Tigranes the Great • St. Mesrob Mashtots • Vartan Mamikonian • Levon V Lusignan • Ivan Aivazovsky
Bottom row (left to right)
Aram Khachaturian • William Saroyan • Tigran Petrosian • Charles Aznavour • Isabel Bayrakdarian
|Regions with significant populations|
|Christianity, predominantly Armenian Apostolic, as well as Armenian Catholicism, Armenian Evangelism and various Protestant denominations, especially in the diaspora. This article is about a king of Armenia in the 1st century BCE. Saint Mesrop Mashtots (Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց (361 or 362 Hatsik in Taron - February 17, 440, Echmiadzin) was an Armenian Mamikonian or Mamikoneans (Մամիկոնյան was a noble family which dominated Armenian politics between the 4th and 8th century Leo V or Leon V (occasionally Leo VI; Լեիոն Levon V; 1342 &ndash 29 November 1393) of the House of Lusignan, was Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Иван Константинович Айвазовский Հովհաննես Այվազովսկի - Hovhannes Aivazovsky July 29, Aram Khachaturian ( Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян Aram Il'ič Hačaturjan William Saroyan ( August 31, 1908 - May 18 1981) was an Armenian American Author. Tigran Petrosian (Տիգրան Պետրոսյան ( June 17, 1929 &ndash August 13, 1984) was World Chess Champion from 1963 Charles Aznavour OC ( Armenian: Շառլ Ազնավուր born Shahnour Varenagh Aznavourian (Շահնուր Վաղինակ Ազնավուրյան Isabel Bayrakdarian (born 1974 in Zahle, Lebanon) is an Armenian Canadian Opera Singer. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Note - please discuss *any* change to this intro on the talk page before making it no matter how minor it may seem Azerbaijan ( English; Azərbaycan officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası is the largest and most populous country in the South For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( Uzbek: O‘zbekiston Respublikasi or Ўзбекистон Республикаси is a doubly Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Greece (Ελλάδα transliterated: Elláda, historically, Ellás,) officially the Hellenic Republic (Ελληνική Δημοκρατία For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Turkmenistan ( Türkmenistan; also known as Turkmenia) is a Turkic country in Central Asia. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Belarus ( Belarusian Беларусь / Biełaruś is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the north and east Kazakhstan, also Kazakstan ( Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, qɑzɑqˈstɑn Казахстан, Kazakhstán,) officially the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those The Czech Republic ( ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka short form in Česko ˈt͡ʃɛskɔ also called Czechia, Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Եկեղեցի Hayasdaneaytz Arakelagan (Refer to List of Armenian Catholic Patriarchs of Cilicia) The Armenian Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic church Sui juris within The Armenian Evangelical Church ( Armenian: Հայաստանեայց Աւետարանական Եկեղեցի was established on July 1 1846 by thirty-seven men and three women Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Armenian diaspora is a term used to describe the communities of Armenians living outside of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. Small Muslim minority, principally the Hamshenis. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion|
The Armenians (Armenian: Հայեր, Hayer) are a nation and ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands. The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian A nation is a Human Cultural and Social Community. In as much as most members never meet each other yet feel a common bond it may be considered The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East The Armenian Highland (Russian Armyanskoye Nagorye; also known as the Armenian Upland or Armenian Plateau, also referred as Eastern Armenia) A large concentration of them has remained there, especially in Armenia, but many of them are also scattered elsewhere throughout the world (see Armenian diaspora). Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani The Armenian diaspora is a term used to describe the communities of Armenians living outside of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. The Armenians have had a significant presence in countries such as Georgia, Iran, Russia, and Ukraine due to their proximity to Armenia. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. After the Armenian Genocide, a large influx of survivors fled to France, the United States, Argentina, the Levant and other countries that welcomed the Armenians. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. See also Names of the Levant The Levant (lə'vænt is a geographical term that denotes a large area in Western Asia, roughly bounded on the north by the There are an estimated 8 to 10 million Armenians around the world. 
