The Arctic is the region around the Earth's North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. USS Arctic is the name of several ships of the US Navy:, was a Screw steamer built by the Philadelphia Navy Yard in 1855 The side-wheeler SS Arctic sank September 27 1854, off Cape Race, Newfoundland, after colliding with the 250 ton French iron The MV Arctic is an Icebreaker built in 1978 at the Port Weller Dry Docks located in St The article is about the geographic sense of the term For other uses including Regions and Regional, see Region (disambiguation. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is subject to the caveats explained below defined as the point in the northern The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is the southernmost point on the surface of the Earth. The Arctic includes the Arctic Ocean (which overlies the North Pole) and parts of Canada, Greenland (a territory of Denmark), Russia, the United States (Alaska), Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland. The Arctic Ocean, located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Alaska ( Аляска Alyaska) is a state in the United States of America, in the northwest of the North American continent Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation. Finland, officially the Republic of Finland ( is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of northern Europe. The word Arctic comes from the Greek word arktos (άρκτος) , which means bear. This is due to the location of the constellation (a group of stars) Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", above the Arctic region. Ursa Major ( is a Constellation visible throughout the year in most of the northern hemisphere
There are numerous definitions of the Arctic region. The boundary is generally considered to be north of the Arctic Circle (66° 33’N), which is the approximate limit of the midnight sun and the polar night. The Arctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. The midnight sun is a phenomenon occurring in Latitudes north and nearby to the south of the Arctic Circle and south and nearby to the north of the The polar night is the night lasting more than 24 hours usually inside the Polar circles The opposite phenomenon when the sun stays above the horizon for a long time is called Other definitions are based on climate and ecology, such as the 10°C (50°F) July isotherm, which roughly corresponds to the tree line in most of the Arctic. The tree line or timberline is the edge of the habitat at which Trees are capable of growing Socially and politically, the Arctic region includes the northern territories of the eight Arctic states, including Lapland, although by natural science definitions much of this territory is considered subarctic. The Province of Lapland ( Lappi in Finnish and Sami Lappland in Swedish is one of the Provinces of Finland. The Subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada and
The Arctic region consists of a vast ice-covered ocean (which is sometimes considered to be a northern arm of the Atlantic Ocean) surrounded by treeless, frozen ground. Sea ice is formed from Ocean water that freezes Because the Oceans consist of Saltwater, this occurs at about -1 An ocean (from Greek, ''Okeanos'' (Oceanus) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the Hydrosphere. This article is about the body of water For other uses see SEA and Seas. In recent years the extent of the sea ice has declined, and there is some evidence suggesting Arctic water may be ice-free in summer. Some estimates suggest an ice-free summer Arctic by 2040, or 2100 while a more recent study accompanied by unexpected increased melting in summer 2007 estimates as soon as 2013. . However according to the Norwegian International Polar Year Secretariat the Arctic polar ice cap would be completely gone by summer 2008  Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, and human societies.
The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. The cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions.
The Arctic's climate is characterized by cold winters and cool summers. The Climate of the Arctic is characterized broadly by long cold winters and short cool summers Precipitation mostly comes in the form of snow. The Arctic's annual precipitation is low, with most of the area receiving less than 50 cm (20 inches). High winds often stir up snow, creating the illusion of continuous snowfall. Average winter temperatures can be as low as -40°C (-40°F), and the coldest recorded temperature is approximately -68°C (-90°F). Coastal Arctic climates are moderated by oceanic influences, having generally warmer temperatures and heavier snowfalls than the colder and drier interior areas.
Since trees cannot grow in the Arctic climate, the vegetation is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, graminoids, herbs, lichens and mosses, which all grow relatively close to the ground, forming tundra. In the Arctic, the low Tundra vegetation clothes a landscape of wide vistas lit by the low-angle light characteristic of high latitudes In physical Geography, tundra is an area where the Tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons As one moves northward, the amount of warmth available for plant growth decreases considerably. In the northernmost areas, plants are at their metabolic limits, and small differences in the total amount of summer warmth make large differences in the amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction. Colder summer temperatures cause the size, abundance, productivity and variety of plants to decrease. In the warmest parts of the Arctic, shrubs are common and can reach 2 m (6 ft) in height; sedges, mosses and lichens can form thick layers. In the coldest parts of the Arctic, much of the ground is bare; nonvascular plants such as lichens and mosses predominate, along with a few scattered grasses and forbs (like the Arctic poppy).
