|Other types of homicide|
|"Homicide" status disputed|
Assassination is the targeted killing of a high-profile person. Murder is the unlawful killing of another human person with Malice aforethought, as defined in Common Law countries  An added distinction between assassination and other forms of killing is that the assassin (one who performs an assassination) usually has an ideological or political motivation, though many assassins (especially those not part of an organization) also demonstrate insanity. An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics Politics Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions Motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior especially Human behavior as studied in Philosophy, Conflict, Economics Traditionally insanity or madness is the behaviour whereby a person flouts societal norms and may become a danger to himself and others Other motivations may be money (contract killing), revenge, or a military operation. Money is anything that is generally accepted as Payment for Goods and services and repayment of Debts. Contract killing occurs when a private contractor or a government hires someone to kill a specific person or people for a sum of money Revenge (also vengeance, retribution, or vendetta amongst others consists primarily of retaliation against a person or group in response This article describes three distinct but related terms military operations Operations as military events and operational level of war
The assassination euphemism targeted killing (extrajudicial execution) is also used for the government-sanctioned killing of opponents. A euphemism is a substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener or in the case of doublespeak  'Assassination' itself, along with terms such as 'terrorist' and 'freedom fighter', may in this context be considered a loaded term, as it implies an act in which the proponents of such killings may consider them justified or even necessary. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion Freedom fighter is a term to describe those that engage in a struggle to achieve freedom for themselves or to free others in some matter Loaded 
Assassination may also be used as a form of hyperbole, as in the phrase character assassination, meaning an attempt to impugn another's character, and thus kill, or "assassinate" his reputation and credibility. Hyperbole (haɪˈpɝːbəli hye-PER-buh-lee; "HYE-per-bowl" is a mispronunciation comes from Greek "υπερβολή" (meaning exaggeration and is a
The term 'Assassin' may derive from Hashshashin, a militant Ismaili Muslim sect, active in the Middle East from the eighth to the fourteenth centuries. The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia For the Egyptian city see Ismaïlia. The Ismāʿīlī ( Urdu: إسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. This mystic secret society killed members of the Abbasid and Seljuq élite for political and religious reasons. Secret society is a term used to describe a variety of organizations The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in 
It is speculated that the assassins were under the influence of hashish and opium during their killings or during their indoctrination; assassin may derive either from hasishin, the influence of the drugs, or hassansin, after their leader, Hassan-i-Sabah. Hashish (from Arabic: ar حشيش, lit "grass" also hash) is a preparation of cannabis composed of the compressed Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( Hassan-i Sabbāh (حسن صباح حسن الصباح Hassan aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ, c Hashishinnya was an offensive term used by its Muslim and Mongolian detractors to characterize the cult.
The earliest known literary use of the "assassination" is in The Tragedy of Macbeth by William Shakespeare (1605). Macbeth is among the best-known of William Shakespeare 's plays, and is his shortest tragedy, believed to have been written some time between William Shakespeare ( baptised 
The definition of "assassination" varies among sources, the The American Heritage Dictionary defines "to assassinate" thus:
however, the Oxford English Dictionary's definition is:
There is dispute whether the term assassination should include killings wherein the primary motivation is attracting attention to a political cause, and wherein the victim is of secondary importance (and might be famous, but unrelated to the dispute, or even an unknown). This leads to a number of possible definitions - which may however not all apply in any specific case:
For the purposes of this article, the third definition predominates, even though the second is often used, and the first would often be found in colloquial use.
Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, dating back at least as far as recorded history. Assassination, the murder of an opponent or well-known public figure is one of the oldest tools of power struggles as well as the expression of certain psychopathic disorders Power politics, or Machtpolitik (borrowed from German) is a state of International relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, and Julius Caesar can be noted as famous victims. Philip II of Macedon, ( Greek: Φίλιππος Β' ο Μακεδών &mdash φίλος = friend + ίππος = Horse Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Shia Imams. For a simplified list see Concise list of Roman Emperors. For more information see History of the Roman Empire. Imāmah (إمامة is the Shī‘ah doctrine of religious spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. The practice was also well-known in ancient China. Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River ( valley in the Neolithic era An example of this is Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin Shi Huang. Jing Ke ( was a guest residing in the estates of Dan crown prince of Yan and renowned for his failed Assassination of the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang Qin Shi Huang ( (259 BC – September 10 210 BC personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (during the The ancient Indian military adviser Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra. This article is about the history of South Asia prior to the Partition of British India in 1947 Chanakya Sanskrit: चाणक्य Cāṇakya) (c 350-283 BC was an adviser and a Prime minister to the first Maurya Emperor The Arthashastra ( IAST: Arthaśāstra) is a Treatise on statecraft, economic policy and Military strategy which
In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare, but with the Renaissance, tyrannicide – or assassination for personal or political reasons - became more common again. The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a Monarch, or the person responsible for it The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Tyrannicide literally means the killing of a Tyrant. Typically the term is taken to mean the killing or Assassination of tyrants for the common good The reigns of French kings Henry III and Henry IV, and William the Silent of the Netherlands ended with assassination. Henry III of France (Henri III Henryk ( September 19 1551 – August 2, 1589) Henry IV (Henri IV ( 13 December 1553 &ndash 14 May 1610) ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and as Henry III William I Prince of Orange ( April 24 1533 — July 10 1584) also widely known as William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger or simply The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
As the world moved into the modern day, the killing of important people began to become more than a tool in power struggles between rulers themselves, and was also used for political symbolism, such as in the propaganda of the deed. Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a Concept that promotes physical violence against In Russia alone, four emperors were assassinated within less than 200 years: Ivan VI, Peter III, Paul I, and Alexander II. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Ivan VI Antonovich of Russia (Ivan Antonovich Иоанн VI Иоанн Антонович ( August 23, 1740 - July 16, 1764) reigned Peter III ( February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Пётр III Фëдорович Pyotr III Fyodorovitch) was Emperor Paul (Па́вел I Петро́вич Pavel Petrovich) ( &ndash) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801 Alexander (Aleksandr II Nikolaevich (Александр II Николаевич ( Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St
In the U.S., Presidents Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, and John F. Kennedy died at the hands of assassins, while many other presidents survived attempts on their lives. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, one of the last major events in the American Civil War, took place on Good Friday, April 14, 1865, when The James A Garfield assassination took place in Washington DC on July 2, 1881. The William McKinley Assassination occurred on September 6, 1901, at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, New York. The assassination of John F Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday November 22 1963 in Dallas Texas Most of these assassinations however turned out to have no more than nebulous political backgrounds, adding a new threat: the mentally deranged assassin.
In Europe the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian nationalist insurgents is blamed for igniting World War I after a succession of minor conflicts, while belligerents on both sides in World War II used operatives specifically trained for assassination. Serbia (Србија Srbija) officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија Republika Srbija) is a Landlocked Country The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation An insurgency is a violent internal uprising against a sovereign government that lacks the organization of a revolution World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Reinhard Heydrich was killed by Czech partisan killers, and knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the U. Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich ( 7 March 1904 &ndash 4 June 1942) was an SS - Obergruppenführer, chief Czechs (Češi ˈt͡ʃɛʃɪ archaic Čechové) are a western Slavic people of Central Europe, living predominantly in the Czech Republic S. to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto while he was travelling by airplane. Operation Vengeance was carried out to kill Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto on April 18, 1943, during the Solomon Islands campaign For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks of the highest Naval officers Fleet Admiral ( 4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was the Commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II a Overview Fixed-wing aircraft range from small training and recreational aircraft to Wide-body aircraft and military cargo aircraft. Adolf Hitler, meanwhile, was almost killed by his own officers, and survived various attempts by other persons and organizations (such as Operation Foxley, though this plan was never put into practice). Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Operation Foxley was a 1944 plan to assassinate Adolf Hitler, created by the British Special Operations Executive.
