An assault rifle is a selective fire rifle or carbine firing ammunition with muzzle energies intermediate between those typical of pistol and battle rifle ammunition. For other uses of the acronym AKM see AKM (disambiguation The AKM ( Russian: Автомат Калашникова Модернизированный Lieutenant General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (Михаи́л Тимофе́евич Кала́шников Mihail Timofeevič Kalašnikov) (born November A selective fire Firearm can be fired in both semi-automatic and any number of automatic modes by means of a selector A rifle is a Firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling" cut into the barrel walls A carbine is a Firearm similar to a Rifle or Musket, but generally shorter and of lesser power Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term derived from the French language la munition which A Battle Rifle or Main Battle Rifle is a full-size Rifle designed for military use that fires a high-power rifle cartridge such as the U Assault rifles are categorized between light machine guns, intended more for sustained automatic fire in a support role, and submachine guns, which fire a handgun cartridge rather than a rifle cartridge. A light machine gun or LMG is a Machine gun that is generally lighter than other machine guns of the same period and is usually designed to be carried A submachine gun (SMG is a Firearm that combines the automatic fire of a Machine gun with the cartridge of a Pistol, and is Assault rifles are the standard small arms in most modern armies, having largely replaced or supplemented larger, more powerful battle rifles, such as the World War II-era M1 Garand and Tokarev SVT. Small arms is a term used by the Armed forces to refer to Infantry Weapons such as the Firearms that an individual soldier can carry An army (from Latin Armata "act of arming" via Old French armée) in the broadest sense is the land-based Armed forces A Battle Rifle or Main Battle Rifle is a full-size Rifle designed for military use that fires a high-power rifle cartridge such as the U World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The M1 Garand (formally the United States Rifle Caliber.30 M1) was the first Semi-automatic rifle to be generally issued to the infantry in any nation The Samozaryadnaya Vintovka Tokareva Obrazets 1940 goda (Tokarev Self-loading Rifle Model of 1940 Russian Самозарядная винтовка Токарева образец Examples of assault rifles include the AK-47 and the M16 rifle. The AK-47 (contraction of Russian Автомат Калашникова образца 1947 года; Avtomat Kalashnikova obraztsa 1947 goda; "Kalashnikov's M16 (more formally United States Rifle II Caliber 556 mm M16) is the U Semi-automatic rifles, including commercial versions of the AR-15, and "automatic" rifles limited to firing single shots, even though incorrectly classified in the United States as assault rifles by the now defunct 1994 Assault Weapons Ban, are not assault rifles as they are not selective fire. AR-15 (for Ar malite model 15, often mistaken for A utomatic R ifle is the common name for the widely-owned semi-automatic The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Federal Assault Weapons Ban ( AWB) was a subtitle of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, a Federal law of the United States Belt-fed weapons or rifles with very limited capacity fixed magazines are also generally not considered assault rifles.
The term assault rifle is a translation of the German word Sturmgewehr (literally meaning "storm rifle"), "storm" used as a verb being synonymous with assault, as in "to storm the compound". The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Sturmgewehr was coined by Adolf Hitler to describe the Maschinenpistole 44, subsequently re-christened Sturmgewehr 44, the firearm generally considered the first true assault rifle and served to popularize the concept. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately The translation “assault rifle” gradually became the common term for similar firearms sharing the same technical definition as the name giver StG 44. In a strict definition, a firearm must have at least the following characteristics to be considered an assault rifle:
The following features are commonly found on assault rifles, but those are not exclusive to assault rifles, as those features are shared with many submachine guns, battle rifles, automatic rifles, machine guns, and semi-automatic rifles:
There are commentators who use the expression “assault rifle” more loosely to include other types of arms, particularly arms that fall under a strict definition of the battle rifle, or civilian semi-automatic off-shoots of military rifles for commercial or political reasons. A Battle Rifle or Main Battle Rifle is a full-size Rifle designed for military use that fires a high-power rifle cartridge such as the U A semi-automatic rifle is a type of Rifle that fires a single Bullet each time the trigger is pulled without the need manually to operate a An assault rifle is a Selective fire Rifle or Carbine (not to be confused with a semi-automatic only replica firing Ammunition with muzzle Some militaries of nations outside of the English-speaking world also have a different definition of assault rifle. For instance, the analogous term in the Swedish Armed Forces is automatkarbin (literally "automatic carbine") which includes both assault rifles and battle rifles.
