 1899 ( MDCCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Several areas of northern Cobb County recorded over 15 inches of snow in snowdrifts. A snowdrift is a deposit of Snow created by Wind into a mound during Snowstorms They resemble Sand dunes and are formed in a similar manner It is widely regarded as the snow event of the century for Atlanta, and is referred to as the "Storm of the Century". The heaviest snow, however, was in January 1940, when eight inches (20cm) buried the city during its coldest month on record. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The most recent major snow occurred at the beginning of 2002, when up to three inches (7. 5cm) fell on January 2-3. As of 2007, the stretch of five nearly or entirely snowless winters makes for an extremely long period compared to average. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. This 5-year streak of no snow was ended in January of 2008 when . 4 inches fell on January 16th and 1 inch fell on January 19th.
As of October 2007 a severe drought is affecting the region, and is getting worse. October 2007 is the tenth month of that year It began on a Monday and 31 days later ended on a Wednesday. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply The Southeastern U. S. drought of 2007 actually began with dry weather in 2006, and has left area lakes very low. A lake (from Latin lacus) is a Terrain feature (or Physical feature) a body of Liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the Most of the area's drinking water is stored in Lake Lanier and Lake Allatoona, and the USACE expects that they may reach record low levels by December 2007. Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used for drinking or not Lake Lanier (officially Lake Sidney Lanier) is a Reservoir in the northern portion of the U Lake Allatoona (rarely called Allatoona Lake, its Government name is a U The United States Army Corps of Engineers ( USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34600 Civilian and 650 Military personnel December 2007 is the twelfth month of that year It began on a Saturday and 31 days later ended on a Monday Up through September 2007, it is the driest year on record in over 75 years, second only to 1927 and 1931. September 2007 is the ninth month of that year It began on a Saturday Year 1927 ( MCMXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1931 ( MCMXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. On September 28th, the state issued a total outdoor watering ban for the north and northwestern 40% or so of the state, affecting 61 of 159 counties generally north of the Fall Line. Events 48 BC - Pompey the Great is assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt. An outdoor water-use restriction is a Ban or other lesser Restrictions put into effect that restricts the outdoor use of water Supplies. In Geomorphology, a fall line (at times referred to as a fall zone) marks the area where an upland region (continental Bedrock) and a Coastal plain Local authorities and water systems had already taken such measures in some places. It is the first time the state has stepped-in with a ban.
The area's prolific rains are drained by many different streams and creeks. A stream is a body of Water with a current, confined within a bed and stream-banks The main basin is that of the Chattahoochee River, running northeast to southwest. A drainage basin is an extent of Land where Water from Rain or Snow melt drains downhill into a body of water such as a River, The Chattahoochee River runs from the Chattahoochee Spring in the Appalachian Mountains of northeastern Georgia, near the Carolinas to the southwestward The further northwestern suburbs drain into the Etowah River via the Little River and Lake Allatoona. The Etowah River rises northwest of Dahlonega, Georgia, north of Atlanta. The Little River is a small River located mostly in Cherokee County Georgia, and forming the jagged part of the Cherokee/ Fulton (formerly Cherokee/ Lake Allatoona (rarely called Allatoona Lake, its Government name is a U The southern suburbs are drained by the Flint River, and the east-southeastern ones by the Oconee River and Yellow River. For other rivers named Flint see Flint River (disambiguation page. The Oconee River is a river which has its origin in Hall County Georgia, and terminates 170 Miles (274 km) later where it joins the Ocmulgee River By 2005, the metro area was using 360 million gallons of water per day (about 80 gallons per person per day).
