Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) responsibility for safeguarding the rights and privileges of the Malay and other indigenous peoples of Malaysia, collectively referred to as Bumiputra. The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising 181 articles is the supreme Law of Malaysia. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the highest ranking office created by the constitution of the federation of Malaysia Malays (Melayu are an Ethnic group of Austronesian peoples predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical For the biogeographical region see Malesia Malaysia (məˈleɪʒə or /məˈleɪziə/ is a country that consists of thirteen states and The article specifies how the federal government may protect the interest of these groups by establishing quotas for entry into the civil service, public scholarships and public education. The politics of Malaysia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the Head of government A quota share is a specified number or percentage of the allotment as a whole ( Quota) that is prescribed to each individual entity (see Non-tariff barriers to trade See also Bureaucrat The term civil service has two distinct meanings Branch of governmental service in which individuals are hired on the basis A scholarship is an award of access to an institution or a financial aid award for an individual student scholar for the purpose of furthering their Education Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the Government, whether national regional or local provided by an institution It is often considered to be part of the social contract, and is commonly cited as a legal defense of ketuanan Melayu — the belief that the Malays are the "masters" (tuan) of Malaysia. The social contract in Malaysia refers to the agreement made by the country's founding fathers in the Constitution. Ketuanan Melayu ( Malay for Malay supremacy or Malay dominance) is a belief that the Malay people are the tuan (masters
Article 153 is one of the most controversial articles in the Malaysian constitution. Critics consider it to create an unnecessary and racialist distinction between Malaysians of different ethnic backgrounds, because it has led to the implementation of affirmative action policies which only benefit the Bumiputra, who comprise a majority of the population. Racialism is an emphasis on race or racial considerations Racialism entails a belief in the existence and significance of racial categories but not necessarily in a Affirmative action in the United States|Employment equity (Canada|Reservation in India|Numerus clausus The term affirmative action describes many policies aimed at a historically Majoritarianism is a traditional Political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a Majority (sometimes categorized by Religion, Language, or Technically, discussing the repeal of Article 153 is illegal — even in Parliament, although it was drafted as a temporary provision to the Constitution. A repeal is the Removal or Reversal of a Law. This is generally done when a law is no longer effective or it is shown that a law is having far more negative The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia is the national Legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. Despite this prohibition on discussion, the article is heatedly debated both privately and publicly among Malaysians. Opposition groups, especially the Democratic Action Party, are often against the implementation of the article although ostensibly maintaining support for it. In Politics, the opposition comprises one or more political parties or other organized groups that are opposed to the Government, party or group The Democratic Action Party, or DAP (Parti Tindakan Demokratik is a Secular, multi-racial social democratic / democratic socialist Nevertheless, the article is viewed as a sensitive matter by many, with politicians who oppose it often being labelled as racist. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that
The article is primarily seen as a continuation of previous laws made by the British to protect the indigenous peoples from being overwhelmed by the immigration of Chinese and Indian workers into Malaya. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Malaysian Chinese is a Malaysian of Chinese origin Most are descendants of Chinese who arrived between the fifteenth and the mid-twentieth centuries A non-resident Indian (NRI is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country a person of Indian origin who is born outside India or a person of The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (คาบสมุทรมลายู is a major Peninsula located in Southeast In the years after independence in 1957, the Chinese and Indians were generally rich urban dwellers, whilst the Bumiputra were mostly poor farmers or manual labourers.
Although the first clause of the article provides that the government should act "in accordance with the provisions of this Article", some believe that the government has overstepped its constitutional powers by implementing certain policies, particularly the New Economic Policy (NEP). For the Soviet New Economic Policy see New Economic Policy. The Malaysian New Economic Policy ( NEP or DEB for Dasar Regulations setting a minimum equity holding for the Bumiputra have been established, with practically all real estate sold to the Bumiputra in Malaysia discounted at rates ranging from 5% to 15%. Real estate is a legal term (in some jurisdictions notably in the USA, United Kingdom However, the NEP has been defended as having successfully created a Malay middle class and averting major social conflict, as Malaysia has escaped the riots that have plagued other multi-cultural countries in Southeast Asia. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. Social conflict is a Conflict or Confrontation of social powers.