Herbivores on the tundra include the Arctic hare, lemming, muskox, and caribou. The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus) is an Arctic Mammal of the Bovidae family noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males The Arctic Hare ( Lepus arcticus) is a Hare which is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats Lemmings are small Rodents usually found in or near the Arctic, in tundra Biomes Together with the Voles and Muskrats they make The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus) is an Arctic Mammal of the Bovidae family noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males They are preyed on by the Arctic fox, wolves. The Arctic Fox ( Vulpes lagopus) also known as the White Fox or Snow Fox, is a small Fox native to cold Arctic regions of the See also Gray Wolf The Arctic Wolf ( Canis lupus arctos) also called Polar Wolf or White Wolf, is a Mammal of the Canidae The polar bear is also a predator, though it prefers to hunt for marine life from the ice. The polar bear ( Ursus maritimus) is a Bear native to the Arctic Ocean and its surrounding seas There are also many birds and marine species endemic to the colder regions. Birds ( class Aves) are bipedal endothermic ( Warm-blooded) Vertebrate animals that lay eggs. In Biology, a species is one of the basic units of Biological classification and a Taxonomic rank. Other animals in the Arctic include wolverines, ermines, lemmings, arctic hares, arctic ground squirrels, seals and walrus'. Lemmings are small Rodents usually found in or near the Arctic, in tundra Biomes Together with the Voles and Muskrats they make The Arctic Hare ( Lepus arcticus) is a Hare which is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats The Arctic Ground Squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) ( sicsic, the Inuit term is a species of ground Squirrel native to the Arctic. The walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered Marine mammal with a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the Arctic Ocean and
The Arctic region includes sizable potential natural resources (oil, gas, minerals, forest – if the subarctic is included – and fish) to which modern technology and the opening up of Russia have given significant new opportunities. Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified ( natural) form Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The interest of the tourism industry in the cold and exotic Arctic is also on the increase. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel
The Arctic region is one of the last and most extensive continuous wilderness areas in the world, and its significance in preserving biodiversity and genotypes is considerable. Wilderness is generally defined as a Natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by Human activity Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. The genotype is the genetic constitution of a cell an organism or an individual (i The increasing presence of humans fragments vital habitats. The Arctic is particularly susceptible to the abrasion of groundcover and to the disturbance of the rare reproduction places of the animals that are characteristic to the region. Groundcover is a Plant used for the purpose of growing over an area of ground to hide it or to protect it from erosion or drought
See also Petroleum exploration in the Arctic
During the Cretaceous, the Arctic still had seasonal snows, though only a light dusting and not enough to permanently hinder plant growth. The exploration of the Arctic for Petroleum is more technically and physically challenging than for any other environment FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. The Cretaceous (kriːˈteɪʃəs, usually abbreviated 'K' for its German translation "Kreide" is a geologic period and system, reaching from the end of Animals such as Chasmosaurus, Hypacrosaurus, Troodon, and Edmontosaurus may have all migrated north to take advantage of the summer growing season, and migrated south to warmer climes when the winter came. Chasmosaurus (ˌkæzməˈsɔrəs KAZ-mo-sawr-us is a Genus of ceratopsid Dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Period Hypacrosaurus (meaning "near the highest lizard" (Greek υπο- hypo- = less + ακρος akros, high because it was almost but not quite Troodon (or Troödon in older sources is a Genus of relatively small Bird -like Dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Edmontosaurus (ɛdˌmɒntəˈsɔrəs ed-MON-toh-SAWR-us meaning "Edmonton lizard" (after where it was found and Greek sauros meaning lizard A similar situation may also have been found amongst dinosaurs that lived in Antarctic regions, such as Muttaburrasaurus of Australia. Muttaburrasaurus is a genus of Herbivorous Ornithopod Dinosaur related to Camptosaurus and Iguanodon
The Inuit are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule culture, a nomadic people who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 CE and spread eastwards across the Arctic, displacing the related Dorset culture (in Inuktitut, the Tuniit). See also Indigenous peoples This is a selected list of the world's indigenous peoples. The Circumpolar religion is (or was shared by all Circumpolar peoples and is essentially a social structure based on three factors a religion inherited and maintained from pre- Including the Russian Far East, the population of Siberia numbers just above 40 million people Inuit (plural the singular Inuk, means "man" or "person" is a general term for a group of culturally similar Indigenous peoples inhabiting Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of The Thule (ˈtuːli or proto-Inuit were the ancestors of all modern Canadian Inuit. The Dorset culture (also called the Dorset Tradition were a Paleo-Eskimo culture that preceded the Inuit culture in Arctic North America. Inuit legends speak of the Tuniit as "giants", people who were taller and stronger than the Inuit, but who were easily scared off and retreated from the advancing Inuit. Researchers believe that the Dorset culture lacked dogs, boats and other technologies that gave the expanding Inuit society a large advantage over them. By 1300, the Inuit had settled west Greenland, and finally moved into east Greenland over the following century.