Christianized in the early 4th century, Arsacid Armenia became the first Christian nation, although Christianity had began to spread in Armenia soon after Christ's death, due to the efforts of two of his apostles, St. Jude and St. Bartholomew , thus most Armenians adhere to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a Monophysite church. The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428 Saint Bartholomew was one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus. Bartholomew (Βαρθολομαίος transliterated "Bartholomaios" comes from The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Եկեղեցի Hayasdaneaytz Arakelagan Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning 'one alone' and physis meaning 'nature' or Monophysiticism is the Christological position that They speak two different, but mutually intelligible dialects of their language: Eastern Armenian, spoken mainly in Armenia, Iran and the former Soviet republics, and Western Armenian, spoken primarily in the Armenian diaspora. The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian Eastern Armenian is one of the two modern Dialects of Armenian (an Indo-European language) spoken in the Caucasus Mountains (particularly in Western Armenian (արեւմտահայերէն is one of the two modern Dialects of Armenian, an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian diaspora
Historically, the name Armenian has come to internationally designate this group of people. It was first used by neighboring countries of ancient Armenia. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani However, Armenians call themselves Hay (Հայ, pronounced Hye; plural: Հայեր, Hayer). The word has traditionally been linked to the name of the legendary founder of the Armenian nation, Haik, which is also a popular Armenian name. Hayk (hy Հայկ also transliterated as Haik) is the legendary patriarch and founder of the Armenian nation. 
In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire (at the height of its power), Mitanni (South-Western historical Armenia), and Hayasa-Azzi (1600-1200 BC). The Armenian Highland shows traces of settlement from the Neolithic era The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced Metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for Hittites is the conventional English-language term for an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and established a kingdom centered in Hattusa Mitanni ( Hittite cuneiform, also Mittani) or Hanigalbat ( Assyrian Hanigalbat Khanigalbat cuneiform) Hayasa-Azzi or Azzi-Hayasa was a confederation formed between the Kingdoms of Hayasa located South of Trabzon and Azzi, located North of Soon after the Hayasa-Azzi were the Nairi (1400-1000 BC) and the Kingdom of Urartu (1000-600 BC) successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highlands. Nairi ( Armenian: Նայիրի in TAO or Նաիրի in RAO) is the Assyrian word rivers, given from the 13th to 10th centuries BC ( Urartu ( Assyrian: Urarṭu Urartian: Biainili Ուրարտու was an Iron Age kingdom in Eastern Anatolia ( Transcaucasia) rising Each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people.  Yerevan, the modern capital of Armenia, was founded in 782 BC by the Urartian king Argishti I. Yerevan (Երևան Երեւան or Երեվան ˌjɛrəˈvɑːn sometimes written as Erevan, Iravan, Erewan, Ayrivan, and Erivan Argishtis I ( Urartian: Argištiše, Արգիշտի Argishti was the sixth known king of the ancient country of Urartu (in eastern Anatolia
In 1984, it was suggested by Thomas Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav V. Ivanov that the Proto-Indo-European homeland is located in the Armenian Highland. Tamaz (Thomas V Gamkrelidze ( Georgian თამაზ გამყრელიძე (born October 23, 1929) is a distinguished Georgian Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov (born 21 August 1929 Moscow) is a prominent Soviet / Russian Philologist and Indo-Europeanist probably The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE were the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language, who likely lived around 4000 BC, during the Copper Age and the Urheimat ( German: ur- Original, Ancient; Heimat Home, Homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the The Armenian Highland (Russian Armyanskoye Nagorye; also known as the Armenian Upland or Armenian Plateau, also referred as Eastern Armenia) 
By 860 BC the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu had been founded, which lasted until 585 BC. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Over the years Armenia has developed a modern unique and successful culture Cinema of Armenia was born on April 16, 1923, when the Armenian State Committee on Cinema was established by the government decree Armenia is situated close to the Caucasus Mountains, and its music is a mix of indigenous Folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyan 's well-known Over the years Armenia has developed a modern unique and successful culture A wide array of Sports are played in Armenia, the most popular among them being Wrestling, Weightlifting, Judo, football, Chess Vartavar (also known as Vardevar or Vardavar, Armenian: hy Վարդավար or Վարդնար is a festival in Armenia where people of all ages see History of Armenia (Moses of Chorene for the historiographical work Politics of Armenia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President is the Head of government Armenia maintains good relations with almost every country in the world the major exceptions being two of its immediate neighbors Turkey and Azerbaijan. Armenia is the only republic of the former Soviet Union that boasts a nearly-homogeneous population Administrative divisions The following is a list of the provinces with population area and density information Gegharkunik may refer to Gegharkunik Province