The Constitution was drafted on the basis of a report from the Reid Commission. The commission, which had been formed to lay the groundwork for a Constitution in the run-up to Malaysia's pending independence, released the report in 1957 as the Report of the Federation of Malaya Constitutional Commission 1957 or The Reid Commission Report.  In the report, the Reid Commission stated that "provision should be made in the Constitution for the 'safeguarding of the special position of the Malays and the legitimate interests of the other Communities'. " However, the Commission "found it difficult [. . . ] to reconcile the terms of reference if the protection of the special position of the Malays signified the granting of special privileges, permanently, to one community only and not to the others. "
The Reid Commission reported that Tunku Abdul Rahman and the Malay Rulers had asked that "in an independent Malaya all nationals should be accorded equal rights, privileges and opportunities and there must not be discrimination on grounds of race and creed. Sir Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, CH ( February 8 1903 &ndash December 6 " At that time, Tunku Abdul Rahman was the leader of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), which led the Alliance coalition. The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu is a Right-wing party and Malaysia 's largest Political Barisan Nasional ( National Front or BN) is a major political Coalition in Malaysia. A coalition is an alliance among individuals during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own Self-interest. Eventually the Alliance would become the Barisan Nasional and Tunku Abdul Rahman later became the first Prime Minister of Malaysia. The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected Head of government of Malaysia. When succeeding to the UMNO Presidency, Tunku had expressed doubts about the loyalty of the non-Malays to Malaya, and as a result, insisted that this be settled before they be granted citizenship. However, he also stated that "For those who love and feel they owe undivided loyalty to this country, we will welcome them as Malayans. They must truly be Malayans, and they will have the same rights and privileges as the Malays. "
The Commission found the existing privileges accorded to the Malays included the allocation of extensive Malay land reservations. In addition, the Commission discovered quotas for admission to the public services with a general rule that "not more than one-quarter of new entrants [to a particular service] should be non-Malays. " Operation quotas existed in regard to the issuing of permits or licences for the operation of certain businesses "chiefly concerned with road haulage and passenger vehicles for hire. " In addition, there existed "scholarships, bursaries and other forms of aid for educational purpose" where preference was given to Malays. A scholarship is an award of access to an institution or a financial aid award for an individual student scholar for the purpose of furthering their Education 
Although the Commission reported it did not find opposition to the continuance of the existing privileges for a certain length of time, it stated that "there was great opposition in some quarters to any increase of the present preferences and to their being continued for any prolonged period. " The Commission recommended that the existing privileges should be continued as the "Malays would be at a serious and unfair disadvantage compared with other communities if they were suddenly withdrawn. " However, "in due course the present preferences should be reduced and should ultimately cease. " The Commission suggested that these provisions be revisited in 15 years, and that a report should be presented to the appropriate legislature (currently the Parliament of Malaysia) and that the "legislature should then determine either to retain or to reduce any quota or to discontinue it entirely. The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia is the national Legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. "
Originally there was no reference made to other indigenous peoples of Malaysia (then Malaya) such as the Orang Asli, but with the union of Malaya with Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak in 1963, the Constitution was amended so as to provide similar privileges for the indigenous peoples of East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak), grouping them with the Malays as Bumiputra. Orang Asli ( lit, "original peoples" or " Aboriginal peoples " in Malay) is a general term used for any indigenous groups that are Singapore Sabah is a Malaysian state located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the Island of Borneo. However, as Article 160 of the Constitution defines a Malay as a Muslim Malaysian citizen born to another Malaysian citizen, other people, such as the Chief Minister of Selangor, Khir Toyo, whose father was an Indonesian immigrant, have benefited from Article 153 and the privileges it entails. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion Selangor ( Jawi script: سلاڠور population 72 million is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. Dato' Seri Dr Mohamed Khir Bin Toyo was the former Dato' Menteri Besar (Chief Minister of the state of Selangor in Malaysia The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term 
The scope of Article 153 is limited by Article 136, which requires that civil servants be treated impartially regardless of race.
Although the Bumiputra have always been the largest racial segment of the Malaysian population (about 65%), their economic position has always tended to be precarious. As late as 1970, 13 years after the drafting of the constitution, they controlled only 4% of the economy, with much of the rest being held by Chinese and foreign interests. As a result, the Reid Commission had recommended the drafting of Article 153 to address this economic imbalance.
