Persian Armenia corresponds to the Armenian territory controlled by Persia throughout history. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The size of Persian Armenia varied over time.
After the fall of the Median empire In 550 B. The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. C. Cyrus, leader of the Persians, took control of the Median empire and conquered Asia Minor and Mesopotamia. The Medes were an ancient Iranian people who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran. Anatolia (Anadolu Ανατολία Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning "land between the rivers" is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers largely corresponding Cyrus' son continued his father's campaign in Egypt. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Eventually, Armenia became a dependency of Persia. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia
The Armenian contingents, cavalry and infantry, had taken part in Cyrus's conquest of Lydia in 546 and of Babylonia in 539. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large Defining Lydia Aside from a legend related by Herodotus, who states that the name Lydia came from king Lydus at the time of the fall of Troy Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital A rebellion of ten subject nations — one of them Armenia — broke out against Persia during the reign of Darius I (522‑486). Darius I the Great (c 549 BC&ndash486 BC 𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁 Dārayavahuš: "Possessing goodness" Having ascended to power amidst controversy and bloodshed
|Series on: History of Armenia|
|Hayasa-Azzi · Armens · Nairi · Urartu|
|Kingdom of Armenia|
|Orontid Armenia · Kingdom of Sophene · Artaxiad Dynasty · Kingdom of Commagene · Arsacid Dynasty|
Arab conquest of Armenia · Bagratuni Armenia · Kingdom of Vaspurakan · Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia · Zakarid Armenia
|Persian · Ottoman · Russian · Hamidian Massacres · Armenian Genocide|
|Democratic Republic of Armenia · Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic · Republic of Armenia|
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In the Behistun inscriptions, Darius I talks of his multiple victories. see History of Armenia (Moses of Chorene for the historiographical work The Armenian Highland shows traces of settlement from the Neolithic era Hayasa-Azzi or Azzi-Hayasa was a confederation formed between the Kingdoms of Hayasa located South of Trabzon and Azzi, located North of Nairi ( Armenian: Նայիրի in TAO or Նաիրի in RAO) is the Assyrian word rivers, given from the 13th to 10th centuries BC ( Urartu ( Assyrian: Urarṭu Urartian: Biainili Ուրարտու was an Iron Age kingdom in Eastern Anatolia ( Transcaucasia) rising The Kingdom of Armenia (or Greater Armenia) was an independent kingdom from 190 BC to AD 387 and a client state of the Roman and Persian empires until The Orontid Dynasty (in Armenian: Երվանդունիների հարստություն was the first known Armenian dynasty The Kingdom of Sophene (Ծոփքի Թագավորութուն was an ancient Armenian kingdom The Artaxiad Dynasty ruled Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. The Kingdom of Commagene (Βασίλειον τῆς Kομμαγηνής Կոմմագենէի Թագավորութուն was an ancient Armenian kingdom of the Hellenistic The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428 The medieval history of Armenia (Միջնադարյան Հայաստան covers the history of Armenia during the Middle Ages. Marzpanate period (Մարզպանական Հայաստան refers to the period in Armenian history after the fall of the Arshakuni Dynasty of Armenia Byzantine Armenia is the name given to the Armenian part of the Byzantine Empire. The Arab conquest of Armenia was a part of the Muslim conquests which began after the death of Muhammad. The Bagratuni Kingdom of Armenia (Բագրատունիների Թագավորություն also known as Bagratid Armenia, was an independent state established by Vaspurakan (also transliterated as Vasbouragan in Western Armenian; Վասպուրական meaning the "noble land" or "land of princes" was first a province The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as Little Armenia, Kingdom of Lesser Armenia, Cilician Kingdom; Classical Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ The term Zakarid Armenia (Զաքարյան Հայաստան is used to describe territories of Armenia given to the Zakarid-Mxargrzeli princes as a Fief The