From ancient times, light infantry had fought in dispersed formations, while heavy infantry had fought in tightly packed formations. This continued as the sling and spear were replaced by musket and bayonet. A musket is a muzzle -loaded Smoothbore Long gun, which is intended to be fired from the shoulder A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a Knife - Dagger - or spike-shaped Weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle Bright colored uniforms (German: Blue, Russian: Green; British: Red, French: White) became a standard for unit cohesion in the midst of clouds of black powder smoke. Muskets were inaccurate at distances greater than 50 to 100 meters, and multiple ranks and a reserve were necessary so that some part of the unit would be ready to fire at all times. Tight formations also aided officers in controlling their men during combat. An officer is a member of an armed force who holds a position of authority
The adaptation of rifled muskets for military use in the mid-19th century increased range and firepower and made battle from dense formations an increasingly bloody affair as witnessed by the high level of casualties in the American Civil War. The rifled musket is a long-barreled Infantry weapon (to be distinguished from the shorter " Rifle " carried by some Light infantry units usually Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Skirmisher tactics were given greater emphasis as gunpowder weapons increased in reliability, accuracy, and rate of fire. Skirmishers are Infantry or Cavalry Soldiers stationed ahead or alongside of a larger body of friendly troops Cavalry adapted by dismounting, and using skirmisher tactics with breechloading rifles (which could be reloaded from a prone position, reducing vulnerability to enemy fire). A breech-loading weapon is a Firearm (a Rifle, a Gun etc in which the Bullet or shell is inserted or loaded at the rear of the
After the American Civil War, further developments such as the adaptation of magazine-fed rifles, rapid fire machine guns and high explosive shells for the artillery, spelled the end of the dense infantry formation during World War I. A magazine is an Ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating Firearm. A rifle is a Firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling" cut into the barrel walls For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation. A shell is a payload-carrying Projectile, which as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling though modern usage includes large solid projectiles Artillery (from French artillerie) is a military Combat Arm which employs any apparātus machine World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All What this meant in practice was that infantry units no longer engaged each other at long range in open fields; the high power of relatively unwieldy bolt-action rifles of the day (which had been tripled by the adaptation of smokeless powder, along with a corresponding increase in recoil and report) was no longer suited to the close range engagement of modern warfare. The term bolt action refers to a type of Firearm action in which the weapon's bolt is operated manually by the opening and closing of the breech with Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of Propellants used in Firearms and Artillery which produce negligible smoke when fired unlike the older This article is about backward Momentum produced in firearms when fired Military leaders and arms manufacturers thus began grasping for a new type of weapon for this new era.
These automatic firearms tended to use used pre-existing rifle cartridges, kinetic energy ranged between 3,000–5,000 J (2,200–3,700-foot-pounds), velocities of 750–900 m/s (2,460–2,950 ft/s) and bullets of 9 to 13 g (139–200 grains). The kinetic energy of an object is the extra Energy which it possesses due to its motion The joule (written in lower case ˈdʒuːl or /ˈdʒaʊl/ (symbol J) is the SI unit of Energy measuring heat, Electricity For other uses of the words gram or gramme see Gram (disambiguation.
If the term is applied retroactively, the first assault rifle was the Italian-made Cei-Rigotti, which was developed in the 1890s and finished around 1900. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Originally created by Amerigo Cei-Rigotti an officer in the Italian Army, in 1890 the Cei-Rigotti Rifle was extensively modified until its final While tested in Italy and the United Kingdom, it never entered military service, however. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The first service assault rifle was the Russian Fedorov Avtomat issued for the first time in 1915, chambered for the Japanese 6.5x50mm Arisaka rifle cartridge, which was only used in small numbers. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Fedorov Avtomat was an early self-loading Battle rifle designed by Vladimir Grigoryevich Fedorov and made in Russia. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. The 65x50mm Semi-Rimmed Japanese cartridge was adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1897 along with the Type 30 Arisaka Infantry A cartridge (also known as a "round" packages the Bullet, Gunpowder and primer into a single metallic case precisely made to fit the
During World War I the French Chauchat was introduced, a light machine gun that was produced in large numbers (250,000). The Chauchat (pronounced 'show-shah' was a Light machine gun used mainly by the French Army but also by seven other nations including the USA during and after A light machine gun or LMG is a Machine gun that is generally lighter than other machine guns of the same period and is usually designed to be carried Like the later assault rifle it was capable of both single and automatic fire, and was loaded with a magazine and also featured a pistol grip. A magazine is an Ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating Firearm. On a Firearm or other tool the pistol grip is that portion of the mechanism that is held by the hand and orients the hand in a manner similar to the position one would Compared to other light machine guns of the time the Chauchat was fairly light at the weight of 9 kg but it was still too cumbersome for closer quarters and had recoil that was too heavy to control when firing fully automatic due to the use of full powered rifle rounds like original French chambering of the 8 mm Lebel (8x50mmR) or variants produced later for US forces in 30-06 and other international customers in 7. The 8x50Rmm French (8 mm Lebel rifle cartridge was the first smokeless gunpowder cartridge to be made and adopted by any country 92 mm and 7. 65 mm rifle calibers. Despite some serious flaws it was so important to infantry combat that desperate German troops who had no comparable weapon of their own started using captured Chauchats.  While it was chambered for 30-06 and therefore did not use an intermediate cartridge, it was an intermediate weapon between submachine guns and heavier machine guns such as the Lewis Gun. For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation. The Lewis Gun is a pre- World War I era Squad automatic weapon / Machine gun of American design that was most widely used by the forces of the British
The Ribeyrolle 1918 may be the first real select fire compact weapon using an intermediate round fitting today's definition of an assault rifle. The cartridge was based on the 351 Winchester Self loading case necked down to accept a 8 mm Lebel bullet. it was first introduced to the Army Technical Service on July, 6th, 1918. its official designation was Carabine Mitrailleuse (English: Machine Carbine. German: Maschinenkarabiner) It was finally rejected in 1921 because it was not enough accurate over 400 meters.
The American M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) copied the Chauchat concept in a more reliable design but was not introduced or used in any significant numbers before the war ended. The BAR (short for Browning Automatic Rifle is a family of American 7 Later developments added heavier barrels and bipods that made it more like today's light machine gun or squad automatic weapon, though it did help establish the doctrine of use for light selective fire rifles. For the fictional characters see Gunbarrel (Transformers. A gun barrel is the tube usually Metal, through which a controlled Explosion A bipod is a support device that is similar to a Tripod or Monopod, but with two legs For the weapon known in British Forces service as the LSW see SA80 For the weapon known in American service as the SAW see M249 A squad automatic These versions of the BAR were produced in large numbers, widely adopted, and served into the 1960s with the U. S. military and other nations.
