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Arianism is the teachings of the Christian theologian Arius (c. Arius ( AD ca 250 or 256 - 336 was a Christian priest from Alexandria Egypt in the early fourth century whose teachings now called Arianism The Acacians, also known as the Homoeans, were an Arian Sect which first emerged into distinctness as an Ecclesiastical party some time before In 4th century Christianity, the Anomœans, also known as Anomeans, Heterousians, Aetians, or Eunomians, were a Sect The Arian controversy describes several controversies which divided the Christian church from before the Council of Nicaea in 325 to after the The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine Gothic Christianity refers to the Christian religion of the Goths and sometimes the Gepids, Vandals, and Burgundians, who may Saint Lucian of Antioch (c 240&ndash January 7, 312) was an early and extremely influential theologian and teacher of Christianity, particularly Acacius of Caesarea in Greek Ἀκάκιος Mονόφθαλμος (died 366 was a Christian Bishop, the pupil and successor in the Palestinian This article is about Aetius of Antioch the 4th-century CE theologian for Aetius of Antioch the 1st-century BCE philosopher see Aetius (philosopher. Demophilus (died 386 was Bishop of Berea and bishop of Constantinople from 370 until expelled in 380 Eudoxius (died 370 was the eighth Bishop of Constantinople from January 27 360 to 370 previously bishop of Germanicia and of Antioch Eunomius (Εὐνόμιος (died c393 one of the leaders of the extreme or anomoeans who are sometimes accordingly called Eunomians was born at Dacora in Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341 was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) in Phoenicia, then of Nicomedia where the imperial court resided in Bithynia Eustathius, was bishop of Sebastia in Armenia. Together with Basil of Ancyra, he was the author of the sect of the Macedonians George of Laodicea, (b about the beginning of the 4th century often called the Cappadocian was from 356 to 361 Arian Archbishop of Alexandria Wulfila is also a spider genus ( Anyphaenidae) Wulfila (meaning "little wolf" (ca Asterius the Sophist (died c 341 was an Arian Christian theologian Auxentius of Milan (fl c 355 died 374 by tradition a Scythian of Cappadocia, was an Arian Theologian of some eminence who held the Auxentius of Durostorum and Milan aka Mercurinus was the foster-son of Ulfilas (Wulfila the "apostle to the Goths. Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II ( 7 August, 317 - November 3, 361) was a Roman Emperor Wereka and Batwin (or Ouerkas and Bathouses) were two of several Christian Gothic Martyrs burned alive in church by *Wingureiks Fritigern, or Fritigernus (died ca 380 was a Gothic war-leader whose military victories in the Gothic War (376-382 extracted favourable terms for the Alaric I ( Alareiks in the original Gothic; Alarik or Alarich in modern Germanic languages Alaricus in Latin and Alarico Artemius of Antioch (d 363 known as Challita in the Maronite tradition was dux Aegypti (imperial prefect of Roman Egypt) during the Odoacer (435–493 also known as Odovacar (from the Germanic Audawakrs, meaning "watchful of wealth" was a Roman general and the Theodoric the Great (454 – August 30, 526) known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526 ruler of Samuel Clarke ( 11 October 1675 &ndash 17 May 1729) was an English Philosopher. Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (ˈnjuːtən 4 January 1643 31 March 1727) Biography Early years See also Isaac Newton's early life and achievements William Whiston ( 9 December 1667 &ndash 22 August 1752) was as English Theologian, Historian, and Pope Peter of Alexandria was Pope of Alexandria (300 - 311 He is revered as a Saint by the Coptic Orthodox Church, the Roman Catholic Church Pope Achillas of Alexandria was the eighteenth Pope of Alexandria (head of the church that became the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Church of Alexandria Pope Alexander of Alexandria (died April 17, 326) was the nineteenth Pope of Alexandria from 313 to his death Paul I or Paulus I or Saint Paul the Confessor (died c350 sixth Bishop of Constantinople, elected AD 336 or 340 A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Arius ( AD ca 250 or 256 - 336 was a Christian priest from Alexandria Egypt in the early fourth century whose teachings now called Arianism AD 250-336), who lived and taught in Alexandria, Egypt, in the early 4th century. Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century The most controversial of his teachings, considered contrary to the Nicene creed and heretical by the Council of Nicaea, dealt with the relationship between God the Father and the person of Jesus, saying that Jesus was not one with the father, and that he was not fully, although almost, divine in nature. The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of In many religions the supreme Deity ( God) is given the title and attributions of Father. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) This teaching of Arius conflicted with trinitarian christological positions which were held by the Church (and subsequently maintained by the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches and most Protestant Churches). SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation.
