Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαιολογία - archaiologia, from αρχαίος - archaios, "primal, ancient, old" and λόγος - logos, "study") is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis and interpretation of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, features, biofacts, and landscapes. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Theatre (or theater, see spelling differences) is the branch of the Performing arts defined by Bernard Beckerman as what "occurs when one Alexandria ( Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه Eskendereyya; Standard Arabic: ar الإسكندرية Al-Iskandariyya; Ἀλεξάνδρεια This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding Homo is the Genus that includes modern humans and their close relatives Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation In Archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological Cultural Landscapes have been defined by the World Heritage Committee as distinct geographical areas or properties uniquely " Because archaeology's aim is to understand mankind, it is a humanistic endeavor.
The goals of archaeology vary, and there is debate as to what its aims and responsibilities are. Some goals include the documentation and explanation of the origins and development of human cultures, understanding culture history, chronicling cultural evolution, and studying human behavior and ecology, for both prehistoric and historic societies. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic Culture-historical archaeology or simply Culture history is a form of archaeological theory Sociocultural evolution(ism is an umbrella term for theories of cultural evolution and Social evolution, describing how Cultures and societies Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or Reactions of an object or Organism, usually Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of Stone Age Paleolithic See also Paleolithic, Recent African Origin, Early Homo sapiens, Early human migrations "Paleolithic" History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Archaeologists are also concerned with the study of methods used in the discipline, and the theoretical and philosophical underpinnings underlying the questions archaeologists ask of the past. Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos The tasks of surveying areas in order to find new sites, excavating sites in order to recover cultural remains, classification, analysis, and preservation are all important phases of the archaeological process. These are all important sources of information. Given the broad scope of the discipline there is a great deal of cross-disciplinary research in archaeology. It draws upon anthropology, history, art history, classics, ethnology, geography, geology, physics, information sciences, chemistry, statistics, paleoecology, paleontology, paleozoology, paleoethnobotany, paleobotany . Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Art history is the Academic study of objects of Art in their Historical development and stylistic contexts i "Classical literature" redirects here For literature in Classical languages outside the Graeco-Roman sphere see Ancient literature. Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "habit custom convention" is the branch of Anthropology that compares and Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία - geografia) is the study of the Earth and its lands features inhabitants and phenomena Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Physics (Greek Physis - φύσις in everyday terms is the Science of Matter and its motion. Information science is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection classification, manipulation storage retrieval and dissemination Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection analysis interpretation or explanation and presentation of Data. Paleoecology uses data from Fossils and subfossils to reconstruct the Ecosystems of the past Palaeontology redirects here For the Scientific journal, see Palaeontology (journal. Paleozoology, also spelled as palaeozoology ( Greek: παλαιον paleon = old and ζωον zoon = animal is the branch of Paleontology Paleoethnobotany, also known as archaeobotany in European (particularly British academic circles is the archaeological sub-field that studies Plant remains from Paleobotany, also spelled as palaeobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and " Botany " study of plants is the branch of
In parts of Europe and the Old World, the discipline has its roots in antiquarianism and the study of Latin and Ancient Greek, and so has a natural affinity with the field of history. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans Asians and Africans in the 15th century An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with Antiquities or things of the past Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage in the development of the Hellenic language family spanning the Archaic (c History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology
Archaeology in ancient China developed from antiquarian pursuits as well, specifically from the scholar-official's desires to revive the use of ancient relics in state ritual. Shen Kuo or Shen Kua ( (1031&ndash1095 style name Cunzhong and pseudonym Mengqi Weng, was a Polymathic Chinese Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the Emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance from the Sui Dynasty to This pursuit of his Chinese peers was criticized by Shen Kuo (1031–1095), who asserted that archaeology should be the pursuit of studying functionality, discovering the methods of manufacture from ancient times, and should be studied with an interdisciplinary approach. Chinese society during the Song Dynasty (AD 960–1279 was marked by political and legal reforms a philosophical revival of Confucianism, and the development of Shen Kuo or Shen Kua ( (1031&ndash1095 style name Cunzhong and pseudonym Mengqi Weng, was a Polymathic Chinese In Academia, Pedagogy, Physical sciences, Earth sciences, Human sciences and Social sciences  Yet there were others who took the discipline as seriously as Shen; the official, historian, poet, and essayist Ouyang Xiu (1007–1072) compiled an analytical catalogue of ancient rubbings on stone and bronze which pioneered ideas in early epigraphy and archaeology. Early life He was born in Mingyang, Sichuan where his father was a judge though his family comes from present day Jishui (then known as Luling Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφολογία from Greek ἐπιγραφή — "inscription" is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs engraved 