Also during World War I, submachine guns also entered service such as the Villar Perosa, the Beretta Model 1918 and the MP18. The Villar-Perosa aircraft submachine gun was an Italian double barreled Machine gun designed by Bethel Abiel Revelli a Major in the Italian The Beretta Model 1918 was a Submachine gun adopted in 1918 by the Italian army The MP181 manufactured by Theodor Bergmann Waffenbau Abteilung was the first practical Submachine gun used in combat These weapons fired cartridges derived from pistol chamberings — 9 mm Glisenti and 9 mm Parabellum. This article lists Firearm cartridges which have a bullet in the 9 mm ( The developers of the Thompson submachine gun (also developed during the 1910s) originally intended to use rifle-powered rounds. The Thompson submachine gun is an American Submachine gun that became infamous during the Prohibition era However, a mechanical system that could handle their power was not found and the .45 ACP cartridge was chosen instead. These firearms are considered part of the submachine gun class, but were an important step in the development of assault rifles. A submachine gun (SMG is a Firearm that combines the automatic fire of a Machine gun with the cartridge of a Pistol, and is
The M1 Carbine was really a cross between a submachine gun and an assault rifle, but giving infantry men a reliable weapon with moderate stopping power. Stopping power is a Colloquial term used to describe the ability of a weapon to stop the actions of an individual through a penetrating ballistic injury Continuing evolution of the intermediate-caliber automatic rifle was primarily driven by ammunition. Handgun ammunition used by submachine guns limited in effective range. A submachine gun (SMG is a Firearm that combines the automatic fire of a Machine gun with the cartridge of a Pistol, and is Conversely, full-sized military rifle calibers were uncomfortable to fire repeatedly and difficult to control during fully automatic or rapid fire because of significant recoil; cost of design and manufacture was also higher. An automatic firearm is a Firearm that automatically extracts and ejects the fired cartridge case and loads a new case usually through the energy of the fired One attempt to combine an intermediate cartridge with an automatic rifle by the Italian arms company Beretta resulted in the MAB 38 (Moschetto Automatico Beretta 1938). Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This article is about a firearm manufacturer for the car see Chevrolet Beretta. The MAB 38 used a Fiocchi 9M38 cartridge and a higher-powered 9 mm Parabellum cartridge, which could provide longer range fire. Fiocchi Munizioni (Fiocchi Ammunition is one of Italy 's largest and oldest manufacturers of ammunitions The effective range was about 200 m.
In 1942, the United States introduced the M1 Carbine, which was an intermediate power weapon chambered for the .30 Carbine cartridge. The M1 Carbine (formally the United States Carbine Caliber.30 M1) is a lightweight semi-automatic Carbine that became a standard firearm in the While select-fire capability was initially planned for the M1 Carbine, this was dropped from the first version. Later in the war, selective fire variants were made (M2 and M3 Carbines). The weapon had greater range and accuracy than submachine guns, but was not as powerful as full-size automatic rifles such as the Browning Automatic Rifle. A submachine gun (SMG is a Firearm that combines the automatic fire of a Machine gun with the cartridge of a Pistol, and is The BAR (short for Browning Automatic Rifle is a family of American 7 The longer barrel (18-inch) provided the carbine with higher muzzle velocity than pistols and submachine guns chambered for the same . A gun's muzzle velocity is the speed at which the Projectile leaves the muzzle of the gun 30 round. (The . 30 Carbine round was also lower powered, in terms of muzzle energy, than its contemporary, the German 7. 92. x33 round, or more modern assault rifle rounds. )
Originally the Carbine was envisioned as an inexpensive lightweight weapon for issue to rear-area and support troops (truckers, tankers, cooks, etc. ) in place of the more expensive M1911 pistol or M1 Garand rifle. The M1911 is a single-action, Semi-automatic pistol ( Handgun) chambered for the. The M1 Garand (formally the United States Rifle Caliber.30 M1) was the first Semi-automatic rifle to be generally issued to the infantry in any nation The M1 Carbine series was soon found suitable for close quarter battle engagements, a concept that would be re-applied later. In particularly, it was furnished to US Airborne divisions, because of the expectation that Airborne units would have to fight without being resupplied. This marked the first time in which such an intermediate weapon would be mass-produced—it became the most produced American weapon of the war, with millions made. The M1 Carbine series would remain in service with the U. S. military primary forces until supplemented and finally replaced by the M16 rifle in the 1960s; it continued to be used limited roles—particularly the U. M16 (more formally United States Rifle II Caliber 556 mm M16) is the U S. Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and many Training Commands in various U. S. Armed forces well into the 1980s—as well as used in other nations (notably Israel, where it is still used frequently in a variety of forms).
The 1930s was also the beginning of the important German Maschinenkarabiner program of arms development that resulted in the prototype Maschinenkarabiner M35 that was however not adopted for service. A prototype is an original type form or instance of something serving as a typical example basis or standard for other things of the same category 
Some of these automatic firearms used pre-existing rounds; others used new intermediate cartridges. Kinetic energy ranged between 1,400–2,100 J (1,033–1,550-foot-pounds), muzzle velocities of 600–800m/s (1,970–2,625 ft/s) and bullets of 7–9g (108–139 grains).
Germany, under the Versailles Treaty was limited to a professional army of long service soldiers numbering only 100,000 men and forbade tanks or military aircraft. This encouraged an approach that emphasized high quality, and reduced emphasis on low cost. Infantry tactics became based on teams of General Purpose Machine Guns (GPMG) supporting and supported by a section of infantry. A general purpose machine gun ( GPMG) in concept is a multi-purpose weapon a Machine gun intended to fill the role of either a Light machine gun or GPMG had high rates of fire to permit small numbers of men to fire at long range to defend a wide front. Enemy soldiers, briefly exposed, would be engaged with a high rate burst of fire to cause casualties before they could take cover. Close range assaults would be conducted by units with submachine guns, for greater mobility, and higher rates of fire. This tactical approach was a refinement of the "Hutier" tactics used by Germany in the last year of WWI.