India's "Father of the Nation", Mohandas K. Gandhi, was shot to death on January 30, 1948 by Nathuram Godse, for what Godse perceived as his betrayal of the Hindu cause in attempting to seek peace between Hindus and Muslims. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on January 30 1948, shot at Point-blank range by Nathuram Godse, an activist of the Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nathuram Vinayak Godse (नथूराम विनायक गोडसे (May 19 1910 – November 15 1949 was the A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical Peace, in the modern usage is a concept defined by the ideal state of relationship as absence of hostility at the international level that of a War. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion 
During the Cold War, there was a dramatic new increase in the number of political assassinations, likely due to the ideological polarization of most of the First and Second worlds, whose adherents were often more than willing to both justify and finance such killings. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics The term " first world " refers to countries that are capitalist, which are technologically advanced and whose The term " Second World " is a phrase that was used to describe the Communist states within the Soviet Union 's sphere of influence
Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan was assassinated by Saad Akbar, a lone assassin in 1951. For other people with the same or similar name see Liaqat Ali (disambiguation Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (accurate transliteration Liāqat Alī Khān This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Saad Akbar Babrak (? - 16 October, 1951) an Afghan of Pashtun ethnicity assassinated the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Conspiracy theorists believe his conflict with certain members of the Pakistani military (Rawalpindi conspiracy) or suppression of Communists and antagonism towards the Soviet Union, were potential reasons for his assassination. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
During the Kennedy era (which, as noted before, ended in an assassination itself), Cuban President Fidel Castro narrowly escaped death on several occasions at the hands of the CIA. The assassination of John F Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday November 22 1963 in Dallas Texas The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all At the same time, the KGB made creative use of assassination to deal with high-profile defectors. KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty
Most major powers were not long in repudiating Cold War assassination tactics, though many allege that this was merely a smokescreen for political benefit and that covert and illegal training of assassins continues today, with Russia, Israel, and other nations accused of still regularly engaging in such operations. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. In 1986, U.S. President Ronald Reagan (who survived an assassination attempt himself) ordered the Operation El Dorado Canyon air raid on Libya in which one of the primary targets was the home residence of Libyan ruler Muammar Gaddafi. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by The United States bombing of Libya (code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon) comprised the joint United States Air Force, Navy and Libya ( ليبيا ar-Latn Lībiyā; Libyan vernacular: Lībya; Amazigh:) officially the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi 1 (معمر القذافي) (born 7 June 1942) also known as Colonel Gaddafi Gaddafi escaped unharmed; however, his adopted daughter Hanna was one of the civilian casualties. The United States bombing of Libya (code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon) comprised the joint United States Air Force, Navy and
In the Philippines, the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr. triggered the eventual downfall of the 20-year autocratic rule of President Ferdinand Marcos. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Benigno Servillano Aquino Jr ( November 27, 1932 – August 21 The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos ( September 11, 1917 &ndash September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986 Aquino, a former Senator and a leading figure of the political opposition, was assassinated in 1983 at the Manila International Airport (now the Ninoy Aquino International Airport) upon returning home from exile. The Senate of the Philippines ( Filipino: Senádo ng Pilipínas) is the upper chamber of the bicameral Legislature of the Philippines, the The City of Manila An international airport is an Airport typically equipped with Customs and Immigration facilities to handle international flights to and from other The Ninoy Aquino International Airport ( Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA (ˈnæijɑ is the Airport serving the Exile means to be away from one's home (ie city state or country while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened by prison or death upon return His death thrust his widow, Corazon Aquino, into the limelight and, ultimately, the presidency following the peaceful 1986 EDSA Revolution. María Corazón Cojuangco-Aquino (born María Corazón Sumulong Cojuangco on January 25, 1933) widely known as Cory Aquino, was the 11th
On August 17, 1988 President of Pakistan Gen. Events 986 - A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and M. Zia ul Haq died along with his staff and the American Ambassador to Pakistan when his C-130 transport plane exploded in mid-air after taking off from Bahawalpur because of an on-board bomb. General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq ( Arabic: محمد ضياء الحق) (b WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Bahawalpur (also Bhawalpur or Bhawulpore) (بہاولپور is the capital city of Bahawalpur District located in, Punjab Pakistan The CIA, KGB and Indian secret service RAW all have been implicated by various conspiracy theorists.
During the 1991 Gulf War, the United States also struck many of Iraq’s most important command bunkers with bunker-busting bombs in hopes of killing Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. A bunker buster is a Bomb designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30
Various dictators around the world, such as Saddam Hussein, have also used assassination to remove individual opponents, or to terrorize troublesome population groups. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology In return, in post-Saddam Iraq, the Shiite-dominated government has used death squads to perform countless extrajudicial executions of Sunni Iraqis, with some alleging that the death squads were trained by the U. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic S. 