In North America archaeology is one of the four sub-fields, or branches of anthropology. Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of The other three branches are cultural anthropology, the study of living cultures and societies; linguistics, the study of language, including the origins of language and language groups; and physical anthropology, includes the study of human evolution and physical and genetic characteristics. Cultural anthropology is one of four fields of Anthropology (the holistic study of humanity) as it developed in the United States. Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields Biological anthropology, or physical anthropology is a branch of Anthropology that studies the mechanisms of biological Evolution, genetic inheritance Genetics (from Ancient Greek grc-Latn genetikos, “genitive” and that from grc-Latn genesis, “origin” a discipline of Biology, is
Often archaeology provides the only means to learn of the existence and behaviors of people of the past. Stonehenge is a Prehistoric Monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about west of Amesbury and north of Salisbury The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Across the millennia many thousands of cultures and societies and billions of people have come and gone of which there is little or no written record or existing records are misrepresentative or incomplete. Writing as it is known today did not exist in human civilization until the 4th millennium BC, in a relatively small number of technologically advanced civilizations. The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture It marks the beginning of the Bronze Age and of Writing. A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements In contrast Homo sapiens has existed for at least 200,000 years, and other species of Homo for millions of years (see Human evolution). Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Homo is the Genus that includes modern humans and their close relatives Human evolution, or anthropogenesis, is the part of biological Evolution concerning the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct Species These civilizations are, not coincidentally, the best-known; they are open to the inquiry of historians for centuries, while the study of pre-historic cultures has arisen only recently. A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements Even within a literate civilization many events and important human practices are not officially recorded. Any knowledge of the early years of human civilization – the development of agriculture, cult practices of folk religion, the rise of the first cities – must come from archaeology. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Folk religion consists of Beliefs Superstitions and Rituals transmitted from generation to generation in a specific Culture. A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status 
Even where written records do exist, they are often incomplete and invariably biased to some extent. Dholavira, an ancient metropolitan city, and locally known as Kotada Timba Prachin Mahanagar Dholavira, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites In many societies, literacy was restricted to the elite classes, such as the clergy or the bureaucracy of court or temple. Elite (also spelled Élite) is taken originally from the Latin, eligere, "to elect" Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given Religion. Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government The literacy even of aristocrats has sometimes been restricted to deeds and contracts. Aristocracy is a form of Government, where rule is established through an internal struggle over who has the most status and influence over society and internal relations The interests and world-view of elites are often quite different from the lives and interests of the populace. Writings that were produced by people more representative of the general population were unlikely to find their way into libraries and be preserved there for posterity. A library is a collection of information sources resources and services and the structure in which it is housed it is organized for use and maintained by a public body an institution Thus, written records tend to reflect the biases, assumptions, cultural values and possibly deceptions of a limited range of individuals, usually only a fraction of the larger population. Hence, written records cannot be trusted as a sole source. The material record is closer to a fair representation of society, though it is subject to its own inaccuracies, such as sampling bias and differential preservation. A biased sample is a statistical sample of a population in which some members of the population are less likely to be included than others
In addition to their scientific importance, archaeological remains sometimes have political or cultural significance to descendants of the people who produced them, monetary value to collectors, or simply strong aesthetic appeal. Aesthetics or esthetics ( also spelled æsthetics) is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values sometimes called Many people identify archaeology with the recovery of such aesthetic, religious, political, or economic treasures rather than with the reconstruction of past societies.
This view is often espoused in works of popular fiction, such as Raiders of the Lost Ark, The Mummy, and King Solomon's Mines. Raiders of the Lost Ark (also known as Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark) is a 1981 Adventure film directed by Steven The Mummy is a 1999 American Adventure film written and directed by Stephen Sommers, starring Brendan Fraser and Rachel King Solomon's Mines ( 1885) is a popular Novel by the Victorian adventure writer and Fabulist, Sir H When such unrealistic subjects are treated more seriously, accusations of pseudoscience are invariably levelled at their proponents (see Pseudoarchaeology, below). Pseudoscience is defined as a body of knowledge methodology belief or practice that is claimed to be Scientific or made to appear scientific but does not adhere to the However, these endeavours, real and fictional, are not representative of modern archaeology.
