|King of Assyria|
Ashurbanipal on a chariot
during a royal lion hunt.
|Reign||669 – ca. Events and trends 669 BC: Ashurbanipal succeeds his father Esarhaddon as king of Assyria. 631 BC|
Ashurbanipal (b. Events and trends 636 BC — Duke Wen of Jin ascends to power in the State of Jin during the Zhou Dynasty of China. Events and trends 689 BC — King Sennacherib of Assyria sacks Babylon. Events and trends 628 BC — King Josiah of Judah dies in the Battle of Megiddo against Pharaoh Necho II of Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form Akkadian Aššur-ahhe-iddina " Ashur has given a brother to me" was a king of Assyria who reigned Ashur-etil-ilani was a king of Assyria ca ( 631 BC - ca 627 BC Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form Akkadian Aššur-ahhe-iddina " Ashur has given a brother to me" was a king of Assyria who reigned 685 BCE – d. Events and trends 689 BC — King Sennacherib of Assyria sacks Babylon. 627 BCE), the son of Esarhaddon, was the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Events and trends 628 BC — King Josiah of Judah dies in the Battle of Megiddo against Pharaoh Necho II of Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form Akkadian Aššur-ahhe-iddina " Ashur has given a brother to me" was a king of Assyria who reigned The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC He established the first systematically organized library in the ancient Middle East, the Library of Ashurbanipal, which survives in part today. The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, named after Ashurbanipal, the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is a collection of thousands of Clay tablets
In the Bible he is called As(e)nappar or Osnapper (Ezra 4:10). The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. Roman historian Justinus identified him as Sardanapalus. Justin (Latin Marcus Junianius (or Junianus) Justinus) was a Latin historian who lived under the Roman Empire. Sardanapalus (also spelled Sardanapallus) was according to the Greek writer Ctesias of Cnidus the last king of Assyria. 
Assurbanipal (Akkadian: Aššur-bāni-apli, "Ashur has made a[nother] son" or "Ashur created an heir") was born toward the end of a fifteen-hundred-year period of Assyrian ascendancy. In Akkadian mythology, Anshar (also spelled Anshur) which means "sky pivot" or "sky axle" is a Sky God.
His father, Esarhaddon, youngest son of Sennacherib, had become heir when the crown prince, Ashur-nadin-shumi, was deposed by rebels from his position as vassal for Babylon. Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form Akkadian Aššur-ahhe-iddina " Ashur has given a brother to me" was a king of Assyria who reigned Sennacherib ( Akkadian Sîn-ahhe-eriba "(moon god Sîn has replaced (lost brothers for me" was the son of Sargon II, whom he Ashur-nadin-shumi (d694 BC was an ancient King of Babylon. The son of the Assyrian king Sennacherib, Ashur-nadin-shumi was installed by his father as Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq Esarhaddon was not the son of Sennacherib's queen, Tashmetum-sharrat, but of the West Semitic "palace woman" Zakutu, known by her native name, Naqi'a. In Linguistics and Ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical " Shem " Hebrew שם translated as "name" Arabic: ساميّ The only queen known for Esarhaddon was Ashur-hamat, who died in 672 BC. Events and trends 677 BC — Esarhaddon leads the Assyrian army against rebellious Arab tribes advances as far as the Brook of Egypt
Ashurbanipal grew up in the small palace called bit reduti (house of succession), built by Sennacherib when he was crown prince in the northern quadrant of Nineveh. Nineveh ( Akkadian: Ninua; Aramaic: ܢܝܢܘܐ Hebrew נינוה Nīnewē; Arabic نينوى Naīnuwa) In 694, Sennacherib had completed the "Palace Without Rival" at the southwest corner of the acropolis, obliterating most of the older structures. Events and trends 699 BC — Khallushu succeeds Shuttir-Nakhkhunte as king of the Elamite Empire. Acropolis (Gr akros akron edge extremity + polis city pl acropoleis The "House of Succession" had become the palace of Esarhaddon, the crown prince. In this house, Ashurbanipal's grandfather was assassinated by uncles identified only from the biblical account as Adrammelek and Sharezer. From this conspiracy, Esarhaddon emerged as king in 681. Events and trends 689 BC — King Sennacherib of Assyria sacks Babylon. He proceeded to rebuild as his residence the bit masharti (weapons house, or arsenal). An arsenal is an establishment for the construction repair storage and issue of Weapons and Ammunition. The "House of Succession" was left to his mother and the younger children, including Ashurbanipal.