Gegharkunik Gegharkunik town Gegharkunik Lake now called Lake Sevan Shirak may refer to Shirak Province, Armenia Shirak (town, Armenia Shirak Airport, Armenia Shirak historic region Syunik may refer to Syunik Province Syunik (village Syunik (historic region Yerevan (Երևան Երեւան or Երեվան ˌjɛrəˈvɑːn sometimes written as Erevan, Iravan, Erewan, Ayrivan, and Erivan see History of Armenia (Moses of Chorene for the historiographical work Urartu ( Assyrian: Urarṭu Urartian: Biainili Ուրարտու was an Iron Age kingdom in Eastern Anatolia ( Transcaucasia) rising The ruling dynasty of Urartu was replaced by the Orontid dynasty, which established itself at around the time of the Scythian and Median invasion in the 6th century BC. The Orontid Dynasty (in Armenian: Երվանդունիների հարստություն was the first known Armenian dynasty According to Herodotus, in 440 BC the Armenioi were armed like the Phrygians. Herodotus of Halicarnassus ( Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek Historian who lived in the 5th century BC ( 484 BC&ndash In antiquity Phrygia (Φρυγία was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey.  The Graeco-Armenian hypothesis is a possible ancestry of the Armenian people, but it is as of yet, not a certain theory. Graeco-Armenian (also Helleno-Armenian) refers to the hypothesis that the Greek language and the Armenian language share a common ancestor post-dating the The first state that was called Armenia by neighboring peoples (Hecataeus of Miletus and Behistun Inscription) was established in the early sixth century BC. Hecataeus of Miletus (c 550&ndashc 476 BC named after the Greek Goddess Hecate, was a Greek Philosopher of a wealthy The Behistun Inscription (also Bisitun or Bisutun, Modern Persian: بیستون; Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the god's The 6th century BC started the first day of 600 BC and ended the last day of 501 BC. At its zenith (95–65 BC), the state extended from northern Caucasus all the way to what is now central Turkey, Lebanon, and north-western Iran. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The imperial reign of Tigranes the Great is thus the span of time during which Armenia itself conquered areas populated by other peoples. This article is about a king of Armenia in the 1st century BCE. Later it briefly became part of the Roman Empire (AD 114–118). The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
The Arsacid Kingdom of Armenia was the first state to adopt Christianity as its religion (it had formerly been adherent to Hellenistic paganism--the Ancient Greek religion and then the Ancient Roman religion). The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428 Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices. Ancient Roman religion encompasses the collection of Beliefs and Rituals practised in Ancient Rome in the form of Cult practices  in the early years of the 4th century, likely AD 314. This ushered a new era in the history of the Armenian people (see Religion).  Later on, in order to further strengthen the Armenian national identity, Mesrop Mashtots invented the Armenian alphabet. Saint Mesrop Mashtots (Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց (361 or 362 Hatsik in Taron - February 17, 440, Echmiadzin) was an Armenian This event ushered the Golden Age of Armenia, during which many foreign books and manuscripts were translated to Armenian by Mesrop's pupils. The Kingdom of Armenia (or Greater Armenia) was an independent kingdom from 190 BC to AD 387 and a client state of the Roman and Persian empires until Armenia lost its sovereignty in 428 to the Byzantine and Persian Empires.
In 885 the Armenians reestablished themselves as a sovereign entity under the leadership of Ashot I of the Bagratid Dynasty. Ashot I Bagratuni (Աշոտ Մեծ was an Armenian prince with Ashot II, oversaw Armenia's second Golden age (862&ndash977 The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Բագրատունյաց Արքայական Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family A considerable portion of the Armenian nobility and peasantry fled the Byzantine occupation of Bagratid Armenia in 1045, and the subsequent invasion of the region by Seljuk Turks in 1064. The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in They settled in large numbers in Cilicia, an Anatolian region where Armenians were already established as a minority since Roman times. Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria In 1080, they founded an independent Armenian Principality then Kingdom of Cilicia, which became the focus of Armenian nationalism. The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as Little Armenia, Kingdom of Lesser Armenia, Cilician Kingdom; Classical Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation The Armenians developed close social, cultural, military, and religious ties with nearby Crusader States, but eventually succumbed to the Mamluk invaders. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European Crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and
In the 16th century, Eastern Armenia was conquered by the Persian Safavid Empire, while Western Armenia fell under Ottoman rule. The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz In the 1820s, parts of historic Armenia under Persian control centering on Yerevan and Lake Sevan were incorporated into the Russian Empire, but Western Armenia remained in the Ottoman Empire. Yerevan (Երևան Երեւան or Երեվան ˌjɛrəˈvɑːn sometimes written as Erevan, Iravan, Erewan, Ayrivan, and Erivan Lake Sevan (Սևանա լիճ is the largest lake in Armenia and one of the largest high-altitude lakes in the world The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya During these tumultuous times, Armenians depended on the Church to preserve and protect their unique identity.