The history of archaeology has been one of increasing professionalisation, and the use of an increasing range of techniques, to obtain as much data on the site being examined as possible. The history of Archaeology has been one of increasing professionalisation and the use of an increasing range of techniques to obtain as much data on the site being examined
Excavations of ancient monuments and the collection of antiquities have been taking place for thousands of years, but these were mostly for the extraction of valuable or aesthetically pleasing artifacts.
Johann Joachim Winckelmann is called "the prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology,". Johann Joachim Winckelmann ( December 9, 1717 - June 8, 1768) a German Art historian and Archaeologist, Winckelmann was one of the founders of modern scientific archaeology by first applying empirical categories of classical (Greek and Roman) style on a large, systematic basis to the history of art and archetecture. The history of art usually refers to the History of the Visual arts, such as Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.
It was only in the 19th century that the systematic study of the past through its physical remains began to be carried out. A notable early development was the founding in Rome in 1829, by Eduard Gerhard and others, of the Institute for Archaeological Correspondence (Instituto di corrispondenza archeologica or Institut für archäologische Korrespondenz). Friedrich Wilhelm Eduard Gerhard ( November 29 1795 - May 12, 1867) was a German Archaeologist. Archaeological methods were developed by both interested amateurs and professionals, including Augustus Pitt Rivers and William Flinders Petrie. Lieutenant-General Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers ( 14 April, 1827 – 4 May, 1900) was an English army Professor Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie FRS ( 3 June 1853 &ndash 28 July 1942) known as Flinders Petrie, was an
This process was continued in the 20th century by such people as Mortimer Wheeler, whose highly disciplined approach to excavation greatly improved the quality of evidence that could be obtained. Brigadier Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler CH, CIE, MC, FBA, FSA ( September 10, 1890 Glasgow
During the 20th century, the development of urban archaeology and then rescue archaeology have been important factors, as has the development of archaeological science, which has greatly increased the amount of data that it is possible to obtain. Urban archaeology is a sub discipline of archaeology specialising in the material past of Towns and Cities where long-term human habitation has often left a rich record Rescue archaeology, sometimes called "preventive" or "salvage" archaeology is archaeological survey and excavation carried out in areas threatened by or revealed by Archaeological science, also known as archaeometry, consists of the application of Scientific techniques and methodologies to Archaeology
Another branch, archaeoastronomy, is not as well known as archaeology, but deals with the study of ancient or traditional astronomies in cultural context. Archaeoastronomy (also spelled archeoastronomy) is the study of how peoples in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky how they used phenomena
There is no single theory of archaeology, and even definitions are disputed. Archaeological theory covers the debates over the practice of Archaeology and the interpretation of archaeological results Until the mid-20th century, there was a general consensus that archaeology was closely related to both history and anthropology. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of
The first major phase in the history of archaeological theory in the United States developed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the It is commonly referred to as cultural, or culture, history. Culture-historical archaeology or simply Culture history is a form of archaeological theory It is best known for its emphasis on historical particularism. Historical Particularism (coined by Marvin Harris in 1968 is widely considered the first American Anthropological school of thought 
In the 1920's in the American Southwest cultural historical archaeology was intimately tied with the direct historical approach. The direct historical approach was an archaeological and anthropological technique developed and promoted by such American scholars as William Duncan Strong This approach continues to be pursued in the American Southwest, the American Northwest Coast, Mesoamerica, the Andes, Oceania, Siberia, and other world areas where there appears to be continuity between living, indigenous populations and archaeological remains of past groups. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. Siberia (Сиби́рь Sibir) is the name given to the vast region constituting almost all of Northern Asia and for the most part currently serving In pursuing the direct historical approach, ethnohistorical and early historical records play an important role in articulating the connections between modern people and the archaeological past. Ethnohistory is the study of ethnographic cultures and indigenous customs by examining historical records. Literary sources can be used in other contexts as well, for example, in the case of Hadrian's Wall. Hadrian's Wall ( Latin: perhaps Vallum Aelium, "the Aelian wall" is a stone and turf Fortification built by the Roman
In the 1960s, a number of primarily American archaeologists, such as Lewis Binford and Kent Flannery, rebelled against the paradigms of cultural history. Lewis Roberts Binford, PhD (born 21 November 1930 in Norfolk Virginia is an American Archaeologist, known as the leader of the  They proposed a "New Archaeology", which would be more "scientific" and "anthropological", with hypothesis testing and the scientific method very important parts of what became known as processual archaeology. A hypothesis (from Greek) consists either of a suggested explanation for a phenomenon (an event that is observable or of a reasoned proposal suggesting a possible Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena Processual archaeology is a form of Archaeological theory which arguably had its genesis in 1958 with Willey and Phillips' work Method and Theory in American 
In the 1980s, a new postmodern movement arose led by the British archaeologists Michael Shanks, Christopher Tilley, Daniel Miller, and Ian Hodder. Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism Michael Shanks (born 1959 in Newcastle upon Tyne) is a British archaeologist who has specialised in Classical archaeology and Archaeological theory Chris Tilley is professor of Anthropology and Archaeology at University College London. Daniel Miller (born 1954) is an anthropologist most closely associated with studies in material culture and consumption Ian Hodder (born 23 November, 1948 in Bristol) is a British archaeologist and pioneer of postprocessualist theory in Archaeology It questioned processualism's appeals to scientific positivism and impartiality, and emphasised the importance of a more self-critical theoretical reflexivity. This approach is termed post-processual archaeology. Postprocessual Archaeology is a form of Archaeological theory which is related to the broader development of Postmodernism during the 1980s However, this approach has been criticized by processualists as lacking scientific rigor. The validity of both processualism and post-processualism is still under debate.