Germany, like other countries, had observed and studied the emerging demand of infantry rifles evolving since World War I, and their factories made a variety of non-standard cartridges, therefore having less incentive to retain their existing calibers. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The 7. 92x30 mm (Kurz) cartridge was an example of these experiments; in 1941, it was improved to 7.92x33mm Kurz Infanterie Kurz Patrone ("Infantry Short Cartridge"). 792x33mm Kurz is a Rifle cartridge developed in Nazi Germany prior to and during World War II. In 1942, it was again improved as Maschinenkarabiner Patrone S, and in 1943, Pistolen Patrone 43mE; then, finally, Infanterie Kurz Patrone 43. The similarity in size between the 7. 92x33mm German cartridge and the 7. 62x33mm developed for the M1 Carbine is a curious coincidence, but was ultimately nothing more than independent yet similar solutions to the same problem. The 7. 92x33mm round used the same cartridge case head as the standard 7.92x57mm Mauser and the bullet was made from the same diameter rod. The 792x57mm cartridge was designed by the German Gewehr-Prüfungskommission (G
In 1942, Walther presented the Maschinenkarabiner ("automatic carbine", abbr. MKb), named MKb42(W). In the same year, Haenel presented the MKb42(H), designed by Hugo Schmeisser as a result of this program. Hugo Schmeisser ( 24 September 1884 &ndash 12 September 1953) was a German developer of infantry weapons in the 20th century Rheinmetall-Borsig (some said Krieghoff) presented its FG 42 (Fallschirmjäger Gewehr 42, sponsored by Hermann Göring) though this was in a different role, and using a heavy 7.92x57mm Mauser cartridge, which was not an intermediate round. The Fallschirmjägergewehr 42 ( FG42) was an Automatic rifle produced in Nazi Germany during World War II. Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Goering) (12 January 1893 15 October 1946 was a German Politician, Military leader and a leading member The 792x57mm cartridge was designed by the German Gewehr-Prüfungskommission (G War-time tests in Russia indicated the MKb42(H) performed better than the other two. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Schmeisser developed it first as the MP43, then MP43/1, and finally as the MP44/Sturmgewehr 44 (abbreviated StG44). It immediately entered large scale production. More than 5,000 units had been produced by February 1944, and 55,000 by the following November.
Following the end of the war in 1947, Mikhail Kalashnikov developed the AK-47, which was vaguely similar in visual concept and layout to the German StG44, though quite different mechanically. Lieutenant General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (Михаи́л Тимофе́евич Кала́шников Mihail Timofeevič Kalašnikov) (born November The AK-47 (contraction of Russian Автомат Калашникова образца 1947 года; Avtomat Kalashnikova obraztsa 1947 goda; "Kalashnikov's It fired the 7.62x39mm cartridge, which had been developed during WWII for use in their SKS carbines which were used at war's end. The Soviet 762x39mm rifle cartridge was designed during World War II and first used in the SKS Carbine. The round was similar to the StG44's in that the bullet was of a similar caliber to the larger, full-size Russian rifle ammunition.
The designers of the STG 45 moved to Spain and developed the CETME Assault Rifle, which was licensed for use in West Germany, and was subsequently improved to become the German G-3, produced by Heckler and Koch proved the CETME. The Mauser Sturmgewehr 45 (aka StG45(M literally "Storm Rifle" or "Assault Rifle" 1945) was a prototype Assault rifle developed by Mauser CETME is an Acronym for Centro de Estudios Técnicos de Materiales Especiales (Center for Technical Studies and Special Materials a Spanish government design and Heckler & Koch GmbH ( H&K) (pronounced ˈhɛklɐʔʊntˈkɔx is a German defense manufacturing company that produces various This is where H&K started.
Many of these automatic firearms used intermediate cartridges with much lighter bullets and smaller calibers, but fired at very high velocity; kinetic energy ranged between 1300–1800J (960–1,330-foot-pounds), velocities of 900–1050m/s (2,950–3,450 ft/s), and bullets of 3–4g (46–62 grains).
Following the end of World War II, the U. S. Army conducted a number of studies of what happened in the war and how it was actually fought. Several things were learned which applied directly to personal weapon design. Perhaps most important, research found that most combat casualties caused by small-arms fire took place at short range. So the long range and accuracy of the standard rifle was, in a real sense, wasted. Second, the research found that aiming was not a major factor in causing casualties. Instead, the number one predictor of casualties was the total number of bullets fired. Third, psychological studies found that many riflemen (as much as 2/3) never fired their weapons at the enemy. By contrast, those soldiers equipped with rapid-fire weapons (submachine guns and the early assault rifles) were far more likely to actually use their weapons in battle. This combination of factors led to the conclusion that a fairly short-range weapon capable of rapid fire would be the most effective general purpose weapon for infantry.