Ottoman rule of Armenia or Ottoman Armenia begins with the initial accession of Mehmed II, and the Ottoman support to initiate the Armenian Russian Armenia ( Armenian: Ռուսական Հայաստան is the period of Armenia's history under Russian rule beginning from 1829 when Eastern Armenia The Hamidian massacres, also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1894-1896, refers to the massacring of Armenians by the Ottoman Empire, with estimates of the The Democratic Republic of Armenia ( DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Հայկական ՍովետականՍոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն Haykakan Sovetakan Sotsialistakan Hanrapetutyun see History of Armenia (Moses of Chorene for the historiographical work The military history of Armenia encompasses a period of several thousand years as the Armenian people have existed as a nation since the Early Bronze Age. Earliest 6000-4000 BC Neolithic cultures of the South Caucasus, such as the Shulaveri-Shomu culture. The Behistun Inscription (also Bisitun or Bisutun, Modern Persian: بیستون; Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the god's The inscription includes three versions of the same text, written in three different cuneiform script languages: Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian. The Old Persian language is one of the two attested Old Iranian languages (besides Avestan) Elamite is an Extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites. Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital The name Armenia had been used for the first time, when Darius wanted to describe his conquests in the Armenian highlands. The Armenian Highland (Russian Armyanskoye Nagorye; also known as the Armenian Upland or Armenian Plateau, also referred as Eastern Armenia) The shahanshah speaks of bloody battles against the Armens, and cites the names of three important battles. Shah is an Iranian term for a Monarch (leader that has been adopted in many other languages
The Armenians thus stayed under Persian rule from 519 to 330 B. C. Those years are considered to be relatively peaceful; trade flourished. Herodotus claimed that the Armenians had to pay 50 'talents' and thousands of horses per year to the Persians. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash The talent ( Latin: talentum, from Ancient Greek: "scale balance" is an ancient unit of Mass. When he speaks of Xerxes' invasions to Greek land, he mentions that the Armenian forces rallied with Xerxes, and that they resembled and spoke like the Phrygians. In antiquity Phrygia (Φρυγία was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey.
Alexander the Great later conquered the Achaemenid Empire, and the Artaxiad dynasty established an independent Armenian kingdom in 190 B. Alexander the Great ( or, Mégas Aléxandros; July 20 356 BC June 10 or June 11 323 BC also known as Alexander III of Macedon (el Ἀλέξανδρος Γ' The Achaemenid Empire or Achaemenid Persian Empire ( haχɒmaneʃijɒn (558–330 BC was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of The Artaxiad Dynasty ruled Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. C.
The Armenians chose Christianity as state religion in 301. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Armenia was divided between Sassanid Persia and the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial The former established control in Eastern Armenia after the fall of the Arsacid Armenian kingdom in 428.
As conflict between the Romans and Sassanids escalated, Yazdegerd II began to view Christianity as a political threat to the cohesiveness of the Persian empire. Mamikonian or Mamikoneans (Մամիկոնյան was a noble family which dominated Armenian politics between the 4th and 8th century Yazdegerd II, ("made by God" Izdegerdes) fifteenth Sassanid King of Persia, was the son of Bahram V (421&ndash438 and reigned Armenian conversion to Christianity was of particular concern to him. After a successful invasion of the Eastern Roman Empire, Yazdegerd began summoning Armenian nobles to Ctesiphon and converted them to Zoroastrianism. For the Spanish saint see Ctesiphon of Vergium. Ctesiphon (قطسيفون تیسفون was one of the great cities of the Persian Empire Zoroastrianism (ˌzɔroʊˈæstriəˌnɪzəm is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings This outraged the Armenian population, and under the leadership of Vartan Mamikonian an army of 66,000 Armenians rebelled against the Sassanid empire. Mamikonian or Mamikoneans (Մամիկոնյան was a noble family which dominated Armenian politics between the 4th and 8th century Yazdegerd quickly subdued the rebellion at the Battle of Avarayr. Battle of Avarayr (Ավարայրի ճակատամարտ May 26, 451, also known as Battle of Vartanantz, hy Վարդանանց Պատերազմ
