The Armistice with Italy was an armistice signed on September 3 and publicly declared on September 8, 1943, during World War II, between Italy and the Allied armed forces, who were then occupying the southern half of the country. An armistice is a situation where the warring parties agree to stop fighting Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. It is also referred to in Italy as the Armistizio di Cassibile (from the place in which it was signed) or the Armistizio dell'8 Settembre (more simply 8 Settembre).
Following the 1942 defeat of the Axis Powers in North Africa, the Allies bombed Rome on Sunday 16 May 1943, invaded Sicily on 10 July and began to land on the Italian mainland on 3 September 1943. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Axis powers also known as the Axis alliance Axis nations Axis countries or sometimes just the Axis were those Countries During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from June 10, 1940 The bombing of Rome in World War II took place on several occasions in 1943 and 1944 by both Allied and Axis aircraft before the city was freed Events 1204 - Baldwin IX Count of Flanders is crowned as the first Emperor of the Latin Empire. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major World War II campaign in which the Allies took Sicily from the Axis Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. The process Allied invasion of Italy, was the Allied landing on mainland Italy in September 1943 by General Harold Alexander 's 15th Army Group Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In the spring of 1943, preoccupied by the disastrous situation of the Italian military in the war, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini removed from their positions in the Italian government several figures whom he reputed to be more faithful to King Victor Emmanuel than to the Fascist regime. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III 11 November, 1869 – 28 December, 1947) was a member of the House of Savoy and These moves by Mussolini have been described as slightly hostile acts to the king, who had been growing increasingly critical of the poor conduct of Italy in the conflict. After this sequence of decisions, Victor Emmanuel probably began to consider countermoves that in the end would lead to the Armistice and to Mussolini's downfall.
In order to help carry out his plan, the King asked Dino Grandi to get involved. Dino Grandi ( June 4 1895 — May 21 1988) Conte ( Count) di Mordano was an Italian Fascist politician minister Grandi was one of the leading members of the Fascist hierarchy and, in his younger years, he was considered to be the sole credible alternative to Mussolini as leader of the Fascist Party. The National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF was an Italian party created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of The King was also motivated by the suspicion that Grandi's ideas about Fascism might be changed abruptly. Various ambassadors, including Pietro Badoglio himself, proposed to him the vague possibility of succeeding Mussolini as dictator. Pietro Badoglio 1st Duke of Addis Abeba ( 28 September 1871 &ndash 1 November 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician
The secret frondeur later involved Giuseppe Bottai, another high member of the Fascist directorate and Minister of Culture, and Galeazzo Ciano, probably the second most powerful man in the Fascist party and also Mussolini's son-in-law. Giuseppe Bottai ( September 3 1895 — January 9 1959) was an Italian Lawyer, Economist, Journalist Gian Galeazzo Ciano Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari ( March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944) was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs The conspirators devised an Order of the Day for the next reunion of the Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo) which contained a proposal to restore direct control of politics to the king. Mentioned in Despatches (MID is a Military award for gallantry or otherwise commendable service The Grand Council of Fascism (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo was the main body of Mussolini 's Fascist government in Italy. Following the Council, held on July 23, 1943, where the "order of the day" was adopted by majority vote, Mussolini was summoned to meet the King and dismissed as Prime Minister. Events 1632 - Three hundred colonists bound for New France depart from Dieppe France. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Upon leaving the meeting, Mussolini was arrested by "carabinieri" and spirited off to the island of Ponza. The Carabinieri (Italian for Carabiniers are the national-level Gendarmerie of Italy who also perform Military police duties He was substituted with Badoglio as PM. This went against what had been promised to Grandi, who had been told that another general of greater personal and professional qualities (Enrico Caviglia) would have taken the place of Mussolini. Enrico Caviglia, KCB ( May 4 1862 - March 22 1945) was a distinguished officer in the Italian Army.
The nomination of Badoglio apparently did not change the position of Italy alongside Germany in the war. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. However, it was another move of the Royal Savoia family towards peace. The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia was formed in the early eleventh century in the historical Savoy region Many channels, in fact, were being probed to seek a treaty with the Allies.
In particular, three Italian generals (including Giuseppe Castellano) were separately sent to Lisbon in order to contact Allied diplomats. Lisbon (Lisboa liʒˈboɐ is the Capital and largest city of Portugal. However, to start out the proceedings the Allied diplomats had to solve a problem concerning who was the most authoritative envoy: the three generals had in fact soon started to quarrel about the question of who enjoyed the highest authority. In the end, Castellano was admitted to speak with the Allied diplomats in order to set the conditions for the surrender of Italy. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Among the representatives of the allies, there was the British ambassador to Portugal, Ronald Campbell, and two generals sent by Dwight Eisenhower, the American Walter Bedell Smith and the British Kenneth Strong. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general The United States of America —commonly referred to as the General Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith GBE KCB ( October 5, 1895 – August 9, 1961) was Dwight See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands
Initially, the Allies were not entirely happy about the proposal of a surrender of Italy. The military campaign against the Axis forces there seemed to have gained steam, and a defeat of Italy was considered only a matter of time. The surrender of Germany's weaker ally would certainly have accelerated that end; however, it would also have reduced the benefits gained by a total conquest of the Italian territory.