The names of five brothers and one sister are known. Sin-iddin-apli, the intended crown prince, died prior to 672. Events and trends 677 BC — Esarhaddon leads the Assyrian army against rebellious Arab tribes advances as far as the Brook of Egypt Not having been expected to become heir to the throne, Ashurbanipal was trained in scholarly pursuits as well as the usual horsemanship, hunting, chariotry, soldierliness, craftsmanship, and royal decorum. For the Roman class see Equestrian (Roman Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving Horses This broad description Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing In a unique autobiographical statement, Ashurbanipal specified his youthful scholarly pursuits as having included oil divination, mathematics, and reading and writing. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Ashurbanipal was the only Assyrian king who learned how to read and write.
In 672, upon the death of his queen, Esarhaddon reorganized the line of succession at the instigation of his mother. He used the submission of Median chieftains to draft a treaty. The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. The chieftains swore that if Esarhaddon died while his sons were still minors, they and their children would guarantee the succession of Ashurbanipal as king of Assyria and Shamash-shum-ukin as king of Babylon even though Ashurbanipal was the younger of the two. Shamash-shum-ukin was king of Babylon from 668-648 BCHe was the second son of the Assyrian King Esarhaddon. Before this his elder brother Sin-iddina-apla was Esarhaddon's heir but he died in the same year. A monumental stela set up two years later in a northwestern province portrays Esarhaddon in high relief upon its face and each of the sons on a side. A stele (from Greek:, stēlē, ˈstiːli plural stelae,, stēlai, ˈstiːlaɪ also found Latinised singular stela These portraits, the earliest dated for Ashurbanipal and his brother, show both with the full beard of maturity.
The princes pursued diverse educations thereafter. Extant letters from Shamash-shum-ukin offer his father reports of the situation in Babylon; Ashurbanipal at home received letters as crown prince. The situation came to an immediate crisis in 669, when Esarhaddon, on campaign to Egypt, died suddenly. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Ashurbanipal did not accede to the kingship of Assyria until late in the year. His grandmother Zakutu required all to support his sole claim to the throne and to report acts of treason from now on to him and herself. This shows how influential the old lady was at the beginning of Ashurbanipal's reign. The official ceremonies of coronation came in the second month of the new year, and within the same year (668), Ashurbanipal installed his brother as King of Babylon. Events and trends 669 BC: Ashurbanipal succeeds his father Esarhaddon as king of Assyria. The transition took place smoothly, and the dual monarchy of the youthful brothers began. Texts describe their relationship as if they were twins. It was clear, however, that Ashurbanipal, as king of Assyria, like his fathers before him, was also "king of the universe. "
Despite being a popular king among his subjects, he was also known by enemy nations for his exceedingly cruel action to defeated kings. Some accounts and pictures show him putting a dog chain through the jaw of a defeated king and then making him live in a dog kennel. Many bold pictures and paintings even boast of such cruel acts, showing he was proud of all that he did.
