|Ancient art history|
|Western art history|
|Eastern art history|
|Islamic art history|
|History of painting|
|Western art history|
Art history is the academic study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts, i. The history of art usually refers to the History of the Visual arts, such as Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. --> In the history of art prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory beginning somewhere in very late geological history Arts of the ancient world refers to the many types of Art that were in the Cultures of Ancient societies such as those of ancient China, Also see articles History of painting, Western painting Western Art' redirects here Eastern art history is devoted to the arts of the Far East and includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions Islamic art encompasses the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally See also Western art, History of painting, Western art history, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting The history of Painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans and spans all cultures Also see articles History of painting, Western painting Western Art' redirects here Medieval art covers a vast scope of time and place over 1000 years of Art history in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Mannerism is a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the Realism is a visual art style that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see History of Modern art Roots in the 19th century Although modern Sculpture and Architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the nineteenth Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced at this present point in time or art produced since World War II. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology e. genre, design, format, and look. A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set Design is used both as a Noun and a Verb. The term is often tied to the various Applied arts and Engineering (See design disciplines LOOK, established in Nevers, France in 1951 was originally a Ski equipment manufacturer  Moreover, art history generally is the research of artists and their cultural and social contributions. Research is defined as Human activity based on Intellectual application in the investigation of Matter. The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of Activities to do with creating Art, practicing the Arts and/or demonstrating 
As a term, Art history (also history of art) encompasses several methods of studying the visual arts; in common usage referring to the study of works of art and architecture. The visual arts are art forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily Visual in nature such as Painting, Photography The definition is, however, wide-ranging, with aspects of the discipline overlapping upon art criticism and art theory. Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual Art. Art critics usually criticize art in the context of Aesthetics or the theory of Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called Ernst Gombrich observed that "the field of art history [is] much like Caesar's Gaul, divided in three parts inhabited by three different, though not necessarily hostile tribes: (i) the connoisseurs, (ii) the critics, and (iii) the academic art historians". Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE ( 30 March 1909 &ndash 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born Art historian Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western 
As a discipline, art history is distinguished from art criticism, which is concerned with establishing a relative artistic value upon individual works with respect to others of comparable style, or sanctioning an entire style or movement; and art theory, which is concerned with the fundamental nature of art, and is more related to aesthetics investigating the enigma of the sublime and determining the essence of beauty, i. Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual Art. Art critics usually criticize art in the context of Aesthetics or the theory of Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called e. artistic appeal. Technically, art history is not these things, because the art historian uses historical method to answer the questions: How did the artist come to create the work? Who were the patrons? Who were his or her teachers? Who was the audience? Who were his or her disciples? What historical forces shaped the artist's oeuvre and How did he or she and the creation, in turn, affect the course of artistic, political, and social events?
Art history is a relatively new academic enterprise, beginning in the nineteenth century. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which Historians use Primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history In Fine art, a work of art (or artwork or work) is a creation such as a Song, Book, Film, Video game,  Whereas the analysis of historical trends in, for example, politics, literature, and the sciences, benefits from the clarity and portability of the written word, art historians rely on formal analysis, iconology, semiotics (structuralism, post-structuralism, and deconstruction), psychoanalysis and iconography; as well as primary sources and reproductions of artworks as a springboard of discussion and study. Formal concept analysis is a principled way of automatically deriving an ontology from a collection of objects and their properties Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of sign processes (semiosis or signification and communication signs and Symbols both For the use of structuralism in biology see Structuralism (biology Structuralism is an approach to the human sciences that attempts to analyze Post-structuralism encompasses the intellectual developments of continental philosophers and critical theorists who wrote with tendencies of twentieth-century Deconstruction is a term used in Philosophy, Literary criticism, and the Social sciences, popularised through its usage by Jacques Derrida in Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and his followers which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines In Historiography, a primary source (also called original source) is a Document, Recording In Library and information science, Historiography and other areas of Scholarship, a secondary source is a Document or Recording  Advances in photographic reproduction and printing techniques after World War II increased the ability of reproductions of artworks accurately. Nevertheless the appreciation and study of the visual arts has been an area of research for many over the millennia. The definition of art history reflects the dichotomy within art; i. e. , art as history and in anthropological context; and art as a study in forms.
The study of visual art can be approached through the broad categories of contextualism and formalism. Contextualism describes a collection of views in Philosophy which emphasize the context in which an action utterance or expression occurs and argues that in some In art theory, formalism is the concept that a work 's artistic value is entirely determined by its Form --the way it is made its purely visual  They are described as:
The earliest surviving writing on art that can be classified as art history are the passages in Pliny the Elder's Natural History concerning the development of Greek sculpture and painting. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author Naturalis Historia ( Latin for "Natural History" is an Encyclopedia written Circa AD 77 by Pliny the Elder. The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present particularly in the areas of Sculpture From them it is possible to trace the ideas of Xenokrates of Sicyon, a Greek sculptor who was perhaps the first art historian. Xenokrates of Sicyon (fl c 280 BC) was an ancient Greek sculptor and writer and one of the world's first art historians. As a result, Pliny's work, while mainly an encyclopaedia of the sciences, were disproportionately influential with respect to art from the Renaissance onwards, particularly the passages about the techniques used by the painter Apelles. An encyclopedia (or '''encyclopædia''') is a comprehensive written Compendium that contains Information on either all branches of Knowledge The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Similar, though independent, developments occurred in 6th century China, where a canon of worthy artists was established by writers in the scholar-official class (who, being necessarily proficient in calligraphy, were artists themselves), and the Six Principles of Painting were formulated by Xie He. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National See also Chinese painting The Six principles of Chinese painting were established by Xie He (also known as Hsieh Ho a writer art historian and critic Xie He ( fl 5th century) was a Chinese writer, Art historian and Critic of the Liu Song and Southern Qi dynasties
While personal reminiscences of art and artists have long been written and read (see Lorenzo Ghiberti for the best early example), it was Giorgio Vasari, the Tuscan painter, sculptor and author of Lives of the Painters, who ushered in the era of the story of art as history, with emphasis on art's progression and development, a milestone in this field. Giorgio Vasari ( 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter and Architect, who is today famous A Self-portrait is a representation of an artist drawn painted photographed or sculpted by the artist Johann Joachim Winckelmann ( December 9, 1717 - June 8, 1768) a German Art historian and Archaeologist, Lorenzo Ghiberti (born Lorenzo di Bartolo) (1378 &ndash December 1, 1455) was an Italian artist of the early Renaissance best known Giorgio Vasari ( 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter and Architect, who is today famous The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters Sculptors and Architects, or Le Vite delle più eccellenti pittori scultori ed architettori as it was originally known His was a personal and a historical account, featuring biographies of individual Italian artists, many of whom were his contemporaries and personal acquaintances. The most renowned of these was Michelangelo, and Vasari's account is enlightening. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all Vasari's ideas about art held sway until the 18th century, when criticism was leveled at his peculiar style of history as the personal. Scholars such as Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768), criticised Vasari's "cult" of artistic personality, and argued that the real emphasis in the study of art belonged on the views of the learned beholder and not the unique viewpoint of the charismatic artist. Johann Joachim Winckelmann ( December 9, 1717 - June 8, 1768) a German Art historian and Archaeologist, Winckelmann's writings thus were the beginnings of art criticism. Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual Art. Art critics usually criticize art in the context of Aesthetics or the theory of Winckelmann was famous for his critique of the artistic excesses of the Baroque and Rococo forms, and subsequently instrumental in reforming taste in favor of the more sober Neoclassicism, in a return to elemental Renaissance thinking. Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Rococo is a style of 18th century French art and Interior design. Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and Jacob Burckhardt (1818 - 1897), one of the founders of art history, noted that Winckelmann was 'the first to distinguish between the periods of ancient art and to link the history of style with world history'. Jacob Christoph Burckhardt ( May 25, 1818, Basel, Switzerland &ndash August 8, 1897, Basel was a Swiss Incidentally, from Winckelmann until the early 20th century, the field of art history was dominated by German-speaking academics.
Winckelmann's work marked the entry of art history into the high-philosophical discourse of German culture. Winckelmann was read avidly by Goethe and Schiller, both of whom began to write on the history of art, and his account of the Laocoon occasioned a response by Lessing. ˈjoːhan ˈvɔlfgaŋ fɔn ˈgøːtə (in English generally ˈgɝːtə 28 August 1749 22 March 1832 was a German writer Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller krɪstɔf friːtʁɪç fɔn ʃɪləʁ/ʃɪlɐ (10 November 1759 9 May 1805 was a German Poet, Philosopher Gotthold Ephraim Lessing ( 22 January, 1729 15 February, 1781) was a German Writer, Philosopher, Dramatist The emergence of art as a major subject of philosophical speculation was solidified by the appearance of Kant's Critique of Judgment in 1790, and was furthered by Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics. Immanuel Kant (ɪmanuəl kant 22 April 1724 12 February 1804 was an 18th-century German Philosopher from the Prussian city of Königsberg The Critique of Judgement ( Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790 or in the new Cambridge translation Critique of the Power of Judgement, also known Hegel's philosophy served as the direct inspiration for Karl Schnaase's work. Karl Schnaase ( 7 September 1798 &ndash 20 May 1875) was a distinguished German art historian and Jurist. Schnaase's Niederländische Briefe established the theoretical foundations for art history as an autonomous discipline, and his Geschichte der bildenden Künste, one of the first historical surveys of the history of art from antiquity to the Renaissance, facilitated the teaching of art history in German-speaking universities. Schnaase's survey was published contemporaneously with a similar work by Franz Theodor Kugler. Franz Theodor Kugler ( January 19, 1808, Stettin - March 18, 1858, Berlin) was a cultural administrator for the Prussian
Most acknowledge Heinrich Wölfflin (1864-1945), who studied under Burckhardt in Basel, as the father of modern art history. Heinrich Wölfflin ( June 21 1864 &ndash July 19 1945) was a famous Swiss Art critic, whose objective classifying principles Wölfflin certainly made the first formal analysis of the field. He introduced a scientific approach to the history of art, turning on three concepts. Firstly, he attempted to study art using psychology, particularly the work of Wilhelm Wundt, one of the founders of scientific psychology. Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt ( August 16 1832 - August 31 1920) was a German medical doctor psychologist physiologist and professor A principal, if strained, scientific conception was that of the artistic ideal of corporeal correspondence; i. e. that art and architecture are good if they resemble the human body. For example, houses were good if their façades looked like faces. A facade or façade (fəˈsɑːd is generally one side of the exterior of a Building, especially the front but also sometimes the sides and rear Secondly, he introduced the idea of studying art through comparison. Hence by comparing individual paintings to each other, one were able to make distinctions of style. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual His book Renaissance and Baroque developed this idea, and was the first to show how these stylistic periods differed from one another. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc In contrast to Giorgio Vasari, Wölfflin was uninterested in the biographies of artists. Giorgio Vasari ( 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter and Architect, who is today famous In fact he proposed the creation of an "art history without names. " Finally, he studied art based on ideas of nationhood. A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered He was particularly interested in whether there was an inherently "Italian" and an inherently "German" style. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest This last interest was most fully articulated in his monograph on the German artist Albrecht Dürer. Albrecht Dürer (ˈalbʀɛçt ˈdyʀɐ ( May 21, 1471 &ndash April 6, 1528) was a German painter, Printmaker
He used a comparison - contrast type of analysis, and believed that both Renaissance and Baroque architecture "spoke" the same language - that of classical Greek and Rome - though with different dialects.
Wölfflin taught at the universities of Berlin, Basel, Munich, and Zurich. A number of students went on to distinguished careers in art history, including Jakob Rosenberg and Frida Schottmuller.
Contemporaneous with Wölfflin's career, a major school of art-historical thought developed at the University of Vienna. The Vienna School of Art History ( Wiener Schule der Kunstgeschichte) is a collective term used to describe the development of fundamental art-historical methods at The University of Vienna (Universität Wien is a Public university located in Vienna, Austria. The first generation of the Vienna School was dominated by Alois Riegl and Franz Wickhoff, both students of Moritz Thausing, and was characterized by a tendency to reassess neglected or disparaged periods in the history of art. Alois Riegl ( 14 January 1858 in Linz - 17 June 1905 in Vienna) was an Austrian Art historian, and Franz Wickhoff (1853 Steyr, Austria – 1909 Venice, Italy) was an Austrian art historian, and is considered a member of the Moritz Thausing ( 3 June 1838 &ndash 11 August 1884) was an Austrian art historian, and counts among the founders of Riegl and Wickhoff both wrote extensively on the art of late antiquity, which before them had been considered as a period of decline from the classical ideal. Late Antiquity (c 300-600 is a Periodization used by historians to describe the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in Riegl also contributed to the revaluation of the Baroque.
The next generation of professors at Vienna included Max Dvořák, Julius von Schlosser, Hans Tietze, Karl Maria Swoboda, and Josef Strzygowski. Max Dvořák ( June 4, 1874, Roudnice nad Labem (Raudnitz - February 8, 1921, Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou (Grusbach near Josef Strzygowski (born March 7, 1862, in Biala; died January 2, 1941, Vienna) was an art historian best known A number of the most important twentieth-century art historians, including Ernst Gombrich, received their degrees at Vienna at this time. Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich, OM, CBE ( 30 March 1909 &ndash 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born Art historian
However, the term "Second Vienna School" (or "New Vienna School") is usually reserved for the following generation of Viennese scholars, including Hans Sedlmayr, Otto Pächt, and Guido Kaschnitz von Weinberg. Hans Sedlmayr ( 18 January 1896 in Hornstein ( Burgenland) – 9 July 1984 in Salzburg) was an Austrian These scholars began in the 1930s to return to the work of the first generation, particularly to Riegl and his concept of Kunstwollen, and attempted to develop it into a full-blown art-historical methodology. Sedlmayr, in particular, rejected the minute study of iconography, patronage, and other approaches grounded in historical context, preferring instead to concentrate on the aesthetic qualities of a work of art. Iconography is the branch of Art history which studies the identification description and the interpretation of the content of images As a result, the Second Vienna School gained a reputation for unrestrained and irresponsible formalism, and was furthermore colored by Sedlmayr's overt racism and membership in the Nazi party. This latter tendency was, however, by no means shared by all members of the school; Pächt, for example, was himself Jewish, and was forced to leave Vienna in the 1930s.
The opposite tendency, focusing more, although not exclusively, on iconography, was developed by a loose group of scholars who gathered in Hamburg in the 1920s. Hamburg (English, German: ˈhambʊɐk local pronunciation Low German / Low Saxon: Hamborg) is the second-largest city in Germany The most prominent among them were Erwin Panofsky, Aby Warburg, and Fritz Saxl. Erwin Panofsky (also spelled Irwin Panofsky) ( 30 March 1892 - 14 March 1968) was a German Jewish Art historian who emigrated Abraham Moritz Warburg, known as Aby Warburg, ( Hamburg, June 13, 1866 – Hamburg October 26, 1929) was an Panofsky, in his early work, also developed the theories of Riegl, but became eventually more preoccupied with iconography, and in particular with the transmission of themes related to classical antiquity in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. In this respect his interests coincided with those of Warburg, the son of a wealthy family who had assembled an impressive library in Hamburg devoted to the study of the classical tradition in post-classical art and culture. Under Saxl's auspices, this library was developed into a research institute, affiliated with the University of Hamburg, where Panofsky taught. The University of Hamburg (Universität Hamburg is a University in Hamburg, Germany.
Warburg died in 1929, and in the 1930s Saxl and Panofsky, both Jewish, were forced to leave Hamburg. Saxl settled in London, bringing Warburg's library with him and establishing the Warburg Institute. The Warburg Institute is a research institution associated with the University of London. Panofsky settled in Princeton at the Institute for Advanced Study. The Institute for Advanced Study, located in Princeton New Jersey, United States is a center for theoretical research In this respect they were part of an extraordinary influx of German art historians into the English-speaking academy in the 1930s (the so-called "emigré scholars"), which also included Ernst Kitzinger, Richard Krautheimer, Otto Brendel, and Rudolf Wittkower. Ernst Kitzinger ( December 12 1912 - January 22 2003) was a German - American historian of late antique, early Richard Krautheimer ( Fürth (Franconia Germany, 1897 – Rome, Italy, 1994 was a 20th century art historian architectural historian Otto Brendel (born 1901 Nuremberg, Germany; died New York City September 1973 was an art historian and scholar of Etruscan art and archaeology Rudolf Wittkower (1901 - October 11 1971) was a German art historian These scholars were largely responsible for establishing art history as a legitimate field of study in the English-speaking world, and the influence of Panofsky's methodology, in particular, determined the course of American art history for at least a generation.
Heinrich Wölfflin was not the only scholar to invoke psychological theories in the study of art. Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud wrote a book on the artist Leonardo da Vinci, in which Freud used Leonardo's paintings to interrogate the artist's psyche and sexual orientation. Sigmund Freud (ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt born Sigismund Shlomo Freud (May 6 1856 &ndash September 23 1939 was an Austrian Psychiatrist who founded Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( April 15 1452 – May 2 1519 was an Italian Polymath, having been a scientist Mathematician, Engineer In Psychoanalysis, the psyche (ˈsaɪki refers to the forces in an individual that influence thought, Behavior and Personality. Freud inferred from his analysis that Leonardo was probably homosexual. Homosexuality refers to sexual behavior with or attraction to people of the same sex or to a Homosexual orientation. The use of posthumous material to perform psychoanalysis is controversial; furthermore, the sexual mores of Leonardo's time and Freud's are different. Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and his followers which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior
Another important and famous exponent of psychoanalytic theory as applied to artists and their works is Carl Jung. His ideas about the collective unconscious and archetypal imagery in particular were popular especially among the American Abstract expressionists in the 1940s and 1950s. Collective Unconscious or known to laymen as Collective Subconscious is a term of Analytical psychology, Coined by Carl Jung. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Abstract expressionism was an American post– World War II Art movement.  The surrealist concept of drawing imagery from dreams, and the unconscious, stream of consciousness in writing and painting defined the practice of many 20th century artists. Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members C.G. Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist, an influential thinker, and founder of analytical psychology. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation A psychiatrist (also archaically called an alienist) is a Physician who specializes in Psychiatry and is certified in treating Mental disorders Analytical psychology (or Jungian psychology) refers to the school of Psychology originating from the ideas of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, and then advanced
Jung's approach to psychology emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreams, art, mythology, world religion and philosophy. In Psychoanalysis, the psyche (ˈsaɪki refers to the forces in an individual that influence thought, Behavior and Personality. Dreams are the images sounds thoughts and feelings experienced while Sleeping, particularly strongly associated with Rapid eye movement sleep. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual The word mythology (from the Greek grc μυθολογία mythología, meaning "a story-telling a legendary lore" A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Much of his life's work was spent exploring Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, as well as literature and the arts. Alchemy a part of the Occult Tradition is both a philosophy and a practice with an ultimately unknown aim involving the improvement of the alchemist as well as the making of Astrology (from Greek grc ἄστρον astron, "constellation star" and grc -λογία -logia) is a group of Systems Sociology (from Latin: socius "companion" and the suffix -ology "the study of" from Greek λόγος lógos "knowledge" Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter His most notable contributions include his concept of the psychological archetype, the collective unconscious, and his theory of synchronicity. An archetype ( pronounced: /ˈɑːkɪtaɪp/ (Brit or /ˈɑrkɪtaɪp/ (Amer Collective Unconscious or known to laymen as Collective Subconscious is a term of Analytical psychology, Coined by Carl Jung. Synchronicity is the Experience of two or more events which are causally unrelated occurring together in a meaningful manner Jung believed that many experiences perceived as coincidence were not merely due to chance but, instead, suggested the manifestation of parallel events or circumstances reflecting this governing dynamic. Coincidence is the noteworthy alignment of two or more events or circumstances without obvious causal connection 
Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern humans rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of the unconscious realm. Jackson Pollock famously created a series of drawings to accompany his psychoanalytic sessions with his Jungian psychoanalyst, Dr. Paul Jackson Pollock (January 28 1912 &ndash August 11 1956 was an influential American painter and a major force in the abstract expressionist movement Joseph Henderson. Henderson who later published the drawings in a text devoted to Pollock's sessions realized how powerful the drawings were as a therapeutic tool. Pollock (or pollack, pronounced the same and listed first in most UK and US dictionaries is the common name used for either of the two Species of marine 
After Freud and Jung, several other scholars have applied psychoanalytic theory to art. Jacques Lacan's The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis is one of the most influential text concerning the unconscious gaze. Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French ʒak lakɑ̃ ( April 13, 1901 &ndash September 9, 1981) was a French Psychoanalyst In analysing Visual culture, the concept of The Gaze (also gaze and Le regard in French describes how the viewer gazes upon Another well-known scholar is Laurie Schnieder Adams, who wrote a popular textbook called Art Across Time. The prominent feminist art historian Griselda Pollock is drawing upon psychoanalysis both in her reading into contemporary art and in her rereading of modernist art. With Griselda Pollock's reading of French feminist psychoanalysis and in particular the writings of Julia Kristeva and Bracha L. Ettinger, as with Rosalind Krauss readings of Jacques Lacan and Jean-François Lyotard and Catherine de Zegher's curatorial rereading of art, Feminist theory written in the fields of French feminism and Psychoanalysis has strongly informed the reframing of both men and women artists in art history. Griselda Pollock (born 1949) is a prominent art historian and cultural analyst and a world-renowned scholar of international post-colonial feminist studies in the Julia Kristeva (Юлия Кръстева (born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian - French Philosopher, Literary critic, Bracha L Ettinger (born 1951 also known as Bracha Ettinger, Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger, Hebrew ברכה אטינגר, ברכה ליכטנברג-אטינגר Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French ʒak lakɑ̃ ( April 13, 1901 &ndash September 9, 1981) was a French Psychoanalyst Jean-François Lyotard (ʒɑ̃ fʀɑ̃swa ljɔˈtaʀ August 10 1924 April 21 1998) was a French philosopher and literary Feminist theory is the extension of Feminism into theoretical or philosophical, ground Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and his followers which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior
Since Heinrich Wolfflin's time, art history has embraced social history by using critical approaches. Social history is an area of historical study considered by some to be a Social science that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing The goal of these approaches is to show how art interacts with power structures in society. The first critical approach that art historians used was Marxism. Marxist art history attempted to show how art was tied to specific classes, how images contain information about the economy, and how images can make the status quo seem natural (ideology). An ideology is a set of beliefs aims and Ideas especially in politics Clement Greenberg came to prominence during the late 1930s with his essay "Avant-Garde and Kitsch," first published in the journal Partisan Review in 1939. Clement Greenberg ( January 16, 1909 - May 7, 1994) was an influential American Avant-Garde and Kitsch is the title of a 1939 essay by Clement Greenberg, first published in the Partisan Review, in which he claimed that Partisan Review was an American political and literary quarterly published from 1934 to 2003, though it suspended publication between October 1936  In the essay Greenberg claimed that the avant-garde arose in order to defend aesthetic standards from the decline of taste involved in consumer society, and seeing kitsch and art as opposites. Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called Taste in the general sense is the same as Preference. Taste is also a sociological concept in that it is not just personal but subject to Social pressures Consumerism is the equation of personal Happiness with the purchase of material possessions and consumption. Greenberg further claimed that avant-garde and Modernist art was a means to resist the leveling of culture produced by capitalist propaganda. Avant-garde (avɑ̃gaʁd in French) means "advance guard" or "vanguard Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Greenberg appropriated the German word 'kitsch' to describe this consumerism, though its connotations have since changed to a more affirmative notion of left-over materials of capitalist culture. Kitsch /kɪtʃ/ is a term of German or Yiddish origin that has been used to categorize art that is considered an inferior tasteless copy of an existing This word has distinct meanings in other fields see Connotation (semiotics and Connotation and denotation. Greenberg was often referred to as a Marxist art critic / art historian. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. An art critic is a person who specializes in evaluating Art. Their written critiques or reviews are published in newspapers magazines books and on web sites Art history is the Academic study of objects of Art in their Historical development and stylistic contexts i While Greenberg is primarily thought of as a formalist art critic many of his most important essays are crucial to the understanding of Modern art history, and the history of Modernism. An art critic is a person who specializes in evaluating Art. Their written critiques or reviews are published in newspapers magazines books and on web sites History of Modern art Roots in the 19th century Although modern Sculpture and Architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the nineteenth Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century 
Marxism has figured in the interpretation of art. Meyer Schapiro was the first post-War art historian prominent in the Academy at large to suggest that Marxism had important contributions to make to art historical method and thought. Meyer Schapiro (born September 23, 1904, in Shavel / Šiauliai, Lithuania; died March 3, 1996 in New York While he wrote about numerous time periods and themes in art, he is best remembered for his commentary on sculpture from the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, at which time he saw evidence of capitalism emerging and feudalism declining. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval Europe Political system composed Arnold Hauser wrote the first Marxist survey of Western Art, titled "The Social History of Art. Arnold George Hauser ( September 25 1888 in Chicago Illinois – May 22 1966 in Aurora Illinois was a Shortstop in Major League " In this book he attempted to show how class consciousness was reflected in major art periods. His book was very controversial when it was published during the 1950s because it makes gross generalizations about entire eras. However, it remains in print as a classic art historical text.
Influential Modernist art historians and art critics Barbara Rose and Michael Fried were instrumental in furthering the understanding and popularity of important American Contemporary art in the 1960s and 1970s. Modernism describes an array of Cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Barbara Rose (born 1938 is an American art historian and Art critic. Michael Fried (born 1939 New York City) is an influential Modernist art critic and art historian The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced at this present point in time or art produced since World War II. Both Rosalind E. Krauss and Lucy Lippard were also crucial influences in the same period. Rosalind Krauss (Born Rosalind Epstein on) is an American art critic professor and theorist who is based at Columbia University. Lucy Lippard (born 1937 in New York City) is an internationally known writer Activist and Curator from the United States. The introduction of postminimalist theory and radical art criticism of the 1970s and 1980s was characterized by art historian/art critics Krauss, Lippard and Griselda Pollock through their writing. T.J. Clark was the first art historian writing from a Marxist perspective to abandon vulgar Marxism per se. Timothy James Clark (often "TJ Clark" was born in 1943 in Bristol, England. See also Marxian economics, Marxism Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in Philosophy He wrote Marxist art histories of several impressionist and realist artists, including Gustave Courbet and Édouard Manet. Impressionism was a 19th-century Art movement that began as a loose association of Paris -based Artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s Realism is a visual art style that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see For the French Admiral see Admiral Courbet (1828-1885 Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet ( 10 June 1819 &ndash These books focused closely on the political and economic climates in which the art was created.
Linda Nochlin and Griselda Pollock are prominent art historians writing from a feminist perspective since the 1970s. Linda Nochlin (born 1931 in New York) is a Professor and Art historian. Griselda Pollock (born 1949) is a prominent art historian and cultural analyst and a world-renowned scholar of international post-colonial feminist studies in the
Semiotic art history is an approach to art historical analysis that borrows from the established theories of semiology. It seeks to uncover the codified meaning or meanings in an aesthetic object by examining its connectedness to a collective consciousness.  Applying a language-based philosophy to visual media is inherently problematic and for that reason, art historians typically supplement its application with other methodologies that allow for political and historical considerations. 
Art historians use semiotics in order to subvert the myth of art as an immediate and unmitigated vision of the world, a window through which the object can be viewed without external mediation. In a tradition that assumes that visual meaning can be intuitively uncovered, the complexity of imagery can only be adequately addressed in reading images as text. Standards of styalization and form replace words as signifiers of meaning. Just as dictionaries are inadequate in supplying true meaning to words, nature is insufficient as the ultimate reference for visual signs if the notion of the Platonic ideal is dismissed. 
As opposed to iconography which seeks to identify meaning, semiotics is concerned with how meaning is created. Roland Barthes’s connoted and denoted meanings are paramount to this examination. In any particular work of art, an interpretation depends on the identification of denoted meaning—the recognition of a visual sign, and the connoted meaning—the instant cultural associations that come with recognition. The main concern of the semiotic art historian is to come up with ways to navigate and interpret connoted meaning. 
Art historians do not commonly commit to any one particular brand of semiotics but rather construct an amalgamated version which they incorporate into their collection of analytical tools. For example, Meyer Shapiro borrowed Saussure’s differential meaning in effort to read signs as they exist within a system.  According to Schapiro, to understand the meaning of frontality in a specific pictorial context, it must be differentiated from, or viewed in relation to, alternate possibilities such as a profile, or a three-quarter view. Schapiro combined this method with the work of Charles Sanders Peirce whose object, sign, and interpretant provided a structure for his approach. Alex Potts demonstrates the application of Peirce’s concepts to visual representation by examining them in relation to the Mona Lisa. By seeing the Mona Lisa, for example, as something beyond its materiality is to identify it as a sign. It is then recognized as referring to an object outside of itself, a woman, or Mona Lisa. The image does not seem to denote religious meaning and can therefore be assumed to be a portrait. This interpretation leads to a chain of possible interpretations: who was the sitter in relation to Leonardo? What significance did she have to him? Or, maybe she is an icon for all of womankind. This chain of interpretation, or “unlimited semiosis” is endless; the art historian’s job is to place boundaries on possible interpretations as much as it is to reveal new possibilities. 
Semiotics operates under the theory that an image can only be understood from the viewer’s perspective. The artist is supplanted by the viewer as the purveyor of meaning, even to the extent that an interpretation is still valid regardless of whether the creator had intended it.  Rosiland Krauss espoused this concept in her essay “In the Name of Picasso. ” She denounced the artist’s monopoly on meaning and insisted that meaning can only be derived after the work has been removed from its historical and social context. Mieke Bal argued similarly that meaning does not even exist until the image is observed by the viewer. It is only after acknowledging this that meaning can become opened up to other possibilities such as feminism or psychoanalysis. 
The field of Art History is traditionally divided into specializations or concentrations based on eras and regions. Such divisions typically include:
A number of sub-fields are included under each specialization. Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" "Ancient" redirects here For other uses see Ancient_(disambiguation. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced at this present point in time or art produced since World War II. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences For example, the Ancient Near East, Greece, Rome, and Egypt are all typically considered special concentrations of Ancient art. In some cases, these specializations may be closely allied (as Greece and Rome, for example), while in others such alliances are far less natural (Indian art versus Korean art, for example).
Non-Western art is a relative newcomer to the Art Historical canon. Recent revisions of the semantic division between art and artifact have recast objects created in non-Western cultures in more aesthetic terms. Relative to those studying Ancient Rome or the Italian Renaissance, scholars specializing in Africa, the Ancient Americas and Asia are a growing minority.
Art historians employ a number of methods in their research into the qualities, nature and history of objects.
A formal analysis is one which focuses on the form of the object in question. Elements of form include line, shape, color, composition, rhythm, etc. At its simplest, such an analysis is simply exegesis, but it relies heavily on the art historian's ability to think critically and visually.
A stylistic analysis is one which focuses on the particular combination of formal elements into a coherent style. Often, a stylistic analysis makes reference to movements or trends in art as a means of drawing out the impact and import of a particular object.
An iconographical analysis is one which focuses on particular design elements of an object. Through a close reading of such elements, it is possible to trace their lineage, and with it draw conclusions regarding the origins and trajectory of these motifs. In turn, it is possible to make any number of observations regarding the social, cultural, economic, and/or aesthetic values of those responsible for producing the object.
Finally, many art historians use theory to frame their inquiries into objects. Theory is most often used when dealing with more recent objects, those from the late 19th century onward. A somewhat vague term, theoretical approaches to art can range quite broadly, from psychological analysis to aesthetics to Marxist critique and more.