In India, Prime Ministers Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi (neither of whom were related to Mohandas Gandhi), were assassinated in 1984 and 1991. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The Prime Minister of India is head of the Council of Ministers, appointed by the President to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi ( Indirā Priyadarśinī Gāndhī) ( Née: Nehru (19 November 1917 - 31 October 1984 was the Prime Minister of the Rajiv Gandhi राजीव गांधी (raːdʒiːv gaːnd̪ʰiː born in Bombay, (20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991 the elder son of Indira and Feroze Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi ( Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી moɦən̪d̪äs kəɾəmʧən̪d̪ gän̪d̪ʱi (2 October 1869 – 30 January The assassinations were linked to separatist movements in Punjab and northern Sri Lanka, respectively. Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural ethnic tribal religious racial or gender separation from the larger group often with demands for greater political autonomy Punjab (ਪੰਜਾਬ पंजाब pəɲdʒaːb is a state in northwest India. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island
In Pakistan, former prime minister and opposition leader Benazir Bhutto was assassinated in 2007, while in the process of running for re-election. Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Benazir Bhutto ( Sindhi: بينظير ڀٽو Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو beːnəziːɾ bɦʊʈːoː (21 June 1953 &ndash 27 December 2007 was a The assassination of Benazir Bhutto occurred on December 27 2007 in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Bhutto's assassination drew unanimous condemnation from the international community. The international reaction to the assassination of Benazir Bhutto consisted of universal condemnation across the International community,However 
Assassination for military purposes has long been espoused - Sun Tzu, writing around 500 B. Sun Tzu ( ("Master Sun" also called Sun Wu ( is traditionally considered to be the author of The Art of War (also simply called the C. , argued in favor of using assassination in his book The Art of War. The Art of War ( is a Chinese military Treatise that was written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. Nearly 2000 years later Machiavelli also argued assassination could be useful in his book The Prince. Il Principe ( The Prince) is a political Treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist In medieval times, an army and even a nation might be based upon and around a particularly strong, canny or charismatic leader, whose loss could paralyze the ability of both to make war. However, in modern warfare a soldier's mindset is generally considered to surround ideals far more than specific leaders, while command structures are more flexible in replacing officer losses. While the death of a popular or successful leader often has a detrimental effect on morale, the organisational system and the belief in a specific cause is usually strong enough to enable continued warfare.
There is also the risk that the target could be replaced by an even more competent leader or that such a killing (or a failed attempt) will "martyr" a leader and support his cause (by showing the moral ruthlessness of the assassins). The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom Faced with particularly brilliant leaders, this possibility has in various instances been risked, such as in the attempts to kill the Athenian Alcibiades during the Peloponnesian War. Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (ˌælsɨˈbaɪədiːz (pronunciation Greek:, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnidēs) meaning Alcibiades There are a number of additional examples from World War II, the last major total war, which show how assassination was used as a military tool at both tactical and strategic levels:
Use of assassination has continued in more recent conflicts:
Insurgent groups have often employed assassination as a tool to further their causes. Assassinations provide several functions for such groups, namely the removal of specific enemies and as propaganda tools to focus the attention of media and politics on their cause.