The inheritance of Esarhaddon not only included the throne but also his war with Egypt and its Kushite lords, the kings of Dynasty 25. Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now Kush civilization centered in the confluence of the Blue Nile and the White Nile, and the confluence of the River Atbara and Nile in what The twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth dynasties of Ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title Third Intermediate In 667 he sent an army against it that defeated king Taharqa near Memphis, Ashurbanipal stayed at his capital in Nineveh. Taharqa was pharaoh of Egypt, and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. Memphis was the ancient capitol of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 2200 BC and At the same time the Egyptian vassals rebelled and the Assyrian army had to crush them. All of the leaders were sent to Nineveh, only Necho I the Prince of Sais, convinced the Assyrians of his loyalty and was sent back to become king of Egypt. Necho I (sometimes Nekau) (672 BC–664 BC was the Prince or Governor of the Egyptian city of Sais. After the death of Taharqa in 664 BC his nephew and successor Tantamani invaded Upper Egypt and made Thebes his capital. Events and trends 669 BC: Ashurbanipal succeeds his father Esarhaddon as king of Assyria. Tantamani (Assyrian pronunciation identical to Tandaname or Tanwetamani ( Egyptian) or Tementhes (Greek (d Thebes ( Thēbai) was a city in Ancient Egypt located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean on the east bank of the river Nile ( In Memphis he defeated the other Egyptian princes and Necho may have died in the battle. Another army was sent by Ashurbanipal and again it succeeded in defeating the Kushites. Tantamani retreated to his homeland and stayed there. The Assyrian plundered Thebes and took much booty home with them. How the Assyrian interference in Egypt ended is not certain but Necho’s son Psammetichus I gained independence while keeping his relations with Assyria friendly. An interesting Assyrian royal inscription tells us of how the Lydian king Gyges received dreams from the Assyrian god Ashur. Defining Lydia Aside from a legend related by Herodotus, who states that the name Lydia came from king Lydus at the time of the fall of Troy Gyges (Γύγης was the founder of the third or Mermnad dynasty of Lydian kings and reigned from 716 BC to 678 BC (or from c The dreams told him that when he submitted to Ashurbanipal he would conquer his foes. After he sent his ambassadors to do so he was indeed able to defeat his Cimmerians enemies. See Cimmeria (Conan or Cimmeria (Poem for the fiction of Robert E But when he supported the rebellion of one of the Egyptian rebels his country was overrun by the Cilicians. Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria . 
For the time being the dual monarchy went well. For his assignment of his brothers, Ashurbanipal sent a statue of the divinity Marduk with him as sign of good will. Marduk ( Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMARUTU 𒀫 𒌓 "solar calf" perhaps from MERI  Shamsh-shuma-ukin's powers were limited. He performed Babylonian rituals but the official building projects were still executed by his younger brother. During his first years Elam was still in peace as it was under his father. Elam is the name of an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Ashurbanipal even claimed that he sent food supplies during a famine. Around 664 BC the situation changed and Urtaku the Elamite king attacked Babylonia by surprise. Events and trends 669 BC: Ashurbanipal succeeds his father Esarhaddon as king of Assyria. Urtaku was an Elamite king who reigned from 676 - 664 BCE Under his reign relations between Elam and Babylonia became weaker and after his death during an attack Assyria delayed in sending aid to Babylon, this could have been caused for two reasons: either the soothing messages of Elamite ambassadors or Ashurbanipal might simply not have been present at that time. Elamites retreated before the Assyrian troops, and in the same year Urtaku died. He was succeeded by Teumman (Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak) who was not his legimate heir. So, many of Elamite princes had to flee from him to Ashurbanipal's court including Urtaku’s oldest son Humban-nikash. In 658 BC/657 BC the two empires clashed again. Events and trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras Guatemala. Events and trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras Guatemala. The reason for this was the treasonous province of Gambulu in 664 acting against the Assyrians. Ashurbanipal finally decided to punish them for that. On the other hand, Teumman saw his authority threatened by Elamite princes at the Assyrian court and demanded their extradition. When the Assyrian forces invaded Elam a battle followed at the Ulaya river. 
Elam was defeated in the battle in which, according to Assyrian reliefs, Teumman committed suicide.  Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak and Ashurbanipal installed Humban-nikash as king of Madaktu and another prince, Tammaritu, as king of the city Hidalu. Elam was considered as a new vassal of Assyria and so tribute was imposed upon him. With the Elamite problem solved the Assyrians could finally punish Gumbulu and seized its capital. The victorious army marched home taking with them the head of Teumman. In Nineveh, when the Elamite ambassadors saw the head they lost control; one tore out his beard and the other committed suicide but this wasn’t enough. As further humiliation the head of the Elamite king was put on display at the port of Nineveh. The death and head of Teumman was depicted multiple times in the reliefs of Ashurbanipal's palace. 
Friction must have grown between the two brother kings and in 652 BC Babylon rebelled. Events and trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras Guatemala. This time Babylon was not alone – it had allied itself with Assyrian Chaldean tribes, its southern regions, the kings of Guti, Amurru, and Malluha, and even Elam. Chaldea (from Greek grc Χαλδαία Chaldaia; Akkadian akk māt Kaldu Hebrew כשדים Kaśdim, "the Chaldees" of the The Gutian dynasty came to power in Mesopotamia around 2150 BC ( Short chronology) by destabilising Akkad at the end of the reign of king Ur-Utu Amurru (or Martu) are names given in Akkadian and Sumerian texts to the god of the Amorite /Amurru people often forming part of personal According to a later Aramaic tale on Papyrus 63, SShasm-shuma-ukin formally declared war on Ashurbanipal in a letter where he claims that his brother is only the governor of Nineveh and his subject.  Again the Assyrians delayed an answer, this time due to unfavourable omens. It’s not certain how the rebellion affected the Assyrian heartlands but some unrest in the cities indicates that there were problems.  When Babylon finally was attacked, the Assyrians proved to be more powerful. Civil war prevented further military aid and in 648 BC Borsippa and Babel were besieged. Events and trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic of Gilgamesh. Borsippa (modern Birs Nimrud site Iraq) was an important ancient city of Sumer, built on both sides of a lake about 17 Without aid the situation was hopeless. After two year Shamash-shuma-ukin met his end in his burning palace just before the city surrendered. This time Babel was not destroyed as under Sennacherib but a terrible massacre under the rebellions took place according to the king's inscriptions. Sennacherib ( Akkadian Sîn-ahhe-eriba "(moon god Sîn has replaced (lost brothers for me" was the son of Sargon II, whom he Ashurbanipal allowed Babylon to keep its independence but it became even more formal than before. The next king Kandalanu left no official inscription probably as his function was only ritual. Kandalanu, king of Babylonia, from 648 BC to 627 BC Territory Kandalanu was king over Babylonia with exception of the city Nippur 
Ashurbanipal was proud of his scribal education. He was one of the few kings who could read cuneiform script in Akkadian and Sumerian and claimed that he even understood texts from before the great flood. Sumerian ( " native tongue " was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia since at least the 4th millennium BC The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction. He was also able to solve mathematical problems. During his reign he collected cuneiform texts from all over Mesopotamia and especially Babylonia in the library of Nineveh. The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, named after Ashurbanipal, the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is a collection of thousands of Clay tablets The genres found during excavations included standard lists used by scribes and scholars, word lists, bilingual vocabularies, lists of signs and synonyms, lists of medical diagnoses, omen texts (the largest group), astronomic/astrological texts, and literature like Enuma elish and the Epic of Gilgamesh. The akk Enûma Eliš is the Babylonian Creation myth (named for its Incipit) Gilgamesh was the son of Lugalbanda and the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II first dynasty of Uruk ruling circa 2600 BC according to the Sumerian king The scholar texts proved to be very helpful in deciphering cuneiform. 
During the final decade of his rule, Assyria was quite peaceful, but the country apparently faced a serious decline. Documentation from the last years of Ashurbanipal's reign is very scarce, and even the date of his death is not known for certain. The latest attestations of Ashurbanipal's reign are of his year 38 (631 BC), but according to later sources he reigned for 42 years (to 627 BC). 
Because of the chronological difficulties that arise with his death in 627 Ashurbanipal must have died at an earlier date (probably already in 631) or he could have reigned together with his son and successor Ashur-etil-ilani. Ashur-etil-ilani was a king of Assyria ca ( 631 BC - ca 627 BC Whatever may have been the case, after his death there was a power struggle. The contenders included Ashur-etil-ilani, his brother Sinsharishkun, general Sin-shumu-lishir, and the eventual new king of Babylon, Nabopolassar. Sinsharishkun ( Sin-shar-ishkun, ca 627 - 612 BC who seems to have been the Saràkos (Saracus of Berossus, was one of the last kings of the Assyrian Sin-shumu-lishir (or Sin-shum-lishir) was a rebellion king of a part of the Assyrian empire in 626. Nabopolassar ( Akkadian: Nabû-apal-usur) was the first king (ruled 625-605 BC of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Who fought against whom is not certain.
Within Assyrian communities, Ashurbanipal continues to remain a popular boys' name.