But there continued to exist substantial political opposition to the economic reforms designed to aid the Malays. Some contended that Article 153 appeared to unduly privilege the Bumiputra as a higher class of Malaysian citizenry. Many Chinese and Indians also felt unfairly treated since some of them had been there for generations - since the mid 1800s - and yet until the late 1950s, they still had not been awarded Malaysian citizenship. However, a majority of the Malays during that time believed that the Chinese and the Indians came to Malaya for economic purposes only, working at plantations and mines. The Malay Peninsula or Thai-Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu (คาบสมุทรมลายู is a major Peninsula located in Southeast They came here under work permits during the British rule while the British had promised the Malay sultanates that the immigrants were to return to their countries once their work permits expired.
In the 1970s, substantial economic reforms were enacted to address the economic imbalance. In the 1980s and 1990s, more affirmative action was also implemented to create a Malay class of entrepreneurs. Public opposition to such policies appeared to wither away after the rioting of May 1969, with parties running on a platform of reducing Bumiputra privileges losing ground in Parliamentary elections. The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia is the national Legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. However, in the 2000s, debate was revived when several government politicians made controversial statements on the nature of Malay privileges as set out by Article 153.
The article has been a source of controversy since the early days of Malaysia. In particular, it was not entirely clear if Article 153 was predicated on the Malays' economic status at the time, or if it was meant to recognise Bumiputra as a special class of citizens. Some took the latter view, like Singaporean politician Lee Kuan Yew of the People's Action Party (PAP), who publicly questioned the need for Article 153 in Parliament, and called for a "Malaysian Malaysia". A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person Lee Kuan Yew, GCMG, CH ( born September 16 1923 also spelled Lee Kwan-Yew) is a Singaporean of Chinese immigrant background The People's Action Party ( abbrev: PAP; Chinese: 人民行动党 Pinyin: Rénmín Xíngdòngdǎng Malay: Parti Tindakan Rakyat The phrase " Malaysian Malaysia " was originally used in the early 1960s as the rallying Motto of the Malaysian Solidarity Council, a Confederation In a speech, Lee bemoaned what would later be described as the Malaysian social contract:
"According to history, Malays began to migrate to Malaysia in noticeable numbers only about 700 years ago. Of the 39% Malays in Malaysia today, about one-third are comparatively new immigrants like the secretary-general of UMNO, Dato' Syed Ja'afar Albar, who came to Malaya from Indonesia just before the war at the age of more than thirty. Tan Sri Syed Jaafar bin Hassan Albar (1914&ndash January 14, 1977) was a Malaysian politician. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. Therefore it is wrong and illogical for a particular racial group to think that they are more justified to be called Malaysians and that the others can become Malaysian only through their favour. "
Lee also criticised the government's policies by stating that "[t]hey, the Malay, have the right as Malaysian citizens to go up to the level of training and education that the more competitive societies, the non-Malay society, has produced. That is what must be done, isn't it? Not to feed them with this obscurantist doctrine that all they have got to do is to get Malay rights for the few special Malays and their problem has been resolved. " He also lamented "Malaysia — to whom does it belong? To Malaysians. But who are Malaysians? I hope I am, Mr Speaker, Sir. But sometimes, sitting in this chamber, I doubt whether I am allowed to be a Malaysian. "
Lee's statements upset many, especially politicians from the Alliance. Then Finance Minister Tan Siew Sin called Lee the "greatest, disruptive force in the entire history of Malaysia and Malaya. Tun Tan Siew Sin ( 21 May 1916 &ndash 17 March 1988) was Malaya 's (later Malaysia 's first Minister of " The Tunku considered Lee to be too extremist in his views, while other UMNO politicians thought Lee was simply taking advantage of the situation to pander to the Chinese Malaysians. Malaysian Chinese is a Malaysian of Chinese origin Most are descendants of Chinese who arrived between the fifteenth and the mid-twentieth centuries  PAP-UMNO relations were chilled further when UMNO officials publicly backed the opposition Singapore Alliance Party in Singapore's 1963 general election and PAP responded in turn by fielding several candidates in the Malaysian federal elections in 1964. The sometimes turbulent relationship between the People's Action Party (PAP and United Malays National Organisation (UMNO, which were and still are The Singapore Alliance Party, or sometimes known as just Singapore Alliance was a Coalition of political parties that contested several elections in The Singapore legislative assembly general election of 1963 was an Election that took place in Singapore on 21 September, 1963 following five These acts were seen by each party as challenges of the other's authority in their respective domains, and in violation of previous agreements made by the PAP and UMNO before merger not to contest each other's elections until Malaysia had matured enough.  The tension led to the 1964 racial riots in Singapore that killed 36 people. The 1964 Race Riots were a series of Riots that took place in Singapore during two separate periods in July and September between Chinese and Malay Eventually, the Tunku decided to ask Singapore, through Lee and some of his closest confidantes, to secede from Malaysia. Eventually, Lee agreed to do so, and Singapore became an independent nation in 1965, with Lee as its first Prime Minister. The Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore is the Head of government of the Republic of Singapore (and prior to 9 August 1965  The Constitution of Singapore contains an article, Article 152, that names the Malays as "indigenous people" of Singapore and therefore requiring special safeguarding of their rights and privileges as such. The Constitution of Singapore is the supreme law of Singapore and it is a Codified constitution. However, the article specifies no policies for such safeguarding.