The Tuniit survived in Aivilik, Southampton and Coats Islands, until the beginning of the 20th century. The Aivilingmiut (or Aivilik) are an Inuit people who traditionally have resided north of Hudson Bay in Canada, near Naujaat (Repulse One of the larger members of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Southampton Island is a large island at the entrance to Hudson Bay, Canada. Coats Island ( Inuktitut: Akpatordjuark lies at the northern end of Hudson Bay in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut. They were known as Sadlermiut (Sallirmiut in the modern spelling). Their population had been ravaged by diseases brought by contact with Europeans, and the last of them fell in a flu epidemic caught from a passing whaler in 1902. The area has since been resettled by Inuit. Genetic research suggests that there was little or no intermarriage between the Tuniit and the Inuit over the thousand years of contact in the Canadian Arctic. Northern Canada is the vast Northernmost Region of Canada variously defined by Geography and Politics.
The Arctic region is a focus of international political interest. International Arctic cooperation got underway on a broad scale well over ten years ago. The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), hundreds of scientists and specialists of the Arctic Council, the Barents Council and its regional cooperation have compiled high quality information on the Arctic. The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum which addresses issues faced by the Arctic governments and the indigenous people of the Arctic
No country owns the North Pole or the region of the Arctic Ocean surrounding it. Under international law no country currently owns the North Pole or the region of the Arctic Ocean surrounding it The Arctic Ocean, located in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major The surrounding Arctic states, the United States, Canada, Russia, Norway and Denmark (via Greenland), are limited to a 370 kilometre (200 nautical mile) economic zone around their coasts. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional The Kingdom of Denmark ( ˈd̥ænmɑɡ̊ (archaic ˈd̥anmɑːɡ̊ commonly known as Denmark, is a country in the Scandinavian region of northern Europe Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the
Upon ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a country has ten years to make claims to extend its 200 mile zone. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ( UNCLOS) also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty is the international agreement that resulted Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone ( EEZ) is a seazone over which a State has special rights over the exploration and use of marine  Due to this, Norway (ratified the convention in 1996), Russia (ratified in 1997), Canada (ratified in 2003) and Denmark (ratified in 2004) launched projects to establish claims that certain Arctic sectors should belong to their territories.
On August 2, 2007, two Russian bathyscaphes, MIR-1 and MIR-2, for the first time in history descended to the Arctic seabed beneath the North Pole and placed there a Russian flag made of rust-proof titanium alloy. Events 338 BC - A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. A bathyscape, bathyscaphe, or bathyscaph is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea Diving Submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar MIR (Russian "Мир" is a self-propelled Deep Submergence Vehicle. "Ocean Floor" redirects here For the 2001 song by Audio Adrenaline, see Lift (Audio Adrenaline album. The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is subject to the caveats explained below defined as the point in the northern Titanium alloys are Metallic Materials which contain a mixture of Titanium and other Chemical elements Such alloys have very high Tensile The mission was a scientific expedition, but the flag-placing raised concerns of a race for control of the Arctic's vast petroleum resources(See 2007 Russian North Pole expedition)
Foreign Ministers and other officials representing Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia, and the United States met in Ilulissat, Greenland on May 28, 2008 at the Arctic Ocean Conference and announced the Ilulissat Declaration. Arktika 2007 (Российская полярная экспедиция "Арктика-2007" was a 2007 expedition in which Russia performed the first ever crewed Ilulissat (Jakobshavn is the third largest settlement in Greenland with a population of 4453 and also the seat of the municipality of Ilulissat (Ilulissat Kommuniat Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The inaugural Arctic Ocean Conference was held in Ilulissat, Greenland May 27 — May 29 2008. The Ilulissat Declaration was announced on May 28 2008 by five Arctic Circumpolar nations meeting at the political level during the Arctic 
Some countries claim the Arctic has never been under the political control of any nation, although some nations' militaries have attached a strategic importance to the region. Canada has an outpost in the region (Alert) and has long laid claim to much of the Arctic. Alert, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut Canada, is the northernmost permanently inhabited place in the world Several recent excursions by the Canadian navy have taken place, with more planned to underline Canadian sovereignty in the region. On July 9th, 2007, Canada's prime minister Stephen Harper announced that Canada will build up to eight armed patrol ships with helicopter pads and a deep water port at a location yet to be disclosed to reassert Canada's sovereignty over Arctic territories. WikipediaManual of Style (biographies#Honorific prefixes --> Stephen Joseph Harper PC Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page 