The ethnic cleansing of Armenians during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is widely considered a genocide, an estimated 1. Ethnic cleansing is a Euphemism referring to the persecution through imprisonment expulsion or killing of members of an ethnic minority by a majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic racial religious or national group 5 million victims, with one wave of persecution in the years 1894 to 1896 culminating in the events of the Armenian Genocide in 1915 and 1916. With World War I in progress, the Turks accused the (Christian) Armenians as liable to ally with Imperial Russia, and used it as a pretext to deal with the entire Armenian population as an enemy within their empire. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The exact numbers of deaths in the latter period is hard to establish. Turkish governments since that time have consistently rejected charges of genocide, typically arguing either that those Armenians who died were simply in the way of a war or that killings of Armenians were justified by their individual or collective support for the enemies of the Ottoman Empire. The recent decision by the French lower house on October 12, 2006 to pass a bill making it illegal to deny the Armenian genocide has provoked intense reactions in the Turkish media. Events 539 BC - The army of Cyrus the Great of Persia takes Babylon. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Note, however, that the decision has yet to be ratified by the French Senate to fully become law.
Following the breakup of the Russian Empire in the aftermath of World War I for a brief period, from 1918 to 1920, Armenia was an independent republic. The fighting in World War I ended when an Armistice took effect at 1100 am GMT on November 11 1918 The Democratic Republic of Armenia ( DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun In late 1920, the communists came to power following an invasion of Armenia by the Red Army, and in 1922, Armenia became part of the Transcaucasian SFSR of the Soviet Union, later forming the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (1936 to September 21, 1991). Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Հայաստանի Խորհրդային Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն Azerbaijani: The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Հայկական ՍովետականՍոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն Haykakan Sovetakan Sotsialistakan Hanrapetutyun Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. In 1991, Armenia declared independence from the USSR and established the second Republic of Armenia. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
Armenians have had a presence in the Armenian Highland for over four thousand years, since the time when Haik, the legendary patriarch and founder of the first Armenian nation, led them to victory over Bel of Babylon. The Armenian Highland (Russian Armyanskoye Nagorye; also known as the Armenian Upland or Armenian Plateau, also referred as Eastern Armenia) Hayk (hy Հայկ also transliterated as Haik) is the legendary patriarch and founder of the Armenian nation. Babylon was a City-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which can be found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq Today, with a population of 3. 5 million, they not only constitute an overwhelming majority in Armenia, but also in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh. For the republic see Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh is a Region in the South Caucasus. Armenians in the diaspora informally refer to them as Hayastantsis (Հայաստանցի), meaning those that are from Armenia (that is, they or their ancestors were not forced to flee in 1915). They, as well as the Armenians of Iran and Russia speak the Eastern dialect of the Armenian language. The country itself is secular as a result of Soviet domination, but most of its citizens are Apostolic Armenian Christian.
Small Armenian trading communities have existed outside of Armenia for centuries. For example, a community has existed for over a millennium in the Holy Land, and one of the four quarters of the walled old city of Jerusalem has been called the Armenian Quarter. The Holy Land ( Arabic: الأرض المقدسة al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah;Ancient Aramaic: ארעא קדישא Ar'a Qaddisha; Hebrew: ארץ_הקודש Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the The Armenian Quarter is one of the four quarters of the Old City of Jerusalem.  There are also remnants of formerly populous communities in India, Myanmar, and South East Asia. The association of Armenians with India and the presence of Armenians in India are very old and there has been a mutual Economic and Cultural The first Armenians in Burma arrived in 1612 and dwelt in Syriam, the first Tombstone being dated 1725 However, most Armenians have scattered throughout the world as a direct consequence of the genocide of 1915, constituting the Armenian diaspora. The Armenian diaspora is a term used to describe the communities of Armenians living outside of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh.
Within the diasporan Armenian community, there is an unofficial classification of the different kinds of Armenians. For example, Armenians who originate from Iran are referred to as Parskahay (Պարսկահայ), while Armenians from Lebanon are usually referred to as Lipananahay (Լիբանանահայ). Armenian Iranians (Armenian "Իրանահայ" translit The Armenians in Lebanon ( Armenian: hy Լիբանանահայեր Arabic: ar أرمن لبنان are Lebanese citizens of Armenian descent Armenians of the Diaspora are the primary speakers of the Western dialect of the Armenian language. This dialect has considerable differences with Eastern Armenian, but speakers of either of the two variations can usually understand each other. Eastern Armenian in the diaspora is primarily spoken in Iran, Russia and former Soviet states such as Ukraine and Georgia (where they form a majority in the Samtskhe-Javakheti province). Ukraine (Україна Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ is a country in Eastern Europe. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between Expulsion of Meskhetian Turks from Meshketi Meskhetian Turks or Meskhetians are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (now known as Samtskhe in Georgia In diverse communities (such as in Canada and the U. S. ) where many different kinds of Armenians live together, there is a tendency for the different groups to cluster together.