While these studies were being digested, the United States insisted on introducing their own 7.62x51mm full-power cartridge as the standard for NATO armies. The 762x51mm NATO is a Rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard firearm cartridge among NATO countries The North Atlantic Treaty It could kill at distances of more than 500 meters (though this was increasingly seen as irrelevant). At the time, the British were developing their own 7x43mm (.280 British) intermediate cartridge for their very modern and groundbreaking EM-2 bull-pup assault rifle. The EM-2, Also known as Rifle No9 Mk1 or "Janson rifle" was an experimental British Assault rifle Due to political pressure from the Conservative Party, which agreed with the American standardization campaign, the whole project was shelved at the eve of introduction. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. In Belgium, the famous arms producer FN Herstal started experimenting with the German 7. Fabrique Nationale de Herstal, more often abbreviated as Fabrique Nationale or simply FN, is a Belgian manufacturer of Firearms The official 92x33mm Kurzpatrone. They built a prototype of a rifle using this cartridge, but the impending NATO standardization forced them to rebuild it to use American ammo, giving birth to the FN FAL, Switzerland introduced the SIG 510 that still fired Swiss service full-lengh rifle rounds but also produced the SIG 510-4 that fired the 7.62x51mm NATO round. The Fusil Automatique Léger (Light Automatic Rifle or FAL is a 7 The SIG SG 510 or Sturmgewehr 57 is an Automatic rifle manufactured by Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft (now SAN Swiss Arms) of The 762x51mm NATO is a Rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard firearm cartridge among NATO countries Bolivia and Chile adopted the SIG 510-4 as their service rifle, Bolivian/Chilean exports were licence produced by the Italian firm Berreta. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the This article is about a firearm manufacturer for the car see Chevrolet Beretta.
The M14 rifle, chambered for the 7. 62x51mm NATO (more commonly known as the . 308 round among civilians), had a very high recoil, due to the weapons powerful cartridge, and this made it almost impossible to control the M14 in full automatic fire. They found that the weapon recoiled both up and back, putting the shooter off target very quickly. This was fixed by making the stock straight, so that it only recoiled back, minimizing the need to re-aim after each shot or burst of fully automatic fire. They made a new cartridge to go with this weapon: the 5. 56x45mm NATO. The small cartridge made for doubts among the armed forces, and they questioned the rifle's stopping power. But, they were soon proved wrong. After some study, they found that the 5. 56 mm bullet, after entering the body, started to tumble,rolling end over end, creating massive damage. They christened their new rifle the M16. But soon after the rifle was the standard weapon to all the US armed forces, they saw that the M16 had a very high tendency to jam, making it unsuitable for jungle warfare, They later found that the jamming was because of improper care and cleaning. This was soon fixed by making a soldiers rifle his foremost thing to take care of and watch out for.
The Russians saw no reason to make a rifle that shot beyond a rifleman's ability to aim, and therefore considered a lighter, less-powerful cartridge to be more effective. This permitted a lighter rifle and allowed a greater amount of the lighter ammunition to be transported in the same amount of space. Moreover, the smaller cartridges lessened recoil, which allowed riflemen to sustain a higher accurate rate of fire and facilitate marksmanship training. In addition, the smaller size and handiness of an assault rifle would benefit tank crews, support troops, and units with missions other than front line combat. A tank is a tracked, Armoured fighting vehicle designed for Front-line combat which combines Operational mobility and tactical A front line is a line of confrontation in an Armed conflict, most commonly a War.
The 5.56x45mm with 55-grain (3. 556x45mm NATO, standardized under STANAG 4172 is a Rifle cartridge. 6 g) bullet, aka M193 cartridge) was developed in the late 1950s, and was adopted for use in the M16 assault rifle. M16 (more formally United States Rifle II Caliber 556 mm M16) is the U The M16A1 version soon followed to rectify issues found during use in the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The M16A2 was a further refinement and upgrade introduced in 1986 meant to use the Belgian-updated 5.56x45mm NATO cartridge with a heavier 62-grain (4. 556x45mm NATO, standardized under STANAG 4172 is a Rifle cartridge. 0 g) bullet known as the SS109 or M855.
The smaller-caliber military cartridges such as the 5. The Gewehr Patrone 90 or "Rifle Cartridge 90" is the standard round used by the Swiss military in its assault rifle the SIG SG 550. 556x45mm NATO, standardized under STANAG 4172 is a Rifle cartridge. 56x45mm and 5.45x39mm were sometimes considered less lethal than the previous generation of assault rifle rounds, such as the 7.62x39mm, which were large-caliber bullets with reduced propellant or cases. The Soviet 545x39mm round was introduced into service in 1974 for the AKS-74U and the AK-74 assault rifle The Soviet 762x39mm rifle cartridge was designed during World War II and first used in the SKS Carbine. However, the lighter, small-caliber bullets achieved higher velocities, more favorable ballistic properties, and reduced carrying weight.
One aspect of the smaller caliber ammunition that is sometimes hotly debated is its fragmentation behavior. Stopping capability is the effectiveness of the round in completely stopping the target when it hits—either killing or fully incapacitating. Within a certain range of ballistic conditions, the lighter 5. 56 mm and 5. 45 mm will, upon striking tissue, first tumble and then fragment. Beyond 100 yards (91 m), or when fired from shorter barrels, such bullets can often fail to fragment upon impact because of insufficient velocity. Thus, the result in a target is a rather small . 22 caliber bullet hole, instead of a much larger wound channel. Effectiveness depends on what tissues of the enemy body the round destroys. Larger destroyed areas increases the probability that sufficient damage will be done to end enemy resistance. Ultimately, any pointed (spitzer) round will tumble in soft tissue. If the jacket has a cannelure, such as the U. S. 5. 56x45mm M193 round, and the bullet is in the proper ballistic state and high enough velocity, the bullet will fragment, inflicting significant blood loss and internal damage, as well as a wound channel profile that is more complex to address medically. If the bullet acts as a solid, and doesn't fragment, full effectiveness occurs only if striking the brain or spinal cord, causing immediate loss of control. There is a distinct, though lesser effectiveness if the heart, large blood vessels, or liver (which last tends to tear) is hit causing fairly quick loss of blood pressure, and consequent unconsciousness.