The Irish Republican Army guerrillas of 1919-1921 assassinated many RIC Police Intelligence officers during the Irish War of Independence. The Irish Republican Army ( IRA) (Óglaigh na hÉireann was a military organisation descended from the Irish Volunteers, established 25 November 1913 and who The Royal Irish Constabulary ( RIC) ( Irish: Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann) was one of Ireland's two police forces in the early twentieth century The Irish War of Independence (or Tan War, or Anglo-Irish War, Irish: Cogadh na Saoirse) from January 1919 to July 1921 was a guerrilla Michael Collins set up a special unit - the Squad - for this purpose, which had the effect of intimidating many policemen into resigning from the force. Michael John ("Mick" Collins (Mícheál Seán Ó Coileáin 16 October 1890 &ndash 22 August 1922 was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for The Squad also known as the Twelve Apostles, were an Irish Republican Army unit founded by Michael Collins to counter the British intelligence efforts during The Squad's activities peaked with the assassination of 14 British agents in Dublin on Bloody Sunday in 1920. Dublin (ˈdʌblɨn/ /ˈdʊblɨn or /ˈdʊbəlɪn/, bˠalʲə aːha klʲiəh or cliə(ɸ is both the largest city and capital of Ireland. Bloody Sunday was a day of violence on 21 November 1920 in Dublin, during the Irish War of Independence ( 1919 - 1921)
This tactic was used again by the Provisional IRA during the Troubles in Northern Ireland (1969-present). The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Óglaigh na hÉireann ( IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Assassination of RUC officers and politicians was one of a number of methods used in the Provisional IRA campaign 1969-1997. The Royal Ulster Constabulary GC was the name of the Police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001 From 1969 until 1997 the Provisional Irish Republican Army (Provisional IRA conducted an armed Paramilitary campaign in the United Kingdom, aimed at ending British The IRA also attempted to assassinate British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher by bombing the Conservative Party Conference in a Brighton hotel. This article is about the government position For other uses see Prime Minister (disambiguation. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Brighton ( is a town on the south coast of England and with its neighbour Hove, forms the city of Brighton and Hove. Loyalist paramilitaries retaliated by killing Catholics at random and assassinating Irish nationalist politicians. Ulster loyalism is a militant unionist ideology held mostly by Protestants in Northern Ireland. Irish nationalism (Náisiúnachas Éireannach refers to political and sociological movements and sentiment that embodies a love for Irish ancestry, culture and language and
Basque separatists ETA in Spain have assassinated many security and political figures since the late 1960s, notably Luis Carrero Blanco in 1973. The Basques (Euskaldunak are a people who inhabit a region spanning over parts of north-central Spain and southwestern France. eu '''Euskadi Ta Askatasuna''' or ETA ( Basque for "Basque Homeland and Freedom" ˈɛːta is an illegal armed Basque nationalist Separatist Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Luis Carrero Blanco 1st Duke of Carrero-Blanco ( March 4, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria &ndash December 20, 1973, Since the early 1990s, they have also targeted academics, journalists and local politicians who publicly disagreed with them, meaning that many needed armed police bodyguards.
The Red Brigades in Italy carried out assassinations of political figures, as to a lesser extent, did the Red Army Faction in Germany in the 1970s and 1980s. This article is about the Italian group "Red Brigade" may also refer to the Japanese Red Army/Anti-Imperialist International Brigade. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Red Army Faction or RAF ( German Rote Armee Fraktion) (in its early stages commonly known as Baader-Meinhof Group ''Gang'' was one Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
Middle Eastern groups, such as the PLO and Hezbollah, have all engaged in assassinations, though the higher intensity of armed conflict in the region compared to western Europe means that many of their actions are either better characterized as guerrilla operations or as random attacks on civilians - especially the technique of suicide bombs. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. The Palestine Liberation Organization ( PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary Hezbollah (حزب الله, literally " party of God " is a Shi'a Islamic political and Paramilitary organisation Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons
In the Vietnam War, assassinations were routinely carried out by communist insurgents against government officials and individual civilians deemed to offend or rival the revolutionary movement. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia Such attacks, along with widespread military activity by insurgent bands, almost brought the Diem regime to collapse before the US intervention. 
Individually, too, people have often found reasons to arrange the deaths of others through paid intermediaries. One who kills with no political motive or group loyalty who kills only for money is known as a Hitman or Contract Killer. Contract killing occurs when a private contractor or a government hires someone to kill a specific person or people for a sum of money Note that by the definition accepted above, while such a killer is not, strictly speaking, an assassin, if the killing is ordered and financed towards a political end, then that killing must rightly be termed an assassination, and the hitman an assassin by extension.
Entire organizations have sometimes specialized in assassination as one of their services, to be gained for the right price. Besides the original hashshashin, the ninja clans of Japan were rumored to perform assassinations, though it can be pointed out that most of what was ever known about the ninja was rumor and hearsay. The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin, Hashasheen or Assassins) were an offshoot of the Ismā'īlī sect of Shia For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. A rumour or rumor (see spelling differences) is often viewed as "an unverified account or explanation of events circulating from person to person and Not to be confused with Heresy. Hearsay is a legal term referring to the use of out of court statements as evidence
In the United States, Murder, Inc., an organization partnered to the Mafia, was formed for the sole purpose of performing assassinations for organized crime. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Murder Inc, Murder Incorporated or Brownsville Boys was the name given by the press for an Organized crime group in the 1920s to 1940s that carried The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century In Russia, the vory (thieves), Russian organised crime syndicates, are often known to provide assassinations for the right price, as well as engaging in it themselves for their own purposes. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending A professional hitman is called "cleaner" in Russia; he is used to clean away the target. The Finnish as well as the Swedish underworld uses the word "torpedo" for a contract killer. The modern torpedo (historically called an automotive automobile locomotive or fish torpedo is a self-propelled explosive Projectile weapon launched above or below
The use of assassinations for political or military reasons by sovereign states is an extremely contentious subject, with opinions ranging from people considering it a legitimate defense, especially against non-state actors like terror groups, to people calling targeted killings state terrorism itself. Both those for and against targeted killings are also often faced with accusations of being clearly partisan to one side of the discussed struggle.