Since the arrival of Martin the Armenian to the Jamestown Colony around 1618, Armenians have dispersed all throughout the United States. Martin the Armenian was one of the settlers in the Jamestown Colony in Virginia. Jamestown, located on Jamestown Island in the Virginia Colony, was founded on May 14 1607 Watertown, Massachusetts; Fresno, California; Detroit, Michigan; Glendale, California; and Los Angeles, California are centers of Armenian population in the United States; there is also a significant concentration in New York City. The Town of Watertown is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. Glendale ( is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West The City of New York In Canada, large numbers of Armenians can be found in Toronto, Ontario, and Montreal, Quebec. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec Armenians are also present in every country in Latin America, with the largest concentrations being found in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Venezuela, and Mexico. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America Chile, officially the Republic of Chile ( Spanish:) is a country in South America occupying a long and narrow Coastal strip wedged between the Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( Spanish: Costa Rica or República de Costa Rica,) is a Country in Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America Venezuela (ˌvɛnəˈzweɪlə) officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a country on the The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.
Glendale, California, in particular, is famous for its high concentration of Armenians; there are approximately 78,000 Armenians, according to the 2000 U. Glendale ( is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. S. census. Armenian residents of the city are active members in the municipal government and chamber of commerce. In Hollywood, California, a small portion is known as "Little Armenia", extending east to west from Wilton Avenue to Vermont Avenue and north and south from Hollywood Boulevard to Santa Monica Boulevard. Little Armenia is a community that is part of the Hollywood district of Los Angeles California.
The geographical distribution of the R1b haplotype is such that it is shared by Armenians and two other populations from the Caucasus. In Human genetics, Haplogroup R1b is the most frequent Y-chromosome Haplogroup in Western Europe  Moreover, it is lacking in most other populations from the Caucasus, as well as in the other populations from further east. On the other hand, it is more frequently found in Europe, where as we know, haplogroup R1b tends to have higher frequencies as well.
|“||The Armenian modal haplotype is also the modal R1b3 haplotype observed by Cinnioglu in Anatolia. According to him, apparently it entered Anatolia from Europe in Paleolithic times, and diffused again from Anatolia in the Late Upper Paleolithic.||”|
Armenian is a sub-branch of the Indo-European family, and with some 8-10 million speakers one of the smallest surviving branches, comparable to Albanian or the somewhat more widely spoken Greek, with which it may be connected (see Graeco-Armenian). Albanian (sq ''Gjuha shqipe'' ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ is an Indo-European language spoken by nearly 6 million peoplewhile others claim that it derives from Daco - Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Graeco-Armenian (also Helleno-Armenian) refers to the hypothesis that the Greek language and the Armenian language share a common ancestor post-dating the
Five million Eastern Armenian speakers live in the Caucasus, Russia, and Iran, and approximately two to three million people in the rest of the Armenian diaspora speak Western Armenian. The Armenian diaspora is a term used to describe the communities of Armenians living outside of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh. According to US Census figures, there are 300,000 Americans who speak Armenian at home. It is in fact the twentieth most commonly spoken language in the United States, having slightly fewer speakers than Haitian Creole, and slightly more than Navajo. Haitian Creole language ( kreyòl ayisyen) often called simply Creole or Kreyòl ( pronounced) is a language spoken in Haiti Navajo or Navaho ( native name: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock spoken in the southwest United States by
Armenian literature dates back to 400 AD, when Mesrob Mashdots first invented the Armenian alphabet. The Armenian alphabet is an Alphabet that has been used to write the Armenian language since the year 405 or 406. This period of time is often viewed as the Golden Age of Armenian literature. The term Golden age is best known from Greek mythology and legend but can also be found in other ancient cultures (see below Early Armenian literature was written by the "father of Armenian history", Moses of Chorene, who authored The History of Armenia. The book covers the time-frame from the formation of the Armenian people to the fifth century A. D. The nineteenth century beheld a great literary movement that was to give rise to modern Armenian literature. This period of time, during which Armenian culture flourished, is known as the Revival period (Zartonki sherchan). The Revivalist authors of Constantinople and Tiflis, almost identical to the Romanticists of Europe, were interested in encouraging Armenian nationalism. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Tbilisi (ˌtbiˈliːsi in Georgian: თბილისი is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari Most of them adopted the newly created Eastern or Western variants of the Armenian language depending on the targeted audience, and preferred them over classical Armenian (grabar). This period ended after the Hamidian massacres, when Armenians experienced turbulant times. The Hamidian massacres, also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1894-1896, refers to the massacring of Armenians by the Ottoman Empire, with estimates of the As Armenian history of the 1920s and of the Genocide came to be more openly discussed, writers like Paruyr Sevak, Gevork Emin, Silva Kaputikyan and Hovhannes Shiraz began a new era of literature. For the town in Armenia see Paruyr Sevak Armenia. Paruyr Rafaeli Ghazaryan (better known as Paruyr Sevak; in Armenian Gevorg Emin (Գևորգ Էմին September 30 1918 &ndash June 11 1998) was an Armenian Poet, Essayist, and Sirvard Barunaki "Silva" Kaputikyan (Սիլվա Կապուտիկյան in Armenian) ( 20 January 1919, Yerevan - 25 August Hovhannes Shiraz (Հովհաննես Շիրազ ( April 27, 1915 - March 14, 1984 was a notable Armenian Poet.
In 301 AD, Armenia adopted Christianity as a state religion, becoming the first nation to do so. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings  It established a Church that still exists independently of both the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox churches, having become so in 451 AD as a result of its excommunication by the Council of Chalcedon. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Excommunication is a religious Censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community The Council of Chalcedon was the fourth Ecumenical council. It was held from 8 October to 1 November 451 at Chalcedon (a city of  Today this church is known as the Armenian Apostolic Church, which is a part of the Oriental Orthodox communion, not to be confused with the Eastern Orthodox communion. The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայաստանեայց Առաքելական Եկեղեցի Hayasdaneaytz Arakelagan Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world During its later political eclipses, Armenia depended on the church to preserve and protect its unique identity. The original location of the Armenian Catholicosate is Echmiadzin. However, the continuous upheavals, which characterized the political scenes of Armenia, made the political power move to safer places. The Church center moved as well to different locations together with the political authority. Therefore, it eventually moved to Cilicia as the Holy See of Cilicia. Geography Cilicia extended along the Aegean coast east from Pamphylia, to Mount Amanus ( Gavurdağı Mount) which separated it from Syria The Holy See of Cilicia (also known as " the Catholicossate of the Great House of Cilicia " (Կաթողիկոսութիւն Հայոց Մեծի Տանն Կիլիկիոյ 
The Armenians collective has, at times, constituted a Christian "island" in a mostly Muslim region. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion There is, however, a minuscule minority of ethnic Armenian Muslims, known as Hamshenis. The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia had close ties to European Crusader States. The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as Little Armenia, Kingdom of Lesser Armenia, Cilician Kingdom; Classical Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European Crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and Later on, the deteriorating situation in the region led the bishops of Armenia to elect a Catholicos in Etchmiadzin, the original seat of the Catholicosate. In 1441, a new Catholicos was elected in Etchmiadzin in the person of Kirakos Virapetsi, while Krikor Moussapegiants preserved his title as Catholicos of Cilicia. Therefore, since 1441, there have been two Catholicosates in the Armenian Church with equal rights and privileges, and with their respective jurisdictions. The primacy of honor of the Catholicosate of Etchmiadzin has always been recognized by the Catholicosate of Cilicia. 
While the Armenian Apostolic Church remains the most prominent church in the Armenian community throughout the world, Armenians (especially in the diaspora) subscribe to any number of other Christian denominations. These include the Armenian Catholic Church (which follows its own liturgy but recognizes the Roman Catholic Pope), the Armenian Evangelical Church, which started as a reformation in the Mother church but later broke away, and the Armenian Brotherhood Church, which was born in the Armenian Evangelical Church, but later broke apart from it. (Refer to List of Armenian Catholic Patriarchs of Cilicia) The Armenian Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic church Sui juris within History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Armenian Evangelical Church ( Armenian: Հայաստանեայց Աւետարանական Եկեղեցի was established on July 1 1846 by thirty-seven men and three women The Armenian Brotherhood Church (also known as the Armenian Evangelical Brotherhood Church, the Armenian Brotherhood Bible Church or some other iterations started There are other numerous Armenian churches belonging to Protestant denominations of all kinds.