The massive deforestation brought by excessive land development has had a significant impact on area watersheds. Deforestation is the conversion of Forested areas to non-forest land for use such as Arable land, Pasture, urban use logged area or wasteland They now flood far more rapidly and to a much greater extent than prior to development. This has pushed many people into flood plains, something they often find out only when it is too late. ||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||}A floodplain, or flood plain, is flat or nearly flat land adjacent to a Stream or River that experiences occasional or periodic A very few jurisdictions have begun to implement a stormwater fee, though the fees are not yet based on the actual amount of damaging runoff each property produces, mainly from pavement and lack of tree cover and natural leaf litter. In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority Stormwater is a term used to describe water that originates during precipitation events A fee is the Price one pays as Remuneration for Services especially the Honorarium paid to a doctor lawyer, Consultant Surface runoff is a term used to describe when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess Water, from Rain, Snowmelt, or other sources flows Plant litter (sometimes called leaf litter or tree litter) is dead Plant material such as leaves, Bark, and Twigs
Since clear-cutting now removes all of the trees, lawns are planted instead. Clearcutting or clearfelling is a Forestry / Logging practice in which the clear majority of all trees in a forest sector are cut down A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes Clover and other plants which are maintained at a low even height These allow much more runoff during rains, and require much more water during drought, generally using drinking water from the municipal supply since Georgia and its local governments have no recycling requirements. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply Recycling involves processing used materials into new products in order to prevent the waste of potentially useful materials reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials reduce Runoff also includes harmful chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides unnecessary for native vegetation. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region it refers to the Ground cover provided by plants
WXIA-TV reported that from 1990 to 2005, the amount of impermeable surface (pavement and buildings) in several metro counties increased dramatically, with Cobb doubling from 10% to 20% of its total land area, a rate even faster than its population increase. WXIA-TV channel 11 is an NBC -affiliated television station in Atlanta Georgia. In Architecture, Construction, Engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following Any man-made These numbers are in addition to the only marginally-permeable lawns. This reduced permeability prevents the water table from refilling as quickly as it should. The water table is the level at which the ground water pressure is equal to Atmospheric pressure.
Disputes over water are becoming increasingly common, with both Alabama and Florida threatening lawsuits and injunctions to prevent Georgia from taking too much water, mostly for metro Atlanta. Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the In law a lawsuit is a civil action brought before a Court in which the party commencing the action the Plaintiff, seeks a legal or equitable remedy An injunction is an Equitable remedy in the form of a Court order, whereby a party is required to do or interact with in certain ways all right or to refrain from South Carolina also threatened when a pipeline east to the Savannah River was mentioned even informally. South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. For the Department of Energy facility see Savannah River Site The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States
The native forest canopy is mainly oak, hickory, tuliptree, and pine, with some sweetgum, particularly on the southside. A forest is an area with a high density of Trees There are many definitions of a forest based on various criteria The canopy is one of the uppermost levels of a Forest, below the emergent layer, formed by the Tree crowns Canopy trees refers to the trees The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin Trees in the genus Carya (from Ancient Greek κάρυον " Nut " are commonly known as Hickory. "Tulip tree" redirects here For the African tulip tree see Spathodea campanulata. This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. Sweetgum ( Liquidambar) is a genus of four species of Flowering plants in the family Altingiaceae, though formerly often treated in the Hamamelidaceae Underneath, the flowering dogwood is very common, and the black cherry is quite prolific, with mulberry popping up sometimes as well. Cornus florida ( Flowering Dogwood, syn Benthamidia florida (L The Black Cherry ( Prunus serotina, also occasionally Wild Black Cherry Rum Cherry or Mountain Black Cherry is a species of cherry, native to eastern Sourwood is also in its native range, but is uncommon and is only easily identified by the fact