In the 1950s and 1960s, the Arctic was often used by submarines to test new weapons, sonar equipment, and depth capability. A submarine is a Watercraft that can operate independently below water as distinct from a Submersible that has only limited underwater capability During the Cold War, the Arctic region was extensively monitored by the United States military and NATO, since it was believed that the first warnings of a nuclear strike from the Soviet Union would have been indicated by ICBMs launched over the North Pole towards the United States. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States placed such importance on the region that two military decorations, the Arctic Service Ribbon and Coast Guard Arctic Service Medal, were established for military duty performed within the Arctic Circle. The Arctic Service Ribbon is a decoration of the United States Navy which was established in May 1986. The Coast Guard Arctic Service Medal was established in 1976 by Admiral Owen W
In 2006, Envisat and EOS Aqua revealed a polar route connecting Spitsbergen and Siberia. Envisat (Environmental Satellite is an Earth-observing satellite built by the European Space Agency. Spitsbergen (formerly known as West Spitsbergen, and sometimes misspelled Spitzbergen) is a Norwegian island the largest Island of the Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving  Increased Russian activity has also been detected, though this can be attributed to the Chelyuskin icebreaker wreck expeditionary force. An icebreaker is a special purpose Ship or Boat designed to move and navigate through Ice -covered waters 
Since 1937 the whole Arctic region was extensively explored by the Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations. Soviet and Russian manned drifting ice stations are important contributors to exploration of the Arctic. Scientific settlements that were established on the drift ice were carried thousands of kilometers by the ice flow. Drift ice is Sea ice that floats on the surface of the water in cold regions as opposed to Fast ice, which is attached ("fastened" to a shore 
The Arctic is comparatively clean, although there are certain ecologically difficult localized pollution problems that present a serious threat to people’s health living around these pollution sources. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in Due to the prevailing worldwide sea and air currents, the Arctic area is the fallout region for long-range transport pollutants, and in some places the concentrations exceed the levels of densely populated urban areas. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability disorder harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms they are in An example of this is the phenomenon of Arctic haze, which is commonly blamed on long-range pollutants. Arctic haze is the Phenomenon of a visible reddish-brown Haze in the Atmosphere at high Latitudes in the Arctic due to Air Another example is with the bioaccumulation of PCB's [polychlorinated biphenyls] in Arctic wildlife.
The Arctic is especially vulnerable to the effects of global warming as has become apparent in the melting sea ice in recent years. Arctic shrinkage is the marked decrease in Arctic sea ice and the observed melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet in recent years Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Sea ice is formed from Ocean water that freezes Because the Oceans consist of Saltwater, this occurs at about -1 Climate models predict much greater warming in the Arctic than global average.  This fact has garnered significant international attention to the region. In particular, there are concerns that Arctic shrinkage, a consequence of melting glaciers and other ice in Greenland, could soon contribute to a substantial rise in sea levels worldwide. Arctic shrinkage is the marked decrease in Arctic sea ice and the observed melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet in recent years Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the  A recent study by a research group at Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California working with members of NASA and the Institute of Oceanology at the Polish Academy of Sciences estimate that the Arctic sea could be ice-free in the summer as soon as 2013. The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS is a research university at the graduate-school level operated by the United States Navy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA, ˈnæsə is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nation's public space program The Polish Academy of Sciences, headquartered in Warsaw, is one of two Polish institutions having the nature of an Academy of sciences.  The Arctic sea ice melted at an unprecedented rate, well ahead of models, in 2007. See also: Polar ice packs. Polar ice packs are large areas of Pack ice formed from Seawater in the Earth 's Polar regions known as Polar ice caps the Arctic
Apart from concerns regarding the detrimental effects of cooling in the Arctic, some potential opportunities have gained attention as well. The melting of the ice is making the so-called northwest passage, the shipping routes through the northern-most latitudes, more navigable, raising the possibility that the Arctic region will become a prime trade route. The Northwest Passage is a sea route through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways amidst the Canadian Arctic Archipelago  In addition it is believed that the Arctic seabed may contain substantial oil fields which may become accessible if the ice covering them melts. An oil field is a region with an abundance of Oil wells extracting Petroleum (crude oil from below ground  These factors have led to recent international debates as to which nations can claim sovereignty or ownership over the waters of the Arctic.  but according to the Norwegian International Polar Year Secretariat the Arctic polar ice cap would be completely gone by summer 2008
NOAA's Arctic Report Card  presents peer-reviewed information on recent observations of environmental conditions in the Arctic relative to historical time series records. Collectively, atmosphere, sea ice, biology, ocean, Greenland ice sheet and land parameters indicate that the overall warming of the Arctic system continued in 2007. There are some elements that are stabilizing or returning to climatological norms. These mixed tendencies illustrate the sensitivity and complexity of the Arctic System.