Part of the dispute over small-caliber rounds arises here. Blood loss leads to indirect incapacitation, but often takes longer than direct destruction of tissue. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara presented wounding ability as a reason for adoption of the M16 over the M14 as a question of battlefield efficiency - that it is better to wound an adversary than kill him, as wounded must be tended to by their comrades, taking them out of the fight and demoralizing them in the process. Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9 1916 in Oakland, California) is an American business executive and former United States Secretary of Defense  Many claim that this theory was wed to the findings of Project SALVO, but nowhere in the SALVO findings was reduced lethality of rifle rounds ever stressed or presented as an argument for adoption of a lighter/smaller caliber round. M16 (more formally United States Rifle II Caliber 556 mm M16) is the U SALVO concluded that the main factor in inflicting casualties in infantry combat was solely rounds fired - aiming had negligible impact.
The general effectiveness of the 5. 56 x 45 mm cartridge was questioned; experience had shown that it did not always fragment, and that the bullet was light enough to easily deflect or divert radically from its path after passing through even a soft or very thin object. The theory that enemy soldiers would stop to aid a wounded comrade was questionable. The heavier 7. 62 mm bullets in use were claimed to hit harder with more mass, would not deflect or destabilize as readily, and more reliably killed what it hit. (Some of the substantiated issues were later addressed in 1982 with the changes made in the M16A2, which used a heavier 62-grain (4. 0 g) bullet with different ballistic characteristics than its M16A1 predecessor. )
Many of these automatic firearms usually used the same rounds as in older eras, but focused on using new form factors, materials, and added features like standard telescopic and reflex sights. A telescopic sight, commonly called a scope, is a device used to give additional accuracy using a point of aim for Firearms Airguns and Crossbows A red dot sight (also called a reflex sight or for certain models a reflex scope) is a non- magnifying Firearm sight that uses
The running debate over 5. 56 mm vs. 7. 62 mm ammunition, and the prominent argument by 7. 62 mm proponents that "the Russians got it right with a . 30 cal (7. 62 mm)" cartridge, was stirred significantly in 1974 when the Soviet Union also developed its own smaller-caliber cartridge, the 5.45x39mm, which was used in the AK-74, the successor of the AK-47/AKM. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Soviet 545x39mm round was introduced into service in 1974 for the AKS-74U and the AK-74 assault rifle The AK-74 is a 545 mm Assault rifle developed in the early 1970s in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. The AK-47 (contraction of Russian Автомат Калашникова образца 1947 года; Avtomat Kalashnikova obraztsa 1947 goda; "Kalashnikov's For other uses of the acronym AKM see AKM (disambiguation The AKM ( Russian: Автомат Калашникова Модернизированный
In the 1980s and 1990s, the most notable changes since adoption of high velocity, smaller-caliber ammunition were designs that utilized new form factors, sights, electronics, and materials, as well as modularity. A number of bullpup rifles entered service in the late 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Bullpup is a Firearm configuration in which the action and magazine are located behind the trigger Although bullpup rifles had existed since the 1930s, the United Kingdom's EM-2 was one of the few bullpup assault rifles prior to this time. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The EM-2, Also known as Rifle No9 Mk1 or "Janson rifle" was an experimental British Assault rifle Examples of the new trend include the FAMAS, Steyr AUG, and SA80. The FAMAS (Fusil d'Assaut de la Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-Étienne or "Saint-Étienne arms factory assault rifle" is a Bullpup Assault rifle designed The AUG is an Austrian 556 mm Assault rifle, designed in the early 1970s by Steyr Mannlicher GmbH & Co KG (formerly Steyr-Daimler-Puch The SA80 ( Small Arms for the 1980s) is a family of 556 mm small arms designed and produced (until 1988 by the Royal Small Arms Factory at All three are bullpup rifles that make heavy use of composites and plastics, the FAMAS and Steyr AUG both have ambidextrous controls, and the Steyr AUG, and SA80 both added a low-power telescopic sight to the standard service version. The FAMAS (Fusil d'Assaut de la Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-Étienne or "Saint-Étienne arms factory assault rifle" is a Bullpup Assault rifle designed The AUG is an Austrian 556 mm Assault rifle, designed in the early 1970s by Steyr Mannlicher GmbH & Co KG (formerly Steyr-Daimler-Puch The AUG is an Austrian 556 mm Assault rifle, designed in the early 1970s by Steyr Mannlicher GmbH & Co KG (formerly Steyr-Daimler-Puch The SA80 ( Small Arms for the 1980s) is a family of 556 mm small arms designed and produced (until 1988 by the Royal Small Arms Factory at A telescopic sight, commonly called a scope, is a device used to give additional accuracy using a point of aim for Firearms Airguns and Crossbows The QBZ-95, SAR-21, and the Tavor TAR-21 follow a similar trend as well, with a bullpup configuration and heavy use of composites. The QBZ-95 ( is an Assault rifle manufactured by Arsenal 266 part of Norinco and Arsenal 296 under Jianshe Corp China South for the People's Liberation The TAR 21 is an Israeli Bullpup Assault rifle chambered for 5
The Heckler & Koch G36, adopted in the late 1990s by Spain and Germany, is of the traditional configuration, but also has integral telescopic and red dot sights and composite exterior. The G36 is a German 556 mm Assault rifle, designed in the early 1990s by Heckler & Koch GmbH (H&K and accepted into service with the Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. The G36C variant uses a different barrel assembly, foregrip, and a slightly shorter folding stock to make the weapon carbine length, and features a low full-length rail mount along the top of the rifle in place of the carrying handle and sight assembly, plus shorter rails on the foregrip. The XM8 rifle, developed from the G36, had similar features, but also added more electronics such as laser sight, round counter, and integral infrared laser and pointers. The XM8 is a developmental US military designation and project name for a lightweight Assault rifle system that was under development by the United States Army A laser is a device that emits Light ( Electromagnetic radiation) through a process called Stimulated emission. Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of
Through the 1990s, modular accessories for use on rifles, of a variety of types, started to become widespread with the rapidly increasing practice of mounting Picatinny-style rails on firearms. The Picatinny rail (ˈpɪkətɪni or /ˌpɪkəˈtɪni/ is a bracket used on some Firearms in order to provide a standardized mounting platform This was primarily driven by the growing visibility (and number) of tactical police, counter-terrorist units, special forces, and other groups that desired the capability to specifically tailor their weapons—be it to the situation at hand, their operational specialty, etc. Flashlights, visible lasers, infrared lights and lasers, "C-Mags", ergonomic accessories such as vertical foregrips and folding or collapsible buttstocks, and a plethora of other options appeared. Many law enforcement and tactical groups, including some of the most influential, also contributed to the progression by shifting from using submachine guns to very compact assault rifles, usually with small-caliber (5. 56 mm) ammunition.
Intertwined with the growth of the modular accessories was the concept of rifles being modular themselves. The G36, for example, can be converted to a compact carbine, a standard rifle, or a squad support weapon (light machine gun) and back again simply by swapping modular parts in a matter of moments. Interchangeable or quick-detachable barrel assemblies of different lengths are emerging for some weapons, with ingenious retrofit kits to provide similar capabilities on older types. The AR15 in particular has an entire industry that has grown to make variations of every component of the rifle. AR-15 (for Ar malite model 15, often mistaken for A utomatic R ifle is the common name for the widely-owned semi-automatic An incredible variety of upper receivers of many types of operation (bolt, direct gas impingement, gas piston, blowback) utilizing different ammunition than the original 5. 56x45mm have been developed, firing both pistol and rifle cartridges ranging between target rounds such as . 17 and . 22 Rimfire, pistol rounds of . 380 ACP to . 50 AE, and more common assault rifle rounds such as 7. 62x51mm, all the way up to heavy machine gun rounds such as the .50 BMG. In a paradox many never expected, an AK variant has been developed that fires the 5. 56x45mm round, while a variant of the M4 carbine (a compact M16) has been created that can use AK-47 magazines and its 7. 62x39mm ammunition.
The trend in the new designs, and very likely future ones, is towards more integrated features and lighter weight with new materials and configurations. Introduction of a new ammunition would require retooling factories, phasing out conventional ammunition, and making general infrastructure changes that are considered by many military planners to be too expensive to undertake. In an effort to avoid the problems of a completely new cartridge, the 77-grain (5. 0 g) Mk262 Mod0 bullet for the 5. 56x45mm chambering, developed to address continuing issues in some cases with the effectiveness of the 5. 56 mm round, has started to gain acceptance.
Since the adoption of the M16 over the M14, some groups of shooting pundits have supported the return to, or reintroduction of, larger caliber rounds—usually the 7.62x51mm NATO specifically, which is made to perform like the full-sized 30-06 in an assault-rifle sized cartridge. The 762x51mm NATO is a Rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard firearm cartridge among NATO countries Going back to the 7. 62 mm, it is argued, would improve conventional lethality. Other individuals have suggested an increase in caliber, to the 6–7 mm range, with rifle round velocities and lower mass bullets: a kind of intermediate philosophy between the smaller caliber–faster modern rounds and the standard caliber–slower rounds of the previous generation. China in the late 1980s introduced a 5. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES 8x42mm round, with an initial velocity of 930 m/s, 4. 26 g bullet and 1,842 J of energy, China claims the new round provides superior performance and lethality to NATO (5. 56x45mm) and modern Soviet (5. 45x39mm) intermediate rounds.
A promising development of the German Heckler & Koch G11 rifle 4. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Heckler & Koch GmbH ( H&K) (pronounced ˈhɛklɐʔʊntˈkɔx is a German defense manufacturing company that produces various The Heckler & Koch G11 is a non-production prototype Bullpup Assault rifle developed during the 1970s and 1980s by the Gesellschaft für Hülsenlose Gewehrsysteme 73 mm caseless ammunition and advanced assault rifle in the 1970–1980s was effectively halted by German reunification and heat-dissipation issues with the caseless ammunition in 1990, and the rifle never entered full production. Caseless ammunition as a type of Small arms Ammunition eliminates the cartridge case that typically holds the Primer, propellant and projectile German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung took place twice after 1945 first in 1957 the Saarland was permitted to join the Federal Republic of Germany
A renaissance of 7. 62 mm weapons has begun to occur recently. To some degree in Iraq, but particularly in Afghanistan, soldiers are beginning to use modernized M14s, M21s, and M24 SWS. The M21 Sniper Weapon System (SWS is the semi-automatic Sniper rifle adaptation of the popular M14 rifle. The M24 SWS (Sniper Weapon System is the military and police version of the Remington 700 Rifle, M24 being the model name assigned by the United With a longer effective range, the 7. 62x51mm is proving useful at fighting at long ranges. The 7. 62x51 NATO round has also shown its usefulness against enemies who have been seen to take several hits from 5. 56 mm bullets and not be killed, incapacitated, or on occasion, even deterred.  That unpleasant surprise is attributed to long-range ballistic deficiencies of the 5. 56 bullet. Similar stopping-power problems against unusually-tenacious opponents were noticed in Somalia in 1993 against militia fighters high on khat. KHAT (1210 AM) is a Radio station broadcasting a Sports format  Lastly, the heavier rounds are more effective in urban combat because they can more readily penetrate walls.