The term Arianism is also used to refer to other nontrinitarian theological systems of the fourth century, which regarded the Son of God, the Logos, as a created being (as in Arianism proper and Anomoeanism) or as neither uncreated nor created in the sense other beings are created (as in "Semi-Arianism"). Nontrinitarianism includes all Christian belief systems that reject as non-scriptural wholly or partly the doctrine of the Trinity; the Doctrine grc-Latn Logos (ˈloʊːgɒs ( Greek, logos) is an important term in Philosophy, Analytical psychology, Rhetoric and Religion In 4th century Christianity, the Anomœans, also known as Anomeans, Heterousians, Aetians, or Eunomians, were a Sect
Arius taught that God the Father and the Son did not exist together eternally. The Arian controversy describes several controversies which divided the Christian church from before the Council of Nicaea in 325 to after the Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus including his divinity humanity and earthly life Further, Arius taught that the pre-incarnate Jesus was a divine being created by (and possibly inferior to) the Father at some point, before which the Son did not exist. The Incarnation is the belief in Christianity that Jesus Christ is the God of Israel in the flesh In English-language works, it is sometimes said that Arians believe that Jesus is or was a "creature"; in this context, the word is being used in its original sense of "created being. "
Of all the various disagreements within the Christian Church, the Arian controversy has held the greatest force and power of theological and political conflict, with the possible exception of the Protestant Reformation. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The conflict between Arianism and Trinitarian beliefs was the first major doctrinal confrontation in the Church after the legalization of Christianity by the Roman Emperor Constantine I. SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine
The controversy over Arianism began to rise in the late third century and extended over the greater part of the fourth century and involved most church members, simple believers, priests and monks as well as bishops, emperors and members of Rome's imperial family. Yet, such a deep controversy within the Church could not have materialized in the third and fourth centuries without some significant historical influences providing the basis for the Arian doctrines. Most orthodox or mainstream Christian historians define and minimize the Arian conflict as the exclusive construct of Arius and a handful of rogue bishops engaging in heresy. The word orthodox, from Greek orthodoxos "having the right opinion" from orthos ("right true straight" + doxa ("opinion Mainstream is generally the common current of Thought of the Majority. Heresy, as a blanket term describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox Of the roughly three hundred bishops in attendance at the Council of Nicea, only three bishops did not sign the Nicene Creed. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of
After the dispute over Arius politicized the debate and a catholic or general solution to the debate was sought, with a great majority holding to the trinitarian position, the Arian position was declared officially to be heterodox. Heterodoxy includes "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position" There is some irony in that the Roman Catholic Church canonized Lucian of Antioch as a brilliant and talented early Christian leader and martyr, although Lucian taught a very similar form of what would later be called Arianism. A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity Saint Lucian of Antioch (c 240&ndash January 7, 312) was an early and extremely influential theologian and teacher of Christianity, particularly The term martyr ( Greek μάρτυς martys "witness" is most commonly used today to describe an individual who sacrifices their life (or personal freedom Arius was a student of Lucian's private academy in Antioch. The School of Antioch was one of the two major centers of the study of biblical Exegesis and Theology; the other was the Catechetical school of Alexandria The Ebionites, among other early Christian groups, also may have maintained similar doctrines that can be associated with formal Lucian and Arian Christology. The Ebionites ( Greek: grc Ἐβιωναῖοι Ebionaioi from Hebrew; he '''אביונים''' he-Latn ''Ebyonim'' "the Poor Ones" were an
While Arianism continued to dominate for several decades even within the family of the Emperor, the Imperial nobility and higher-ranking clergy, in the end it was Trinitarianism which prevailed theologically and politically in the Roman Empire at the end of the fourth century. Arianism, which had been taught by the Arian missionary Ulfilas to the Germanic tribes, was dominant for some centuries among several Germanic tribes in western Europe, especially Goths and Lombards (and significantly for the late Empire, the Vandals), but ceased to be the mainstream belief by the 8th Century AD. Wulfila is also a spider genus ( Anyphaenidae) Wulfila (meaning "little wolf" (ca The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Trinitarianism remained the dominant doctrine in all major branches of the Eastern and Western Church and within Protestantism, although there have been several anti-trinitarian movements, some of which acknowledge various similarities to classical Arianism. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation.