A major study about assassination attempts in the US in the second half of the 20th century came to the conclusion that most prospective assassins spend copious amounts of time planning and preparing for their attempts. Assassinations are thus rarely a case of 'impulsive' action. 
However, about 25% of the actual attackers were found to be delusional, a figure that rose to 60% with 'near-lethal approachers' (people apprehended before reaching their target). A delusion is commonly defined as a fixed False Belief and is used in everyday language to describe a belief that is either false fanciful or derived from Deception This incidentally shows that while mental instability plays a role in many modern-age assassinations, the more delusional attackers are less likely to succeed in their attempt. The report also found that around two thirds of the attackers had previously been arrested for (not necessarily related) offenses, that around 44% had a history of serious depression, and that 39% had a history of substance abuse. In the fields of Psychology and Psychiatry, the terms depression or depressed refer to both expected and pathologically chronic or severe 
It seems likely that the first assassinations would have been direct and simple: stabbing, strangling or bludgeoning. A stabbing is the penetration of a sharp or pointed object at close range Substantial planning or coordination would rarely have been involved, as tribal groups were too small, and the connection to the leaders too close. As civilization took root, however, leaders began to have greater importance, and become more detached from the groups they ruled. A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements This would have brought planning, subterfuge and weapons into successful assassination plans.
The key technique was likely infiltration, with the actual assassination by stabbing, smothering or strangulation. Poisons also started to be used in many forms. In the context of Biology, poisons are substances that can cause damage, Illness, or Death to Organisms usually by Death cap mushrooms and similar plants became a traditional choice of assassins especially if they could not be perceived as poisonous by taste, and the symptoms of the poisoning did not show until after some time. Amanita phalloides (generally æməˈnaɪtə fəˈlɔɪdiːz commonly known as the death cap, is a poisonous Basidiomycete Fungus, one
In ancient Rome, paid mobs were sometimes used to beat political enemies to death.
With the advent of effective ranged weaponry, and later firearms, the position of an assassination target was more precarious. A ranged weapon or missile weapon is any Weapon that launches a Projectile or that is a projectile itself A firearm is a Tool that projects either single or multiple Projectiles at high velocity through a controlled explosion Bodyguards were no longer enough to hold back determined killers, who no longer needed to directly engage or even subvert the guard to kill the leader in question. Moreover, the engagement of targets at greater distance dramatically increased the chances for an assassin's survival. It is considered that William the Silent of the Netherlands was the first leader assassinated by firearms (July 10, 1584). William I Prince of Orange ( April 24 1533 — July 10 1584) also widely known as William the Silent (Willem de Zwijger or simply The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia.