Many types of sports are played in Armenia, among the most popular being football, chess, boxing, basketball, hockey, sambo, wrestling, weightlifting and volleyball. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Chess is a recreational and competitive Game played between two players. Boxing (sometimes also known as English boxing or pugilism) is a Combat sport in which two participants generally of similar weight, Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Hockey is any of a family of Sports in which two teams compete by trying to maneuver a Ball, or a hard round rubber or heavy plastic disc called a puck Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two people in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of the opponent Weightlifting, also called Olympic weightlifting or Olympic-style weightlifting, is a sport in which participants attempt a maximum weight single lift of a barbell Volleyball is an Olympic team sport in which two teams of 6 active players (5 normal players and one 'libero' are separated by a net that is usually four feet  Since independence, the Armenian government has been actively rebuilding its sports program in the country.
During Soviet rule, Armenian athletes rose to prominence winning plenty of medals and helping the USSR win the medal standings at the Olympics on numerous occasions. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The first medal won by an Armenian in modern Olympic history was by Hrant Shahinian, who won two golds and two silvers in gymnastics at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland Helsinki (in Finnish;) or Helsingfors (in Swedish;) is the Capital and largest city of Finland. In football, their most successful team was Yerevan's FC Ararat, which had claimed most of the Soviet championships in the 70s and had also gone to post victories against professional clubs like FC Bayern Munich in the Euro cup. FC Ararat Yerevan (Ֆուտբոլային Ակումբ Արարատ Երեւան is an Armenian football club, based in Yerevan. FC Bayern München is a German Sports club based in Munich, Bavaria (München Bayern
Armenians have also been successful in chess, which is the most popular mind sport in Armenia. Some of the most prominent chess players in the world are Armenian such as Tigran Petrosian, Levon Aronian and Garry Kasparov. Tigran Petrosian (Տիգրան Պետրոսյան ( June 17, 1929 &ndash August 13, 1984) was World Chess Champion from 1963 Levon Aronian (Լևոն Արոնյան born 6 October 1982) is an Armenian Chess player Garry Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров) (born as Garry Kimovich Weinstein on April 13 1963 in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, Soviet Armenians have also been successful in weightlifting and wrestling, winning medals in each sport at the Olympics.
Armenian music is a mix of indigenous folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyan's well-known duduk music, as well as light pop, and extensive Christian music. Armenia is situated close to the Caucasus Mountains, and its music is a mix of indigenous Folk music, perhaps best-represented by Djivan Gasparyan 's well-known Djivan Gasparyan (Ջիվան Գասպարյան born 1928 in Solag, Armenia is an Armenian musician and composer The duduk (duˈduk is a traditional woodwind instrument of Armenian origins Christian music is music that is written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life
Instruments like the duduk, the dhol, the zurna and the kanun are commonly found in Armenian folk music. The dhol (ਢੋਲ ڈھول; ढोल ڈھول) dohol ( دهل) is a Drum (a percussion Musical instrument For other meanings see Zurna (disambiguation For other spellings see Surna (disambiguation The The Kanun or formally the Kanuni i Lekë Dukagjinit (The Code of Lekë Dukagjini is a set of laws developed by Lekë Dukagjini and used mostly in northern Albania Artists such as Sayat Nova are famous due to their influence in the development of Armenian folk music. For the town in Armenia see Sayat-Nova Armenia. Sayat-Nova ( Armenian: Սայաթ-Նովա Persian / Azeri: One of the oldest types of Armenian music is the Armenian chant which is the most common kind of religious music in Armenia. Armenian chant is the Melismatic monophonic Chant used in the liturgy of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Many of these chants are ancient in origin, extending to pre-Christian times, while others are relatively modern, including several composed by Saint Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet. Whilst under Soviet rule, Armenian classical music composer Aram Khatchaturian became internationally well known for his music, for various ballets and the Sabre Dance from his composition for the ballet Gayaneh. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. Aram Khachaturian ( Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան Aram Xačatryan; Russian: Аpaм Ильич Xaчaтypян Aram Il'ič Hačaturjan The "Sabre Dance" is a movement in the final act of the Armenian composer Aram Khachaturian 's Ballet Gayane Gayane (also Gayaneh and Gayne, after the Armenian saint) is a four-act Ballet with music by Aram Khachaturian.