On 13 May 1969, a few days after the 10 May general election, a race riot broke out. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 1969 ( MCMLXIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1291 - Scottish Nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. The May 13 Incident is a term for the Sino - Malay Race riots in Kuala Lumpur (then part of the state of Selangor In the preceding election, parties like the Democratic Action Party (DAP, formerly the Malaysian branch of the PAP) and Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, which opposed special Bumiputra privileges, had made substantial gains, coming close to defeating the Alliance and forming a new government. The Democratic Action Party, or DAP (Parti Tindakan Demokratik is a Secular, multi-racial social democratic / democratic socialist The Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia ( Malaysian People's Movement Party or Gerakan in English) is a Political party The largely Chinese opposition Democratic Action Party and Gerakan later secured a police permit for a victory parade through a fixed route in Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur (ˈkwɑːləlʊmˈpʊər Malay /kwɑlɑlʊmpʊ/ and locally /kwɑləlʊmpɔ/ or even /kɔlɔmpɔ/ or often abbreviated as K However, the rowdy procession deviated from its route and headed through the Malay district of Kampung Baru, jeering at the inhabitants. Kampung Baru may refer to several places Kampung Baru Kuala Lumpur, an area in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia While the Gerakan party issued an apology the next day, UMNO announced a counter-procession starting from the head of Selangor state Dato' Harun bin Idris on Jalan Raja Muda. Reportedly, the gathering crowd was informed that Malays on their way to the procession had been attacked by Chinese in Setapak, several miles to the north. The angry protestors swiftly wreaked revenge by killing two passing Chinese motorcyclists, and the riot began. The official death toll was approximately 200, although some would later estimate it to be as high as 2000. The riot was later attributed to the underlying discontent among Malays due to poverty. 
UMNO Parliamentary backbencher Mahathir Mohamad soon became the face of a movement against the Tunku, arguing that he had been too accommodative towards the non-Malays. Tun Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad (ma'ħɑðiɽ bin mʊħɑmmæd̚ (recorded as born on 20 December 1925 was the fourth Prime Minister of In a letter to the Prime Minister, demanding his resignation, Mahathir argued that the Tunku had given the Chinese "too much face" and that the responsibility for the deaths of the people in the riot rested squarely on the Tunku's shoulders. Mahathir was expelled from UMNO not long after, and Home Affairs Minister Ismail Abdul Rahman warned that "[t]hese ultras believe in the wild and fantastic theory of absolute dominion by one race over the other communities, regardless of the Constitution". Tun Dr Ismail Abdul Rahman ( November 4, 1915 - August 2, 1973) was a Malaysian politician from the United Malays During the 1960s in Malaysia and Singapore, some racial extremists were referred to as " ultras " 
The government suspended Parliament and the executive branch governed on its own through the National Operations Council (NOC) until 1971.  The NOC proposed amendments to the Sedition Act that made illegal the questioning of, among others, Article 153. The Sedition Act in Malaysia is a law prohibiting discourse deemed as seditious. These amendments were passed by Parliament as law when it reconvened in 1971. 
During the period of NOC governance, the Malaysian New Economic Policy (NEP) was implemented. For the Soviet New Economic Policy see New Economic Policy. The Malaysian New Economic Policy ( NEP or DEB for Dasar The NEP aimed to eradicate poverty irrespective of race by expanding the economic pie so that the Chinese share of the economy would not be reduced in absolute terms but only relatively. The aim was for the Malays to have a 30% equity share of the economy, as opposed to the 4% they held in 1970. Foreigners and Chinese held much of the rest.  The NEP appeared to be derived from Article 153 and could be viewed as being in line with its wording. Although Article 153 would have been up for review in 1972, fifteen years after Malaysia's independence in 1957, due to the May 13 Incident it remained unreviewed. The May 13 Incident is a term for the Sino - Malay Race riots in Kuala Lumpur (then part of the state of Selangor A new expiration date of 1991 for the NEP was set, twenty years after its implementation. 
Mahathir, who had been a strong supporter of affirmative action for the Malays since the late 1960s, expounded upon his views in his book The Malay Dilemma while in political exile. The Malay Dilemma is a controversial Book written by Mahathir bin Mohamad in 1970, 11 years before he became Malaysia's 4th Prime Minster The book argued that stronger measures were needed to improve the Malays' economic lot.  It also contended that the Malays were the "definitive" people and thus "rightful owners" of Malaysia, which also entitled them to their privileges.  Mahathir was rehabilitated under the second Prime Minister, Tun Abdul Razak, and was appointed as the Deputy of the third Prime Minister, Tun Hussein Onn. Hussein bin Dato' Onn ( February 12, 1922 — May 29, 1990) who is of 3/4 Malay and 1/4 Circassian ancestry was the third Prime When Hussein Onn resigned, Mahathir became Prime Minister. 
During Mahathir's tenure as Prime Minister, the NEP, after its expiry, was replaced by the National Development Policy (NDP), that sought to create a Malay class of entrepreneurs and business tycoons. The National Development Policy replaced the Malaysian New Economic Policy in 1990 but continued to pursue most of NEP policies  However, allegations of corruption and nepotism plagued Mahathir's administration, and Mahathir's goal of creating a new class of Malay tycoons was criticised for ignoring the rural Malays, who comprised the majority of the Malay population. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain Nepotism is the showing of favoritism toward relatives and friends based upon that relationship rather than on an objective evaluation of ability Meritocracy or suitability A business magnate, sometimes referred to as a mogul, tycoon, baron, or industrialist, is a person who has reached a prominent place in  Under Mahathir, quotas for entry into public universities were enforced, with some universities such as Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) admitting only Bumiputra students. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects MARA University of Technology (Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM is a Malaysian public university  In 1998, then Education Minister Najib Tun Razak (son of Tun Abdul Razak who implemented the NEP) stated that without quotas, only 5% of undergraduates in public universities would be Malays. Dato' Sri Mohd Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak (born July 23, 1953, in Kuala Lipis, Pahang) is a Malaysian politician who Najib argued this justified the need for the continuance of quotas. 
These policies also mandate that publicly listed companies must set aside 30% of equity for Bumiputras; discounts that must be provided for automobile and real estate purchases; a set amount of lots set aside for Bumiputras in housing projects; companies submitting bids for government projects be Bumiputra-owned and that Approved Permits (APs) for importing automobiles be preferentially given to Bumiputras.  The equity in the publicly listed companies is disbursed by the Trade Ministry, and sold to selected Bumiputras at substantial discounts. However, the recipients frequently sell their stake in the companies immediately.  The policies continued the Bumiputra advantage in higher education. In practice, however, most of these privileges went to Malays, and non-Malay Bumiputras, like the Orang Asli or aboriginal peoples, did not appear to have benefited much from Article 153 or policies such as the NEP. 
In 2003, Mahathir began stressing that Malays needed to abandon their "crutches," and implemented a policy of "meritocracy". Meritocracy is a system of a government or another organization wherein Appointments are made and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent and Ability However, this policy by and large streams Bumiputras into what is termed matriculation, as a prelude to university admission, whereby students take a course and later sit for a test set by the instructor. The non-Bumiputras generally sit for the Sijil Tinggi Pelajaran Malaysia (STPM) standardised examination in order to enter university. The Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM English: Malaysian Higher School Certificate is a pre-university examination taken by students in Malaysia. Although it is possible for non-Bumiputras to enter matriculation, and Bumiputras who prefer to take the STPM may do so, in practice, it is difficult for non-Bumiputras to gain entry into the matriculation stream. 
The meritocracy policy itself came in for criticism from both sides of the political divide, with some quarters of UMNO calling it "discrimination," leading to an "uneven playing field," and asked for the restoration of the quota system that set the ratio of Bumiputra to non-Bumiputra students in public institutions at 55 to 45.  Others, however, branded meritocracy as a sham due to its division of students into the two different streams. 
In 2003, Mahathir was succeeded by Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who, like his predecessor, warned the Malays that overreliance on their privileges would be fatal. Dato' Seri Abdullah Hj Ahmad Badawi (born 26 November 1939 is a Malaysian politician who has served as Prime Minister since 2003 "A continuing reliance on crutches will further enfeeble [the nation], and we may eventually end up in wheelchairs. " However, within UMNO, some, such as Education Minister Hishamuddin bin Hussein - Hussein Onn's son, and UMNO Deputy Permanent Chairman Badruddin Amiruldin, appeared to disagree and in turn argued for the protection of Malay privileges. Dato' Seri Hishammuddin bin Tun Hussein (born August 5, 1961) is a Malaysian politician and member of United Malays National Organization Dato' Paduka Haji Badruddin bin Amiruldin is a Malay Malaysian Politician.
In 2005, several Malays, led by Hishamuddin at the UMNO Annual General Meeting (AGM) argued that the 30% equity target of the NEP had yet to be met and called on the government to restore the NEP as the New National Agenda (NNA). The New National Agenda (NNA is a set of policies and objectives devised by the ruling party of Malaysia, UMNO, as a fresh means to continue the Malaysian  At the past year's AGM, Badruddin had warned questioning Article 153 and "Malay rights" would be akin to stirring up a hornet's nest, and declared, "Let no one from the other races ever question the rights of Malays on this land. Hornets are the largest eusocial Wasps that reach up to 45 Millimetres (1 " The year before, UMNO Youth Information Chief Azmi Daim had also said, "In Malaysia, everybody knows that Malays are the masters of this land. We rule this country as provided for in the federal constitution. Any one who touches upon Malay affairs or criticizes Malays is [offending] our sensitivities. "
At the 2005 AGM, Hishamuddin brandished the traditional Malay dagger, the keris, while warning the non-Bumiputras not to attack Malay rights and "ketuanan Melayu" (translated variously as Malay supremacy or dominance). A dagger (from Vulgar Latin: 'daca' - a Dacian Knife) is a typically double-edged blade used for Stabbing or thrusting The kris or keris is a distinctive asymmetrical dagger indigenous to Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Southern Thailand and Ketuanan Melayu ( Malay for Malay supremacy or Malay dominance) is a belief that the Malay people are the tuan (masters  His action was applauded by the UMNO delegates. Then Higher Education Minister Shafie Salleh also stated that he would ensure the amount of new Malay students admitted would always exceed the old quotas set, and that UiTM would remain an all-Bumiputra institution. Shafie Salleh is a Malaysian politician and former education minister of Malaysia. 
At present, the Bumiputra privileges both enshrined in Article 153 and as set out by other acts of law, remain in force. Many opposition parties including, the DAP and Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR), have pledged themselves to undoing the NEP. The People's Justice Party ( Malay: Parti Keadilan Rakyat, often known simply as Keadilan is a Centrist Political party in Malaysia The DAP has argued that it does not have anything against the special position of Bumiputras as set out in Article 153, but seeks to undo the government's policies such as the NEP that they believe discriminate unfairly against the non-Bumiputras.  The PKR, which was founded to fight for the release of former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim, who had been detained for charges of corruption and sodomy after he publicly opposed Mahathir's policies, also has criticised the NEP. Dato' Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (born 10 August 1947) is a Malaysian politician who served as Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister from 1993 to 1998 Sodomy (ˈsɒdəmi is a term used today predominantly in Law (derived from traditional Christian usage to describe the act of Anal intercourse, Oral intercourse After Anwar's release in 2004, he criticised the NEP as having failed the Malays and stated that he would seek its replacement by a more equitable policy. 
The NEP and other privileges accorded to the Bumiputras or Malays under Article 153 have been noted for not explicitly seeking to eradicate poverty among the Malays, but instead largely aiming to improve the Malays' overall share of the economy, even if this share is held by a small number of Malays.  However, the NEP has also been defended as having been largely successful in creating a Malay middle class and improving Malaysian standards of living without compromising the non-Bumiputra share of the economy in absolute terms; indeed, statistics indicate that the Chinese and Indian middle classes also grew under the NEP, albeit not as much as the Malays'. The middle class, in colloquial usage consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social Influence or power. The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these goods and services are distributed within a population It has also been contended that the NEP defused racial tensions by eradicating the perception of the Chinese as the mercantile class and the perception of the Malays as mere farmers. 
Article 10 (4) of the Constitution permits Parliament to make it illegal to question, among others, Article 153 of the Constitution. Under the Sedition Act, questioning Article 153 is indeed illegal — even for Members of Parliament, who usually have the freedom to discuss anything without fear of external censure.  The government can also arbitrarily detain anyone it desires theoretically for sixty days, but in reality for an undetermined length of time, under the Internal Security Act (ISA). The Internal Security Act 1960 ( ISA) (Akta Keselamatan Dalam Negeri is a Preventive detention law in force in Malaysia. In 1987 under Operation Lalang (literally "weeding operation"), several leaders of the DAP, including Lim Kit Siang and Karpal Singh, were held under the ISA. Operation Lalang ( Weeding Operation; also referred to as Ops Lalang) was carried out on October 27, 1987 by the Malaysian Lim Kit Siang (born February 20, 1941; Chinese: 林吉祥 Pinyin: Lín Jíxiáng Karpal Singh a/l Ram Singh (born June 28, 1940) is a Malaysian politician and a Lawyer by profession It is widely believed this was due to their calling for the NEP and other Malay privileges to be reviewed.  Others have questioned the constitutionality of the NEP. 
In 2005, the issue of the Constitution and its provisions were also brought up by several politicians within the government itself. Lim Keng Yaik of the Gerakan party, which by now had joined Barisan Nasional, the ruling coalition, asked for a re-examination of the social contract so that a Bangsa Malaysia (literally 'Malaysian race' or 'Malaysian nation' in the Malay language) could be achieved. Tun Dr Lim Keng Yaik ( is a former Malaysian politician and ex-Minister of Energy Water and Telecommunications in the Malaysian cabinet. Barisan Nasional ( National Front or BN) is a major political Coalition in Malaysia. The social contract in Malaysia refers to the agreement made by the country's founding fathers in the Constitution. The Bangsa Malaysia ( English: Malaysian nation) policy was introduced by Mahathir Mohamad, then Prime Minister of Malaysia, to create The Malay language ( ISO 639-1 code MS is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people and people of other ethnic groups who reside in the  The social contract is a term used to describe the Constitution's provisions with regard to the different races' privileges — those who defend it and Article 153 often define the social contract as providing the Indians and Chinese with citizenship in exchange for the Malays' special rights or ketuanan Melayu.
Lim was severely criticised by many Malay politicians, including Khairy Jamaluddin, the Prime Minister's son-in-law and Deputy Chairman of the UMNO Youth wing, and Ahmad Shabery Cheek, a prominent Malay Member of Parliament from the state of Terengganu. Khairy Jamaluddin Abu Bakar (born January 10, 1976) is a Malaysian Politician. Ahmad Shabery Cheek is a Malaysian politician and the current Malaysian Information Minister Terengganu ( Jawi: ترڠڬانو, formerly spelled Trengganu or Tringganu) is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia The Malay press, most of which is owned by UMNO, also ran articles condemning the questioning of the social contract.  Lim was adamant, asking in an interview "How do you expect non-Malays to pour their hearts and souls into the country, and to one day die for it if you keep harping on this? Flag-waving and singing the 'Negaraku' (the national anthem) are rituals, while true love for the nation lies in the heart. "Negaraku" ( English: My Country is the National anthem of Malaysia. "
A year earlier, Abdullah had given a speech where he mentioned the most "significant aspect" of the social contract as "the agreement by the indigenous peoples to grant citizenship to the immigrant Chinese and Indians". Although Abdullah went on to state that the character of the nation changed to "one that Chinese and Indian citizens could also call their own," the speech went largely unremarked.
In the end, Lim stated that the Malay press had blown his comments out of proportion and misquoted him. The issue ended with UMNO Youth chief Hishamuddin Hussein warning people not to "bring up the issue again as it has been agreed upon, appreciated, understood and endorsed by the Constitution. "
It should be noted that the social contract is not always used with regard to the provisions regarding rights and privileges of the different races; in the 2004 general election, the DAP ran on a platform of defending the social contract in the context of an Islamic theocracy, which they alleged was forbidden by the Constitution, but was endorsed by Mahathir, Lim Keng Yaik and by PAS, the second-largest Malay-based political party in the country. General elections were held in Malaysia on March 21, 2004. The incumbent National Front (Barisan Nasional government of Prime Minister The Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party or the Islamic Party of Malaysia ( Parti Islam Se-Malaysia) commonly known as PAS or Pas, is an Islamist