Gunpowder and other explosives also allowed the use of bombs or even greater concentrations of explosives for deeds requiring a larger touch; for an example, the Gunpowder Plot could have 'assassinated' almost a thousand people had it not been foiled. Gunpowder is a an explosive mixture of Sulfur, Charcoal and Potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre/saltpeter that burns rapidly producing volumes The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 or the Powder Treason, as it was known at the time was a failed Assassination attempt by a group of provincial English
Explosives, especially the car bomb, become far more common in modern history, with grenades and remote-triggered landmines also used, especially in the Middle East and Balkans (the initial attempt on Archduke Franz Ferdinand's life was with a grenade). A car bomb is an explosive device placed in a car or other Vehicle and then detonated. A land mine is an Explosive device designed to be placed on or in the ground to explode when triggered by an operator or the Proximity of a vehicle person The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Franz Ferdinand ( December 18, 1863 &ndash June 28, 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Imperial of With heavy weapons, the rocket propelled grenade (RPG) has became a useful tool given the popularity of armored cars (discussed below), while Israeli forces have pioneered the use of aircraft-mounted missiles for assassination, as well as the innovative use of explosive devices. RPG or rocket-propelled grenade, is a loose term describing hand-held shoulder-launched Anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided
A sniper with a precision rifle is often used in fictional assassinations. READ DISCUSSION PAGE BEFORE MAKING ANY EDITS TO CAPTION BELOW http//en However, there are certain difficulties associated with long-range shooting, including finding a hidden shooting position with a clear line-of-sight, detailed advance knowledge of the intended victim's travel plans, the ability to identify the target at long range, and the ability to score a first-round lethal hit at long range, usually measured in hundreds of meters. A dedicated sniper rifle is also expensive and hard to acquire, often costing thousands of dollars because of the high level of precision machining and hand-finishing required to achieve extreme accuracy. In Military and Law enforcement terminology a sniper rifle is a Rifle used to ensure Accurate placement of Bullets at longer 
Despite their comparative disadvantages, easy-to-acquire and hard-to-trace handguns are much more commonly used than rifles. Of 74 principal incidents evaluated in a major study about assassination attempts in the US in the second half of the 20th century, 51% were undertaken by a handgun, 30% with a rifle or shotgun, while 15% of the attempts used knives and 8% explosives (usage of multiple weapons/methods was reported in 16% of all cases). 
A 2006 case in the UK concerned the assassination of Alexander Litvinenko who was given a lethal dose of radioactive polonium-210, possibly passed to him in aerosol form sprayed directly onto his food. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Alexander Litvinenko was a former officer of Russian Federal Security Service, who escaped prosecution in Russia and received a Political asylum in Polonium (pəˈloʊniəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Po and Atomic number 84 discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie Litvinenko, a former KGB agent, had been granted asylum in the UK in 2000 after citing persecution in Russia. KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Shortly before his death he issued a statement accusing Vladimir Putin, the Russian president, of involvement in his assassination. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (; born 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, USSR; now Saint Petersburg, Russia was the second President of Russia The President of Russia (Президент России or the President of the Russian Federation, Президент Российской President Putin denies he had any part in Litvinenko's death. 
One of the earliest forms of defense against assassins is without doubt the bodyguard. A bodyguard (or "close protection officer" is a type of Security guard or government agent who protects a person—usually a famous wealthy or politically He acts as a shield for the potential target, keeps lookout for potential attackers (sometimes in advance, for example on a planned tour), and is literally supposed to put himself 'in harm's way' - both by his simple presence, forming a barrier in front of the target and by shielding the target during any attack. He is also, if possible, to neutralize an attacker as fast as possible, and thus often carries weapons (where legal or possible).
This bodyguard function was often executed by the leader's most loyal warriors, and was extremely effective throughout most of early human history, leading to attempts by subterfuge, such as poison (which was answered by the food taster). A food taster is a person that takes Food (or Drink) to be served to someone else to confirm that it is safe to eat and does not contain Toxins or Poisons
Notable examples of bodyguards would include the Roman Praetorian Guard or the Ottoman janissaries - although, in both cases, it should be noted that the protectors often became assassins themselves, exploiting their power to make the head of state a virtual hostage at their whim or eliminating threatening leaders altogether. The Praetorian Guard ( Latin: PRÆTORIANI was a special force of Guards used by Roman Emperors Before being appropriated The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish ينيچرى ( yeniçeri) meaning "new soldier" comprised Infantry units that formed Head of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a Monarchic or Republican Nation-state The fidelity of individual bodyguards is an important question as well, especially for leaders who oversee states with strong ethnic or religious divisions. Failure to realize such divided loyalties leads to assassinations such as that of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, assassinated by two Sikh bodyguards in 1984. The Prime Minister of India is head of the Council of Ministers, appointed by the President to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi ( Indirā Priyadarśinī Gāndhī) ( Née: Nehru (19 November 1917 - 31 October 1984 was the Prime Minister of the Sikh (English or; ਸਿੱਖ sikkh, IPA) is the title and name given to an adherent of Sikhism.