Because most written material on Arianism was written by its opponents, the nature of Arian teachings is difficult to define precisely today. The letter of Auxentius, a 4th century Arian bishop of Milan, regarding the missionary Ulfilas, gives the clearest picture of Arian beliefs on the nature of the Trinity: God the Father ("unbegotten"), always existing, was separate from the lesser Jesus Christ ("only-begotten"), born before time began and creator of the world. Auxentius of Durostorum and Milan aka Mercurinus was the foster-son of Ulfilas (Wulfila the "apostle to the Goths. Wulfila is also a spider genus ( Anyphaenidae) Wulfila (meaning "little wolf" (ca God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) The Father, working through the Son, created the Holy Spirit, who was subservient to the Son as the Son was to the Father. The Father was seen as "the only true God. " 1 Corinthians 8:5-6 was cited as proof text:
A letter from Arius to the Arian Eusebius of Nicomedia succinctly states the core beliefs of the Arians:
In 321, Arius was denounced by a synod at Alexandria for teaching a heterodox view of the relationship of Jesus to God the Father. Events By Topic Roman Empire March 7 — Edict of Constantine I: The dies Solis Invicti (Sunday is proclaimed as A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church convened to decide an issue of doctrine administration or application Because Arius and his followers had great influence in the schools of Alexandria—counterparts to modern universities or seminaries—their theological views spread, especially in the eastern Mediterranean.
By 325, the controversy had become significant enough that the Emperor Constantine called an assembly of bishops, the First Council of Nicaea, which condemned Arius' doctrine and formulated the Original Nicene Creed , forms of which are still recited in Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and some Protestant services. Events By Place Roman Empire Gladiatorial combat is outlawed in the Roman Empire Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus (27 February ca. 272 &ndash 22 May 337 commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or Saint Constantine The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Nicene Creed's central term, used to describe the relationship between the Father and the Son, is Homoousios, or Consubstantiality, meaning "of the same substance" or "of one being". Ousia () is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of ( to be) it is analogous to the English participle Consubstantiality is a term used in Latin Christian Christology, coined by Tertullian in Against Hermogenes 44 used to translate (The Athanasian Creed is less often used but is a more overtly anti-Arian statement on the Trinity. The Athanasian Creed ( Quicumque vult) is a statement of Christian Trinitarian doctrine and Christology which has been used in )
The focus of the Council of Nicaea was the divinity of Christ (see Paul of Samosata and the Synods of Antioch). Paul of Samosata (lived from 200 to 275 AD was Bishop of Antioch from 260 to 268 Beginning with three Synods convened between 264 and 269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were held in Arius taught that Jesus Christ was divine and was sent to earth for the salvation of mankind but that Jesus Christ was not equal to the Father (infinite, primordial origin) and to the Holy Spirit (giver of life). Under Arianism, Christ was instead not consubstantial with God the Father. Consubstantiality is a term used in Latin Christian Christology, coined by Tertullian in Against Hermogenes 44 used to translate  Since both the Father and the Son under Arius were made of "like" essence or being (see homoiousia) but not of the same essence or being (see homoousia). Homoiousia is the Christian theological doctrine that Jesus the Son and God the Father are of similar ( homoio- or homeo- but not the same substance Ousia () is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of ( to be) it is analogous to the English participle  Ousia is essence or being, in Eastern Christianity, and is the aspect of God that is completely incomprehensible to mankind and human perception. Ousia () is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of ( to be) it is analogous to the English participle It is all that subsists by itself and which has not its being in another.  God the Father and God the Son and God the Holy Spirit all being uncreated.  According to the teaching of Arius, the preexistent Logos and thus the incarnate Jesus Christ was a created being, of a distinct, though similar, essence or substance to the Creator; his opponents argued that this would make Jesus less than God, and that this was heretical.  Much of the distinction between the differing factions was over the phrasing that Christ expressed in the New Testament to express submission to God the Father.  The theological term for this submission is kenosis. Kenosis is a Greek word for Emptiness, which is used as a theological term  This Ecumenical council declared that Jesus Christ was a distinct being of God in existence or reality (hypostasis), which the Latin fathers translated as persona. Jesus was God in essence, being and or nature (ousia), which the Latin fathers translated as substantia. Ousia () is the Ancient Greek noun formed on the feminine present participle of ( to be) it is analogous to the English participle
Constantine exiled those who refused to accept the Nicean creed—Arius himself, the deacon Euzoios, and the Libyan bishops Theonas of Marmarica and Secundus of Ptolemais—and also the bishops who signed the creed but refused to join in condemnation of Arius, Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognis of Nicaea. Secundus of Ptolemais was a 4th century bishop Excommunicated after the First Council of Nicaea for his Nontrinitarianism. Theognis of Nicaea was a 4th century bishop Excommunicated after the First Council of Nicaea for not denouncing Arius and his Nontrinitarianism The Emperor also ordered all copies of the Thalia, the book in which Arius had expressed his teachings, to be burned. Book burning (a category of biblioclasm or book destruction is the practice of destroying often ceremoniously, one or more copies of a book or other written material
Although he was committed to maintaining what the church had defined at Nicaea, Constantine was also bent on pacifying the situation and eventually became more lenient toward those condemned and exiled at the council. First he allowed Eusebius of Nicomedia, who was a protégé of his sister, and Theognis to return once they had signed an ambiguous statement of faith. The two, and other friends of Arius, worked for Arius' rehabilitation. At the First Synod of Tyre in AD 335, they brought accusations against Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, the primary opponent of Arius; after this, Constantine had Athanasius banished, since he considered him an impediment to reconciliation. The First Synod of Tyre (335 ce was a gathering of bishops called together by Emperor Constantine I for the primary purpose of evaluating charges brought against Events By Place Roman Empire 19 September — Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar. In the same year, the Synod of Jerusalem under Constantine's direction readmitted Arius to communion in AD 336. Arius ( AD ca 250 or 256 - 336 was a Christian priest from Alexandria Egypt in the early fourth century whose teachings now called Arianism This article is about the year 336. Events By Place Roman Empire The military successes of Emperor Constantine I Arius, however, died on the way to this event in Constantinople. Arius ( AD ca 250 or 256 - 336 was a Christian priest from Alexandria Egypt in the early fourth century whose teachings now called Arianism Several scholarly studies suggest that Arius was poisoned by his opponents.  Eusebius and Theognis remained in the Emperor's favour, and when Constantine, who had been a catechumen much of his adult life, accepted baptism on his deathbed, it was from Eusebius of Nicomedia. In Ecclesiology, a catechumen (ˌkætəˈkjuːmən from Latin catechumenus, Greek κατηχουμενος, instructed is one receiving instruction In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted
The Council of Nicaea did not end the controversy, as many bishops of the Eastern provinces disputed the homoousios, the central term of the Nicene creed, as it had been used by Paul of Samosata, who had advocated a monarchianist Christology. Homoousian (from the Greek όμοιοs meaning same and ουσία meaning essence or being is a technical theological term used in discussion of the Paul of Samosata (lived from 200 to 275 AD was Bishop of Antioch from 260 to 268 Monarchianism or Monarchism is a set of beliefs that emphasize God as being one person and the only ruler of his kingdom. Christology (from Christ and Greek grc -λογία -logia) is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with Both the man and his teaching, including the term homoousios, had been condemned by the Synods of Antioch in 269. Beginning with three Synods convened between 264 and 269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were held in Events By Place Roman Empire Claudius II repels a Gothic invasion of the Balkans at Naissus, and settles
Hence, after Constantine's death in 337, open dispute resumed again. Events By Place Roman Empire September 9 — Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their Constantine's son Constantius II, who had become Emperor of the eastern part of the Empire, actually encouraged the Arians and set out to reverse the Nicene creed. Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II ( 7 August, 317 - November 3, 361) was a Roman Emperor His advisor in these affairs was Eusebius of Nicomedia, who had already at the Council of Nicea been the head of the Arian party, who also was made bishop of Constantinople.
Constantius used his power to exile bishops adhering to the Nicene creed, especially Athanasius of Alexandria, who fled to Rome. In 355 Constantius became the sole Emperor and extended his pro-Arian policy toward the western provinces, frequently using force to push through his creed, even exiling Pope Liberius and installing Antipope Felix II. Events By Place Roman Empire August 11 — Claudius Silvanus, accused of treason proclaims himself Roman Emperor. Pope Antipope Felix II was installed as Pope in 355 after the Emperor Constantius II banished the reigning Pope Liberius, for refusing to subscribe the sentence
As debates raged in an attempt to come up with a new formula, three camps evolved among the opponents of the Nicene creed. The first group mainly opposed the Nicene terminology and preferred the term homoiousios (alike in substance) to the Nicene homoousios, while they rejected Arius and his teaching and accepted the equality and coeternality of the persons of the Trinity. Because of this centrist position, and despite their rejection of Arius, they were called "semi-Arians" by their opponents. The second group also avoided invoking the name of Arius, but in large part followed Arius' teachings and, in another attempted compromise wording, described the Son as being like (homoios) the Father. The Acacians, also known as the Homoeans, were an Arian Sect which first emerged into distinctness as an Ecclesiastical party some time before A third group explicitly called upon Arius and described the Son as unlike (anhomoios) the Father. In 4th century Christianity, the Anomœans, also known as Anomeans, Heterousians, Aetians, or Eunomians, were a Sect Constantius wavered in his support between the first and the second party, while harshly persecuting the third.
The debates between these groups resulted in numerous synods, among them the Council of Sardica in 343, the Council of Sirmium in 358 and the double Council of Rimini and Seleucia in 359, and no less than fourteen further creed formulas between 340 and 360, leading the pagan observer Ammianus Marcellinus to comment sarcastically: "The highways were covered with galloping bishops. The Council of Sardica was one of the series of councils (or Synods called to adjust the doctrinal and other difficulties of the Arian controversy, held most probably Events By Place Roman Empire Emperor Constans travels to Britain, possibly for a military expedition against pirates The Council of Sirmium is the name primarily given to the third Council of Sirmium which marked a temporary compromise between Arianism and the Western bishops of the Christian Events By Place Roman Empire An earthquake strikes Nicaea. The Franks capitulate to Julian in Belgium Council of Seleucia|First Council of Constantinople (360 The Council of Rimini (also called the Council of Ariminum) was an early Christian church Synod Events By Place Roman Empire Battle of Amida: Shapur II of Persia conquers Amida from the Romans. " None of these attempts were acceptable to the defenders of Nicene orthodoxy: writing about the latter councils, Saint Jerome remarked that the world "awoke with a groan to find itself Arian. Jerome (c 347 – September 30, 420) ( Latin: Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος "
After Constantius' death in 361, his successor Julian, a devotee of Rome's pagan gods, declared that he would no longer attempt to favor one church faction over another, and allowed all exiled bishops to return; this had the objective of further increasing dissension among Christians. Events By Place Roman Empire Julian the Apostate becomes Roman Emperor, and tries to restore paganism in the empire Flavius Claudius Julianus, known also as Julian or Julian the Apostate (331 or 332 to 26 June 363) was Roman Emperor (Caesar Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world The Emperor Valens, however, revived Constantius' policy and supported the "Homoian" party, exiling bishops and often using force. This article is about the Roman Emperor For other people called Valens see Valens Flavius Julius Valens ( Latin: DOMINVS During this persecution many bishops were exiled to the other ends of the Empire, (e. g. , Hilarius of Poitiers to the Eastern provinces). Hilarius or Saint Hilary (ca 300 – 368 was Bishop of Poitiers ('Pictavium' and considered an eminent doctor of the Western Christian These contacts and the common plight subsequently led to a rapprochement between the Western supporters of the Nicene creed and the homoousios and the Eastern semi-Arians.
It was not until the co-reigns of Gratian and Theodosius that Arianism was effectively wiped out among the ruling class and elite of the Eastern Empire. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ Theodosius' wife St Flacilla was instrumental in his campaign to end Arianism. Galla (died 394 was a Princess of the Western Roman Empire and an Empress of the Roman Empire. Valens died in the Battle of Adrianople in 378 and was succeeded by Theodosius I, who adhered to the Nicene creed. The second Battle of Adrianople ( August 9 378) sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the Edirne (anc Hadrianopolis; Greek Adrianople; Slavic/Bulgarian Одрин, see also its other names) is a city in Thrace, the westernmost Events By Place Roman Empire Mid- February - The Lentienses cross the frozen Rhine invading the Roman Empire. Flavius Theodosius (January 11 347 – January 17 395 also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great ( Greek: Θεοδόσιος Α΄ This allowed for settling the dispute.
Two days after Theodosius arrived in Constantinople, November 24, 380, he expelled the Homoian bishop, Demophilus of Constantinople, and surrendered the churches of that city to Gregory Nazianzus, the leader of the rather small Nicene community there, an act which provoked rioting. Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Events By Place Roman Empire January / February – Emperor Theodosius I is baptized. Demophilus (died 386 was Bishop of Berea and bishop of Constantinople from 370 until expelled in 380 Gregory of Nazianzus (329 – January 25 389) (also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen) was a 4th-century Archbishop Theodosius had just been baptized, by bishop Acholius of Thessalonica, during a severe illness, as was common in the early Christian world. In February he and Gratian published an edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the bishops of Rome and Alexandria (i. For other figures with this name see Gratian (disambiguation. e. , the Nicene faith), or be handed over for punishment for not doing so.
Although much of the church hierarchy in the East had opposed the Nicene creed in the decades leading up to Theodosius' accession, he managed to achieve unity on the basis of the Nicene creed. In 381, at the Second Ecumenical Council in Constantinople, a group of mainly Eastern bishops assembled and accepted the Nicene Creed of 381, which was supplemented in regard to the Holy Spirit, as well as some other changes, see Comparison between Creed of 325 and Creed of 381. Events By Place Roman Empire A deputation from the Roman Senate delivers to Gratianus the robe of the Pontifex Maximus The Second Ecumenical Council the first held in Constantinople was called by Theodosius I in 381 which confirmed the Nicene Creed and dealt with other matters such The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is one of the three entities of the Holy Trinity which make up the single substance The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of This is generally considered the end of the dispute about the Trinity and the end of Arianism among the Roman, non-Germanic peoples.
However, much of southeastern Europe and central Europe, including many of the Goths and Vandals respectively, had embraced Arianism (the Visigoths converted to Arian Christianity in 376), which led to Arianism being a religious factor in various wars in the Roman Empire. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s  In the west, organized Arianism survived in North Africa, in Hispania, and parts of Italy until it was finally suppressed in the 6th and 7th centuries.
However, during the time of Arianism's flowering in Constantinople, the Gothic convert Ulfilas (later the subject of the letter of Auxentius cited above) was sent as a missionary to the Gothic barbarians across the Danube, a mission favored for political reasons by emperor Constantius II. Gothic Christianity refers to the Christian religion of the Goths and sometimes the Gepids, Vandals, and Burgundians, who may The Germanic peoples underwent gradual Christianization in the course of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Wulfila is also a spider genus ( Anyphaenidae) Wulfila (meaning "little wolf" (ca The Danube (In Donau from earlier Danuvius, Celtic *dānu, meaning "to flow run" Slovak and Polish Dunaj Ulfilas' initial success in converting this Germanic people to an Arian form of Christianity was strengthened by later events. When the Germanic peoples entered the Roman Empire and founded successor-kingdoms in the western part, most had been Arian Christians for more than a century. The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial
The conflict in the 4th century had seen Arian and Nicene factions struggling for control of the Church. The Arian Baptistry in Ravenna, Italy was erected by Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great between the end of the 5th century and the beginning In contrast, in the Arian German kingdoms established on the wreckage of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, there were entirely separate Arian and Nicene Churches with parallel hierarchies, each serving different sets of believers. The Germanic elites were Arians, and the majority population Nicene. Many scholars see the persistence of the Germanic Arianism as a strategy to differentiate the Germanic elite from the local inhabitants and culture and to maintain their group identity.
Most Germanic tribes were generally tolerant of the Nicene beliefs of their subjects. However, the Vandals tried for several decades to force their Arian belief on their North African Nicene subjects, exiling Nicene clergy, dissolving monasteries, and exercising heavy pressure on non-conforming Christians.
By the beginning of the 8th century, these kingdoms had either been conquered by Nicene neighbors (Ostrogoths, Vandals, Burgundians) or their rulers had accepted Nicene Christianity (Visigoths, Lombards). The 8th century is the period from 701 to 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.
The Franks were unique among the Germanic peoples in that they entered the empire as pagans and converted to Nicene Christianity directly, guided by their king Clovis. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group Clovis I (c 466 &ndash 27 November 511) was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler
In many ways, the conflict around Arian beliefs in the fourth, fifth and sixth centuries helped firmly define the centrality of the Trinity in Nicene Christian theology. As the first major intra-Christian conflict after Christianity's legalization, the struggle between Nicenes and Arians left a deep impression on the institutional memory of Nicene churches.
Thus, over the past 1,500 years, some Christians have used the term Arian to refer to those groups that see themselves as worshiping Jesus Christ or respecting his teachings, but do not hold to the Nicene creed. The Nicene Creed (ˈnaɪsiːn is an ecumenical Christian statement of faith accepted in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Assyrian Church of Despite the frequency with which this name is used as a polemical label, there has been no historically continuous survival of Arianism into the modern era.
There have been religious movements holding beliefs that either they, or their opponents, have considered Arian. To quote the Encyclopaedia Britannica's article on Arianism: "In modern times some Unitarians are virtually Arians in that they are unwilling either to reduce Christ to a mere human being or to attribute to him a divine nature identical with that of the Father. " However, their doctrines cannot be considered representative of traditional Arian doctrines or vice-versa.