that it turns fiery red in early October, much brighter and weeks earlier than most other trees (which usually peak in early to middle November). Sourwood or Sorrel Tree ( Oxydendrum arboreum) is the sole Species in the Genus Oxydendrum DC, in the family Ericaceae Shrubby plants include blackberry, horsechestnut, sumac, and sometimes hawthorn. The BlackBerry is a Wireless Handheld device introduced in 1999 as a two-way pager For the South African Thoroughbred racehorse see Horse Chestnut (horse. Sumac (ˈʃuːmæk or /ˈs(juːmæk/ also spelled sumach) is any one of approximately 250 species of Flowering plants in the Genus Rhus Hawthorn ( Crataegus) is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Virginia creeper, poison ivy, and briar are common vines. Virginia Creeper redirects here For the trail see Virginia Creeper Trail. A vine is any plant of Genus Vitis (the Grape plants or by extension any similar climbing or trailing plant The Confederate Yellow Daisy is a wildflower native only to the area around Stone Mountain. A wildflower (or wild flower) is a Flower that grows wild meaning it was not intentionally seeded or planted
Common garden plants include dogwood, azalea, hydrangea, maples, pin oak, redtip photinia, holly, juniper, white pine, magnolia, Bradford pear, forsythia, liriope (mondograss) and English ivy. Azaleas are flowering Shrubs making up part of the genus Rhododendron. Acer ( maple) is a Genus of Trees or Shrubs They are variously classified in a family of their own the Aceraceae, or There is also the community of Pin Oak West Virginia, USA The Pin oak or Swamp Spanish oak ( Quercus palustris) is an Holly ( Ilex) is a Genus of about 600 Species of Flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, and the only Junipers are Coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Magnolia is a large Genus of about 210 Flowering plant Species in the subclass Magnolioideae of the family The Callery Pear ( Pyrus calleryana) is a species of pear native to China. Forsythia is of Flowering plants in the family Oleaceae (olive family Liriope is a Genus of low Grass -like Flowering Plants from East Asia. Hedera helix (species name from Ancient Greek "twist turn" also called Ivy, Common Ivy, or English Ivy is a species Lawns can be either cool-season grasses like fescue and rye, or warm-season like zoysia and bermudagrass which turn brown in late fall. A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes Clover and other plants which are maintained at a low even height Grass is the common word that generally describes Monocotyledonous green Plants The family Gramineae ( Poaceae) are the "true grasses" and include Fescue ( Festuca) is a Genus of about 300 Species of perennial tufted Grasses belonging to the grass family Poaceae Rye ( Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop Zoysia is a Genus of eight species of Creeping Grasses native to southeastern and eastern Asia (north to China and Japan Not to be confused with the vertebrate clade " Cynodont " Cynodon ( Greek "Dog-tooth" is a genus of nine species of A few homeowners associations actually prohibit green grass in the winter. A homeowners' association (abbrev HOA) may be A legal entity created by a real estate developer for the purpose of developing managing and selling a community
Common lawn weeds are wild strawberry, violet, wild onion, and of course the ubiquitous dandelion, crabgrass, and plantain. The Mock Strawberry, Potentilla indica (formerly Duchesnea indica) is also known as the Indian Strawberry. Viola, commonly called Violets, is a Genus of Flowering plants in the family Violaceae, with around 400-500 species distributed Digitaria is a Genus of about 300 species of Grass (family Poaceae) native to tropical and warm temperate regions The plantain is a crop in the genus Musa and is generally used for cooking in contrast to the soft sweet Banana (which is sometimes called the
By far the most notorious introduced species is kudzu, a highly invasive species from Japan which climbs and smothers trees and shrubs. An introduced species (also known as naturalized species or exotic species) is an Organism that is not indigenous to a given location but Pueraria lobata (syn P montana P thunbergiana) (sometimes known as foot a night vine, mile a minute vine, Gat Gun, Ge Gan and Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Wisteria has also escaped in some places, and Japanese honeysuckle is quite common. Wisteria is a Genus of about ten species of woody climbing Vines native to the eastern United States and the East Asian states of China The Japanese Honeysuckle ( Lonicera japonica; Suikazura 水[[wiktionary 鬘|鬘]] or スイカズラ in Japanese) is a species of Chinese Privet has surpassed all these as the most invasive non-native, yet it is still sold as a garden plant. Ligustrum sinense ( Chinese Privet; syn L villosum) is a species of Privet, native to China, Taiwan and Vietnam A garden is a planned space usually outdoors set aside for the display cultivation and enjoyment of Plants and other forms of Nature.  Georgia apparently has no laws requiring landowners to control these plants, and no programs to help in their control, which allows them to continue to spread.
Among mammals, the eastern gray squirrel is by far the most ubiquitous, stealing birdseed from the bird feeders which many locals put up. Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands The eastern gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis) is a Tree squirrel native to the eastern and Midwestern United States and to the southerly Bird food is Food (often varieties of Seeds eaten by Birds Humans generally make or buy bird food to feed to Pet birds or use in Birdfeeders A birdfeeder, bird feeder, or bird table is a device placed out-of-doors to supply Bird food to Birds The success of a bird feeder in attracting Chipmunks and small brown rabbits are common, but it is relatively rare to hear of them doing any damage. Chipmunk is the common name for any small Squirrel -like Rodent species of the genus Tamias in the family Sciuridae. Rabbits are small Mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world Opossum, raccoons, foxes, and now even small coyotes are sometimes found, especially where the habitat destruction of new development has forced them out. Didelphimorphia is the order of common opossums of the Western Hemisphere. The raccoon ( Procyon lotor) (sometimes spelt as racoon) also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, northern raccoon A fox is an Animal belonging to any one of about 27 Species (of which only 12 actually belong to the Vulpes genus or 'true foxes' of small The coyote (kaɪˈoʊti ˈkaɪoʊt ( Canis latrans) also known as the prairie wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora Habitat destruction is the process in which natural Habitat is rendered functionally unable to support the species originally present Snakes are rare, but tree frogs are easily heard in early summer. A snake is an elongate Reptile of the suborder Serpentes Like all reptiles snakes are covered in scales. A tree frog or tree toad is any Frog that spends a major portion of its lifespan in an Arboreal state Black bears occasionally wander down from the mountains, and white-tailed deer are seen is some areas not overwhelmed by dense development. The American Black Bear ( Ursus americanus) is the most common Bear Species native to North America. The White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) also known as the Virginia deer, or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized Deer found throughout
The most common birds are the American Crow, European (or Common) Starling, House Sparrow, Northern Cardinal, Purple Finch, Carolina Chickadee, Tufted Titmouse, Blue Jay, Nuthatch, and American Kestrel. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. The American Crow, Corvus brachyrhynchos, is a large Passerine bird Species of the family Corvidae. The European Starling, Common Starling or just Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, is a Passerine Bird in the family The House Sparrow ( Passer domesticus) is a member of the Old World Sparrow family Passeridae, considered by some to be a relative of the The Northern Cardinal ( Cardinalis cardinalis) is a North American Bird in the Cardinal family. The Purple Finch, Carpodacus purpureus, is a small Finch of the Rosefinch genus The Carolina Chickadee, Poecile carolinensis, is a small Songbird, a Passerine Bird in the tit family Paridae "Tufted Titmouse" were also downtown Manhattan DJs among the first spinsters of Lounge and Electronica in the US (1995-2003 The Blue Jay ( Cyanocitta cristata) is a Passerine bird and a member of the family Corvidae native to North America. The nuthatches are a Genus, Sitta, of small Passerine Birds belonging to the Wallcreeper, constitute the The American Kestrel ( Falco sparverius) is a small Falcon. This bird was (and sometimes still is colloquially known in North America as Late in the year, owls can be heard in wooded areas at night. The Owls are an order of birds of prey. Most are Solitary, and nocturnal, with some exceptions (e Various woodpeckers can be seen in forested lots, including the Red-headed Woodpecker, Northern Flicker (also known as the "red-shafted flicker"), Downy Woodpecker and occasionally others. The woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks are a family, Picidae, of Near-passerine Birds. The Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus, is a small or medium-sized Woodpecker from temperate North America. The Northern Flicker ( Colaptes auratus) is a medium-sized member of the Woodpecker family The Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens, is the smallest Woodpecker in North America. The American Goldfinch is present in winter, and the Ruby-throated Hummingbird in summer. The American Goldfinch ( Carduelis tristis) also known as the Eastern Goldfinch and Wild Canary, is a North American Bird in the The Ruby-throated Hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris) is a small Hummingbird.