In the United States there have been developments of new cartridges. Two have developed some notability as possible replacements for the venerable 5. 56, the 6.5 Grendel and the 6. The 65 mm Grendel (or 65x39mm Grendel is a 65 mm caliber intermediate cartridge developed in 2002 by Bill Alexander of Alexander Arms and Arne Brennan of Competition Shooting 8 mm SPC. Remington has developed the 6.8 mm Remington SPC cartridge, which has the same cartridge overall length (COAL) as the 5. Remington Arms is a major American manufacturer of Rifles Shotguns other Firearms, Revolvers and Ammunition. The 68 mm Remington SPC (or 68x43mm is a new Rifle cartridge that was developed with collaboration from individual members of US SOCOM. 56x45mm NATO cartridge but fires the larger . 270 caliber bullets. Likewise, Alexander Arms at Radford Arsenal developed the 6.5 Grendel cartridge, which combines long range accuracy comparable to the 7. The 65 mm Grendel (or 65x39mm Grendel is a 65 mm caliber intermediate cartridge developed in 2002 by Bill Alexander of Alexander Arms and Arne Brennan of Competition Shooting 62 mm NATO with close range stopping power similar to the 6. 8 SPC. With both bullets, by matching the 5. 56's COAL, conversion of existing AR-15, M4 and M16 rifles requires only replacement of uppers and magazines. Other cartridges have been developed for the AR-15 platform such as the .50 Beowulf and the . 458 Socom - but these cartridges are much heavier and relegated to a specialty role rather than as a pure assault rifle cartridge.
In addition to these new designs, the future may well be the redesign of the past. Recently, weapons manufacturing giants Heckler and Koch redesigned the M4 assault rifle. Heckler & Koch GmbH ( H&K) (pronounced ˈhɛklɐʔʊntˈkɔx is a German defense manufacturing company that produces various The new weapon, the HK416, has updated features. The HK416 is an Assault rifle designed and manufactured by Heckler & Koch. The include: a piston action, not gas, the bolt is sealed from the action, reducing dirt, heat and chance of failure, 1913 Picatinny rails, drop free magazine release and other subtle, but useful additions. These and other redesigns are quickly pushing it to the top of the ladder.
Small arms technology including the assault rifle can be described as a mature technology, meaning that no major technology changes can be expected in this area. A mature technology is a technology that has been in use for long enough (for years or more likely decades or longer that most of its initial faults and inherent problems However, minor improvements can still be expected that make the assault rifle more effective and efficient to accommodate the changes on the battlefield. Diminishing the effect of the assault rifle are improvements to personal body armor, which allow it to stop or hinder bullet penetration from intermediate caliber small arms. A ballistic vest is an item of protective clothing that absorbs the impact from gun-fired Projectiles and shrapnel fragments from explosion The term caliber or calibre designates the interior Diameter of a tube or the exterior diameter of a wire or rod Small arms is a term used by the Armed forces to refer to Infantry Weapons such as the Firearms that an individual soldier can carry
As weapons evolve, the delicate balance for assault rifle systems between power, weight, recoil and terminal effects will likely shift once again in an attempt to defeat body armor, to match the range of full-power cartridges, and to penetrate through windshields and thin-skinned vehicles while still producing good terminal effects. Possible future directions are armor piercing or exploding tip bullets or saboted sub-caliber tungsten darts, more powerful cartridges, carbon fiber barrels and exotic metals such as titanium and scandium. An armor-piercing shell is a type of Ammunition designed to penetrate Armor. Tungsten (ˈtʌŋstən also known as wolfram (/ˈwʊlfrəm/ is a Chemical element that has the symbol W and Atomic number 74 Titanium (taɪˈteɪniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Ti and Atomic number 22 Scandium (ˈskændiəm is a Chemical element that has the symbol Sc and Atomic number 21
Primarily limited to the United States, the term assault weapon is a political term, separate from the military definition, used to describe a variety of semi-automatic firearms that have certain features associated with military or police firearms. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The term Assault weapon is derived from the term Assault rifle, itself a translation of the German word Sturmgewehr, literally "storm-rifle" Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions The 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban, which expired on September 13, 2004, defined the rifle type of assault weapon as a semiautomatic firearm with the ability to accept a detachable magazine, and two or more of the following:
A common public misconception persists that the assault weapons ban restricted weapons capable of fully automatic fire, such as assault rifles and machine guns. The Federal Assault Weapons Ban ( AWB) was a subtitle of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, a Federal law of the United States Events 509 BC - The Temple of Jupiter on Rome 's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " On a Firearm or other tool the pistol grip is that portion of the mechanism that is held by the hand and orients the hand in a manner similar to the position one would A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a Knife - Dagger - or spike-shaped Weapon designed to fit on or over the muzzle A flash Suppressor, also known as a flash guard, flash eliminator, or flash cone, is a device attached to a Rifle or other gun that A grenade launcher is a Weapon that launches a Grenade with more accuracy higher velocity and to greater distances than a soldier could throw it by hand For other uses of the phrase see Machine Gun (disambiguation. Fully automatic weapons, however, were unaffected by the ban, and have been continuously and heavily regulated since the National Firearms Act of 1934 was passed. The National Firearms Act (" NFA " 73rd Congress, Sess Subsequent laws such as the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the Firearm Owners Protection Act of 1986 also affected the importation and civilian ownership of fully automatic firearms, the latter fully prohibiting sales of newly-manufactured machine guns to non-law enforcement or SOT (special occupational taxpayer) dealers. The Gun Control Act of 1968, Pub L No 90-618 82 Stat 1213 (also known as GCA or GCA68, and codified as Chapter 44 of Title 18 United States Code The Firearm Owners' Protection Act (FOPA, Pub L No 99-308 100 Stat