With the advent of gunpowder, ranged assassination (via bombs or firearms) became possible. One of the first reactions was to simply increase the guard, creating what at times might seem a small army trailing every leader; another was to begin clearing large areas whenever a leader was present, to the point where entire sections of a city might be shut down. A brigade is a Military unit Echelon: is
As the 20th century dawned, the prevalence of assassins and their capabilities skyrocketed, and so did measures to protect against them. For the first time, armored cars or armored limousines were put into service for safer transport, with modern versions rendering them virtually invulnerable to small arms fire and smaller bombs and mines. Civilian armored cars are either (in only a few cases factory produced such as the Audi A6 and A8, Lincoln Town Car BPS the Mercedes-Benz S-Class Civilian armored cars are either (in only a few cases factory produced such as the Audi A6 and A8, Lincoln Town Car BPS the Mercedes-Benz S-Class Small arms is a term used by the Armed forces to refer to Infantry Weapons such as the Firearms that an individual soldier can carry A land mine is an Explosive device designed to be placed on or in the ground to explode when triggered by an operator or the Proximity of a vehicle person  Bulletproof vests also began to be used, though they were of limited utility, restricting movement and leaving the head unprotected - as such they tended to be worn only during high-profile public events if at all. A ballistic vest is an item of protective clothing that absorbs the impact from gun-fired Projectiles and shrapnel fragments from explosion
Access to famous persons, too, became more and more restrictive; potential visitors would be forced through numerous different checks before being granted access to the official in question, and as communication became better and information technology more prevalent, it has become all but impossible for a would-be killer to get close enough to the personage at work or in private life to effect an attempt on his or her life, especially given the common use of metal and bomb detectors. Communication is the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way Information technology ( IT) as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA is "the study design development implementation support Metal detectors use Electromagnetic induction to detect Metal. Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe
Most modern assassinations have been committed either during a public performance or during transport, both because of weaker security and security lapses, such as with US President John F. Kennedy and former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, or as part of coups d'état where security is either overwhelmed or completely removed, such as with Patrice Lumumba and likely Salvador Allende. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29 1917&ndashNovember 22 1963 often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and Benazir Bhutto ( Sindhi: بينظير ڀٽو Urdu: بینظیر بھٹو beːnəziːɾ bɦʊʈːoː (21 June 1953 &ndash 27 December 2007 was a Patrice Émery Lumumba ( 2 July, 1925 – 17 January, 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens (June 26 1908 – September 11 1973 was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup d'état of 
The methods used for protection by famous people have sometimes evoked negative reactions by the public, with some resenting the separation from their officials or major figures. One example might be traveling in a car protected by a bubble of clear bulletproof glass, such as the Popemobile of Pope John Paul II (built following an extremist's attempt at his life). Bulletproof glass is a colloquial term for Glass that is particularly resistant to being penetrated when struck by Bullets Since manufacturing glass of usable The Popemobile is an informal name for the specially designed Motor vehicles used by the Pope during outdoor public appearances History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Pope Politicians themselves often resent this need for separation - which has at times caused tragedy when they sent their bodyguards from their side for personal or publicity reasons, as U. S. President William McKinley did during the public reception at which he was assassinated. William McKinley Jr ( January 29, 1843 September 14, 1901) was the twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last 
Other potential targets go into seclusion, and are rarely heard from or seen in public, such as writer Salman Rushdie. A writer is anyone who creates a written work although the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally as well as those who have written in many different forms Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie Kt (born 19 June 1947 is an Indian - British novelist and essayist A related form of protection is the use of body doubles, a person built similar to the person he is expected to impersonate. A political decoy is a person employed to Impersonate a Politician, in order to draw attention away from the real person or to take risks on their behalf These persons are then made up, as well as in some cases altered to look like the target, with the body double then taking the place of the person in high risk situations. Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental Saddam Hussein is known to have used body doubles.  According to Joe R. Reeder, a former under secretary for the U. S. Army from 1993-1997 writing in Fox News, Fidel Castro had also used body doubles, though no details were specified. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until 
In the final analysis, countermeasures can never be fully effective. If the assassin is committed beyond reason (i. e. insane) or without concern for his own for self-preservation (suicide attacker), then the task of protecting a person will be made much more difficult. Traditionally insanity or madness is the behaviour whereby a person flouts societal norms and may become a danger to himself and others This article is about suicide attacks for political and/or military reasons
Middle East Quarterly ( MEQ) is a quarterly journal devoted to subjects relating to the Middle East.