Ultimately, though, further examination of the possibilities after the end of the war in Italy led the Allies to seriously discuss the question. In particular, the United States wanted to avoid the possible consignment of Italy to Great Britain after the war, as this would have given the British absolute control over the strategic Mediterranean area (including control over oil trade routes). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the An oil is a substance that is in a viscous Liquid state ( "oily") at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer and is
On August 27 Castellano returned to Italy and, three days later, briefed Badoglio about the Allied request for a meeting to be held in Sicily, which had been suggested by the British ambassador to the Vatican. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Sicily ( Italian and Sicilian: Sicilia) is an autonomous region of Italy. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic
Badoglio still considered it possible to gain favourable conditions in exchange for the surrender. He ordered Castellano to insist that any surrender of Italy was subordinate to a landing of Allied troops on the Italian mainland (the Allies at this point were holding only Sicily and some minor islands). Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Landing is the last part of a Flight, where a flying Animal, Aircraft, or Spacecraft returns to the ground In general allies are people groups or nations that have joined together in an association for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose Badoglio also dared to ask for access to Allied military plans. But this was clearly unreasonable, as the war was still ongoing and the Allied Staff could have done nothing but reject it.
On August 31 General Castellano reached Termini Imerese, in Sicily, by plane and was subsequently transferred to Cassibile, a small town in the neighbourhood of Syracuse. Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne Termini Imerese ( Greek: Thermae Himeraeae -;, Pol;, Ptol;,, Diod Syracuse (Siracusa Sicilian: Sarausa, Classical Greek: / transliterated Syrakousai) is a historic City in It soon became obvious that the two sides in the negotiations had adopted rather distant positions. Castellano pressed the relatively reasonable request that the Italian territory be defended from the inevitable reaction of the German Wehrmacht against Italy after the signing. Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 In return, he received only vague promises, which included the launching of a Parachute Division over Rome. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Moreover, these actions were to be conducted contemporaneously with the signing and not preceding it, as the Italians had wanted.
The following day Castellano was received by Badoglio and his entourage. The Minister of Foreign Affairs Raffaele Guariglia declared that the Allied conditions were to be accepted. Other generals maintained however that the Army Corps deployed around Rome was insufficient to protect the city, due to lack of fuel and ammunition, and that the armistice had to be postponed. Badoglio did not pronounce himself in the meeting. In the afternoon he appeared before the King, who decided to accept the armistice conditions.
A confirmation telegram was sent to the Allies. The message, however, was intercepted by the German armed forces, which had long since begun to suspect that Italy was seeking a separate armistice. The Germans contacted Badoglio, who repeatedly confirmed the unwavering loyalty of Italy to its German ally. His reassurances were doubted by the Germans, and the Wehrmacht started to devise an effective plan ('Plan Asche') to take control of Italian soil as soon as the Italian government had switched allegiance to the Allies.
On September 2 Castellano set off again to Cassibile, with an order to confirm the acceptance of the Allied conditions. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. He had no written authorisation from the head of the Italian Government, Badoglio, who wanted to dissociate himself as much as possible from the upcoming defeat of his country.
The signing ceremony began at 2:00 p. m. on September 3: Castellano, in lieu of Badoglio, and Bedell Smith, in place of Eisenhower, opposed their signatures to the accepted text. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius A bombing mission on Rome by 500 airplanes was stopped at the last moment: it had been Eisenhower's deterrent to accelerate the procedure of the armistice. Harold Macmillan, the British representative in the Allied Staff, informed Winston Churchill that the armistice had been signed "without amendments of any kind". (Maurice Harold Macmillan 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 &ndash 29 December 1986 was a British Conservative Politician Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC, PC (Can ( 30 November 1874
Only after the signing had taken place was Castellano informed of the additional clauses that had been presented by general Campbell to another Italian general, Zanussi, who had also been in Cassibile since August 31. Zanussi, for unclear reasons, had not informed Castellano about them. Badell Smith, nevertheless, explained to Castellano that these further conditions were to have taken effect only if Italy had taken on a fighting role in the war alongside the Allies.
In the afternoon of the same day Badoglio had a briefing with the Italian Ministers of Navy, Air Forces and War, and with the King's representatives as well. However, he omitted any mention of the signing of the armistice, referring only to ongoing negotiations.
When the armistice was publicly declared, on September 8, the majority of the Italian Army had not been informed about it. Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz The King along with the royal family and Badoglio fled from Rome, taking shelter on the Allied side. No orders had been given at all about the line of conduct to be taken in the face of the German armed forces. The Italian troops, without instructions, collapsed and were soon overwhelmed. The Wehrmacht therefore occupied, without meeting great resistance, all of the remaining territory still not under Allied control. On September 3, Canadian troops began landing in the southernmost tip of Calabria. Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of The day after the armistice declaration, September 9, the Allies also disembarked at Salerno (Operation Avalanche) and Taranto (Operation Slapstick). Events 1000 - Battle of Svolder, Viking Age. 1379 - Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Salerno is a town in southern Italy, capital of the province of the same name in the region of Campania. The process Allied invasion of Italy, was the Allied landing on mainland Italy in September 1943 by General Harold Alexander 's 15th Army Group Not to be confused with Toronto. Taranto ( Ancient Greek: Tarās; Modern Greek: Tarantas) is a coastal city in Operation Slapstick was a part of the Allied invasion of Italy during World War II on 9 September 1943.