The Armenian Genocide caused widespread emigration that led to the settlement of Armenians in various countries in the world. Armenians kept to their traditions and certain diasporans rose to fame with their music. In the post-Genocide Armenian community of the United States, the so called "kef" style Armenian dance music, using Armenian and Middle Eastern folk instruments (often electrified/amplified) and some western instruments, was popular. This style preserved the folk songs and dances of Western Armenia, and many artists also played the contemporary popular songs of Turkey and other Middle Eastern countries from which the Armenians emigrated. This article is about the historical subregion in Eurasia See Armenian Highland for the geographical region Richard Hagopian is perhaps the most famous artist of the traditional "kef" style and the Vosbikian Band was notable in the 40s and 50s for developing their own style of "kef music" heavily influenced by the popular American Big Band Jazz of the time. Richard Hagopian (born 1937 is an American Oriental-style Oud player and a well-known World music and traditional Armenian musician A big band is a type of Musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late Later, stemming from the Middle Eastern Armenian diaspora and influenced by Continental European (especially French) pop music, the Armenian pop music genre grew to fame in the 60s and 70s with artists such as Adiss Harmandian and Harout Pamboukjian performing to the Armenian diaspora and Armenia. Adiss Harmandian is an Armenian pop singer born in Lebanon but now residing in Los Angeles, CA Harout Pamboukjian (Հարութ Փամբուկչյան (born on January 0, 1950 in Yerevan, Armenian SSR, Soviet Union) is an Other Armenian diasporans that rose to fame in classical or international music circles are world renown French-Armenian singer and composer Charles Aznavour, Hasmik Papian and more recently Isabel Bayrakdarian. Charles Aznavour OC ( Armenian: Շառլ Ազնավուր born Shahnour Varenagh Aznavourian (Շահնուր Վաղինակ Ազնավուրյան Hasmik Papian (Հասմիկ Պապյան born 1961 in Yerevan) is an Armenian Soprano. Isabel Bayrakdarian (born 1974 in Zahle, Lebanon) is an Armenian Canadian Opera Singer. Certain Armenians settled to sing non-Armenian tunes such as the heavy metal band System of a Down (which nonetheless often incorporates traditional Armenian instrumentals and stylings into their songs) or pop star Cher. System of a Down (commonly referred to as System or abbreviated as SOAD) is an Armenian American rock band formed in 1994 in Cher ( IPA: /ʃɛr/ born Cherilyn Sarkisian, May 20 1946 In the Armenian diaspora, Armenian revolutionary songs are popular with the youth. Armenian Revolutionary Songs ( Armenian: hy Հայ Յեղափոխական Երգեր are songs that promote Armenian Patriotism. These songs encourage Armenian patriotism and are generally about Armenian history and national heroes.
Armenians enjoy many different native and foreign foods. Given the history of the Armenian people, the cuisine of Armenia and of the Armenians in the Armenian Diaspora is representative of the cuisine of the Mediterranean Lavash is a very popular Armenian rollable bread, and Armenian baklava is a special treat. Lavash ( Armenian: լավաշ from Turkish: lavaş; also known as lahvash or Armenian cracker bread) is a soft thin Flatbread Baklava is a rich sweet Pastry featured in many Cuisines of the former Ottoman, Arab, and Iranian countries Other famous Armenian foods include the kabob (a skewer of marinated roasted meat and vegetables), t'pov dolma (minced lamb meat and rice wrapped in grape leaves), kaghambi dolma (minced meat and rice wrapped in cabbage), amarayin dolma (cored tomatoes, eggplants and green peppers stuffed with minced mixed meats and rice), and pilaf, a tasty rice dish. Kebab (also transliterated as kabab, kabob, kibob, kebhav, kephav) refers to a variety of meat dishes in Middle Eastern Pilaf, also called polao, pilau or pulao, is a dish in which a grain such as Rice or cracked wheat is browned in oil and then cooked in a Fruits play a large part in the Armenian diet. Apricots (also known as Armenian Plum) originate from this area and have really unique taste, peaches are native too and are very popular; also common are grapes, figs, pomegranates, and melons. The Apricot ( Prunus armeniaca, "Armenian plum" in Latin syn For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is Ficus is a Genus of about 850 Species of woody Trees Shrubs Vines Epiphytes and hemi-epiphytes in the family The pomegranate ( Punica granatum) is a Fruit -bearing Deciduous Shrub or small Tree growing to between five and eight metres tall Melon is a term used for various members of the Cucurbitaceae family with fleshy fruit
The nation-state of Armenia is the most prominent Armenian institution today. Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Other important institutions include: