|Arctic National Wildlife Refuge|
|IUCN Category IV (Habitat/Species Management Area)|
|Nearest city||Kaktovik, Alaska|
|Area||19,049,236 acres (79,318 km²)|
|Governing body||U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service|
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is a National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Alaska. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Kaktovik is a city in North Slope Borough, Alaska, USA. As of the 2000 census, the population of the city is 293 Year 1960 ( MCMLX) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. National Wildlife Refuge is a designation for certain Protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent It consists of 19,049,236 acres (79,318 km²) in the Alaska North Slope region. The Alaska North Slope is the region of the US state of Alaska located on the northern slope of the Brooks Range along the coast of two marginal seas
The move to protect this corner of Alaska began in the early 1950s. National Park Service planner George Collins and biologist Lowell Sumner recruited Wilderness Society President Olaus Murie and his wife Margaret Murie into an effort to permanently protect the area. George Collins may refer to George Collins (footballer, English football (soccer manager from 1919 to 1936 George W Founding The society was incorporated on January 21, 1935 The eight founders were Bob Marshall, chief of recreation and lands for the Forest Service Aldo Olaus Murie ( March 1, 1889 &ndash October 21, 1963) called the "father of modern elk management" was a naturalist author and wildlife Margaret Thomas "Mardy" Murie (1902-2003 called the "Grandmother of the Conservation Movement" by the Sierra Club and the Wilderness Society was a naturalist author They were joined by thousands of the era's prominent conservationists.
The region first became a federal protected area in 1960 by order of Fred Andrew Seaton, Secretary of the Interior under U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The Protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal state tribal and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels Frederick Andrew Seaton ( December 11, 1909 – January 16, 1974) was United States Secretary of the Interior during Dwight Eisenhower The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general In 1980, Congress passed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (or ANILCA) was a United States federal law passed in 1980 by the U
Eight million acres (32,375 km²) of the refuge are designated as Wilderness Area. The US National Wilderness Preservation System protects federally managed land areas that are of a pristine condition The 1980 expansion of the refuge designated 1. 5 million acres (6,070 km²) of the coastal plain as the 1002 area and mandated studies of the natural resources of this area, especially petroleum. Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified ( natural) form Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum Geologists for Hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface Congressional authorization is required before oil drilling may proceed in this area. West Texas PumpjackJPG|thumb|right|300px|This Pumpjack located south of Midland TX is a common sight in West Texas. The remaining 10. 1 million acres (40,873 km²) of the refuge are designated as "Minimal Management," a category intended to maintain existing natural conditions and resource values. These areas are suitable for wilderness designation, although there are presently no proposals to designate them as wilderness.
There are presently no roads within or leading into the refuge, though there are settlements there. On the northern edge of the refuge is the Inupiat village of Kaktovik and on the southern boundary the Gwich'in settlement of Arctic Village. The Inupiat or Iñupiaq (from inuit- people - and piaq/t real i Kaktovik is a city in North Slope Borough, Alaska, USA. As of the 2000 census, the population of the city is 293 The Gwich'in (sometimes rendered as Kutchin or Gwitchin) literally "one who dwells" and "I think" are a First Nations / Alaska Arctic Village is a Census-designated place (CDP in Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska, United States. A popular wilderness route and historic passage exists between the two villages, traversing the refuge and all its ecosystems from boreal, interior forest to Arctic Ocean coast. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Generally, visitors gain access to the land by aircraft, but it is also possible to reach the refuge by boat or by walking (the Dalton Highway passes near the western edge of the refuge). The James W Dalton Highway, usually Dalton Highway ( Alaska Route 11) is a 414-mile (666 km road in Alaska. In the United States, the geographic location most remote from human trails, roads, or settlements is found here, at the headwaters of the Sheenjek River. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Sheenjek River is a 200 mile long River in the US state of Alaska.
The refuge supports a greater variety of plant and animal life than any other protected area in the Arctic Circle. The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. A continuum of six different ecozones spans some 200 miles (300 km) north to south. An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earth's surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns
Along the northern boundary of the refuge, barrier islands, coastal lagoons, salt marshes, and river deltas provide habitat for migratory waterbirds including sea ducks, geese, swans, and shorebirds. A shoal or sandbar (also called sandbank) is a somewhat Linear Landform within or extending into a body of Water, A lagoon is a body of comparatively shallow salt or Brackish water separated from the deeper Sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral A salt marsh is a type of Marsh that is a transitional intertidal between land and salty or Brackish water (e A delta is a Landform where the mouth of a River flows into an Ocean, Sea, Estuary, Lake or another river Goose (plural geese) is the English name for a considerable number of Birds belonging to the family Anatidae. Swans are Birds of the family Anatidae, which also includes geese and Ducks Swans are grouped with the closely related geese in Waders, called shorebirds in North America (where "wader" is used to refer to long-legged wading Birds such as Storks and Fish such as dolly varden and arctic cisco are found in nearshore waters. For the other subspecies see Southern Dolly Varden and Salvelinus malma miyabei. The ciscoes are Salmonid fish of the genus Coregonus that differ from other members of the genus in having upper and lower jaws of approximately equal Coastal lands and sea ice are used by caribou seeking relief from biting insects during summer, and by polar bears hunting seals and giving birth in snow dens during winter. The polar bear ( Ursus maritimus) is a Bear native to the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding seas Pinnipeds ("fin-feet" lit "winged feet" or fin-footed mammals are a widely distributed and diverse group of semi-aquatic marine Mammals comprising
The Arctic coastal plain stretches southward from the coast to the foothills of the Brooks Range. The Brooks Range is a Mountain range that stretches from west to east across northern Alaska and into Canada 's Yukon Territory, a total distance This area of rolling hills, small lakes, and north-flowing, braided rivers is dominated by tundra vegetation consisting of low shrubs, sedges, and mosses. A shrub or Bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of Woody plant, distinguished from a Tree The family Cyperaceae, or the sedges, is a taxon of monocot Flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes Mosses are small soft Plants that are typically 1–10  cm (0 Caribou travel to the coastal plain during June and July to give birth and raise their young. Migratory birds and insects flourish here during the brief Arctic summer. Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described Summer is one of the four Temperate Seasons Summer marks the warmest time of year with the longest days Tens of thousands of snow geese stop here during September to feed before migrating south, and musk oxen live here year-round. The Snow Goose ( Chen caerulescens) is a North American Species of Goose. The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus) is an Arctic Mammal of the Bovidae family noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males
South of the coastal plain, the mountains of the eastern Brooks Range rise to over 9000 feet (3,000 m). This northernmost extension of the Rocky Mountains marks the continental divide, with north-flowing rivers emptying into the Arctic Ocean and south-flowing rivers joining the great Yukon River. Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a Mountain range in western North America. The Arctic Ocean, located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The rugged mountains of the Brooks Range are incised by deep river valleys creating a range of elevations and aspects that support a variety of low tundra vegetation, dense shrubs, rare groves of poplar trees on the north side and spruce on the south. In physical Geography, tundra is an area where the Tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons Populus is a genus of between 25–35 species of Flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. Spruce refers to Trees of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of Coniferous Evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae During summer, peregrine falcons, gyrfalcons, and golden eagles build nests on cliffs. The Peregrine Falcon ( Falco peregrinus) also known simply as the Peregrine, and historically as the "Duck Hawk" in North America is a The Gyrfalcon ˈdʒɜrˌfɔlkən or ˈdʒɜrˌfælkən ( Falco rusticolus) also spelled Gyr Falcon, sometimes Gerfalcon, is the largest The Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere Harlequin ducks and red-breasted mergansers are seen on swift-flowing rivers. The Harlequin Duck, Histrionicus histrionicus, is a small sea duck. The Red-breasted Merganser ( Mergus serrator) is a diving Duck. Dall sheep and wolves are active all year, while grizzly bears and arctic ground squirrels are frequently seen during summer but hibernate in winter. The Dall Sheep (originally Dall's Sheep, sometimes called Thinhorn Sheep) Ovis dalli, is a wild sheep of the mountainous regions of northwest North The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis, also known as the Silvertip Bear, is a Subspecies of Brown bear (Ursus arctos that lives The ground squirrels are the members of the Sciuridae most closely related to the Genus Marmota.
The southern portion of the Arctic Refuge is within the taiga (boreal forest) of interior Alaska. Taiga (ˈtaɪgə from Turkic or Mongolian) is a Biome characterized by Coniferous forests Beginning as predominantly treeless tundra with scattered islands of black and white spruce trees, the forest becomes progressively denser as the foothills yield to the expansive flats north of the Yukon River. Spruce refers to Trees of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of Coniferous Evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae Frequent forest fires ignited by lightning result in a complex mosaic of birch, aspen, and spruce forests of various ages. Wetlands and south-flowing rivers create openings in the forest canopy. Neotropical migratory birds breed here in spring and summer, attracted by plentiful food and the variety of habitats. Caribou travel here from farther north to spend the winter. Year-round residents of the boreal forest include moose, lynx, marten, wolverines, black and grizzly bears, and wolves. The moose (North America or elk (Europe Alces alces, is the largest extant Species in the Deer family. A lynx is any of four medium-sized wild cats. All are members of the Genus Lynx, but there is considerable confusion about the best way to classify For the Wiltshire village see Marten Wiltshire. For the town in Bulgaria see Marten Bulgaria. The American Black Bear ( Ursus americanus) is the most common Bear Species native to North America. The Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis, also known as the Silvertip Bear, is a Subspecies of Brown bear (Ursus arctos that lives
Each year, thousands of waterfowl and other birds nest and reproduce in areas surrounding Prudhoe Bay and Kuparuk fields and a healthy and increasing caribou herd migrates through these areas to calve and seek respite from annoying pests. Oil field facilities have been located and designed to accommodate wildlife and utilize the least amount of tundra surface.
Because the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is believed to contain a large supply of crude oil, the issue of drilling for oil in the area has been a debated topic since World War II. The question of whether to drill for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR has been Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The controversy has been a political football for every U.S. President since Jimmy Carter. A political football is a political topic or issue that is continually debated but left unresolved The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002