The military success of the Persians ensured that Armenia would remain part of the Sassanid empire for centuries to come. However, Armenian resistance did not end until the Nvarsak Treaty, which guaranteed Armenia more freedom under Sassanid rule. The Nvarsak Treaty was signed between the Armenian general Vahan Mamikonian and the representatives of the Persian shah Peroz I at Nvarsak in A
Due to its strategic significance, Armenia was constantly fought over and passed back and forth between the dominion of Persia and the Ottomans. The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish At the height of the Turkish-Persian wars, Yerevan changed hands fourteen times between 1513 and 1737. Yerevan (Երևան Երեւան or Երեվան ˌjɛrəˈvɑːn sometimes written as Erevan, Iravan, Erewan, Ayrivan, and Erivan
In 1604, Shah Abbas I pursued a scortched-earth campaign against the Ottomans in the Ararat valley. Shāh ‘Abbās I or Shāh ‘Abbās the Great ( (born January 27, 1571; died January 19, 1629) was Shah of Iran and the most eminent The old Armenian town of Julfa in the province of Nakhichevan was taken early in the invasion. Julfa ( Azerbaijani: Culfa; Armenian: Ջուղա, sometimes transliterated as Jugha; also rendered as Djulfa, Dzhul’fa The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası Նախիջևանի Ինքնավար Հանրապետություն Нахичеванская Автономная From there Abbas' army fanned out across the Araratian plain. The Shah pursued a careful strategy, advancing and retreating as the occasion demanded, determined not to risk his enterprise in a direct confrontation with stronger enemy forces.
While laying siege to Kars, he learned of the approach of a large Ottoman army, commanded by Djghazadé Sinan Pasha. Kars may refer to Kars Turkey Kars Province, Turkey Kars Oblast, Russian Empire Kars Province Sinan Pasha ( 1506 - April 3, 1596) was an Albanian born Ottoman military commander ( Pasha) and statesman The order to withdraw was given; but to deny the enemy the potential to resupply themselves from the land, he ordered the wholesale destruction of the Armenian towns and farms on the plain. As part of this the whole population was ordered to accompany the Persian army in its withdrawal. Some 300,000 people were duly hearded to the banks of the Araxes River. Those who attempted to resist the mass deportation were killed outright. The Shah had previously ordered the destruction of the only bridge, so people were forced into the waters, where a great many drowned, carried away by the currents, before reaching the opposite bank. This was only the beginning of their ordeal. One eye-witness, Father de Guyan, describes the predicament of the refugees thus:
Unable to maintain his army on the desolate plain, Sinan Pasha was forced to winter in Van. Van ( Armenian hy Վան Kurdish: Wan from Armenian van - village settlement is a city in eastern Turkey and the seat of Van Armies sent in pursuit of the Shah in 1605 were defeated, and by 1606 Abbas had regained all of the territory lost to the Turks earlier in his reign. The scortched-earth tactic had worked, though at a terrible cost to the Armenian people. Of the 300,000 deported it is calculated that under half survived the march to Isfahan. Esfahān or Isfahan (historically also rendered as Ispahan or Hispahan, Old Persian: Aspadana, Middle Persian: Spahān In the conquered territories Abbas established the Erivan khanate, a Muslim principality under the dominion of the Safavid Empire. The Erivan ( Yerevan) Khanate (ایروان was a Muslim controlled principality under the dominion of the Persian Empire between 1747 and 1828 A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz Armenians formed less than 20% of its population ). The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large  as a result of Shah Abbas I's deportation of much of the Armenian population from the Ararat valley and the surrounding region in 1605. Shāh ‘Abbās I or Shāh ‘Abbās the Great ( (born January 27, 1571; died January 19, 1629) was Shah of Iran and the most eminent