Historical Processualism is an emerging paradigm that seeks to incorporate a focus on process and post-processual archaeology's emphasis of reflexivity and history. 
Archaeological theory now borrows from a wide range of influences, including neo-Darwinian evolutionary thought, phenomenology, postmodernism, agency theory, cognitive science, Functionalism, gender-based and Feminist archaeology, and Systems theory. eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism The debate surrounding the influence of structure and agency on human thought and behaviour is one of the central issues in Sociology and other Social sciences In Cognitive archaeology is a sub-discipline of Archaeology which focuses on the ways that ancient societies thought and the symbolic structures that can be perceived in past material In the Social sciences, specifically Sociology and Sociocultural anthropology, functionalism (also called functional analysis) is a Sociological Gender archaeology is a method of studying past societies through their Material culture by closely examining the social construction of gender identities and relations Feminist archaeology is an approach to studying ancient societies by critiquing what its practitioners perceive as an androcentric bias both in many past civilisations and also Systems theory in archaeology is the application of Systems theory and Systems thinking in Archaeology.
A modern archaeological project often begins with a survey. Archaeological field survey is the methodological process by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) collect information about the location distribution and organisation Monte Albán is a large Pre-Columbian Archaeological site in the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca. Archaeological field survey is the methodological process by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) collect information about the location distribution and organisation Regional survey is the attempt to systematically locate previously unknown sites in a region. Site survey is the attempt to systematically locate features of interest, such as houses and middens, within a site. A midden, also known as a kitchen midden, or a shell heap, is a dump for domestic waste. Each of these two goals may be accomplished with largely the same methods.
Survey was not widely practiced in the early days of archaeology. Cultural historians and prior researchers were usually content with discovering the locations of monumental sites from the local populace, and excavating only the plainly visible features there. Gordon Willey pioneered the technique of regional settlement pattern survey in 1949 in the Viru Valley of coastal Peru, and survey of all levels became prominent with the rise of processual archaeology some years later. Gordon Randolph Willey ( 7 March, 1913 &ndash 28 April, 2002) was an American Archaeologist famous for his fieldwork in The Viru Valley is on the north west coast of Peru. The Viru Valley Project In 1946 the first attempt to study Settlement patterns in the Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America.
Survey work has many benefits if performed as a preliminary exercise to, or even in place of, excavation. It requires relatively little time and expense, because it does not require processing large volumes of soil to search out artifacts. (Nevertheless, surveying a large region or site can be expensive, so archaeologists often employ sampling methods. Sampling is that part of Statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern ) As with other forms of non-destructive archaeology, survey avoids ethical issues (of particular concern to descendant peoples) associated with destroying a site through excavation. It is the only way to gather some forms of information, such as settlement patterns and settlement structure. Survey data are commonly assembled into maps, which may show surface features and/or artifact distribution. A map is a visual representation of an area—a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, Regions, and Themes
The simplest survey technique is surface survey. It involves combing an area, usually on foot but sometimes with the use of mechanized transport, to search for features or artifacts visible on the surface. Surface survey cannot detect sites or features that are completely buried under earth, or overgrown with vegetation. Surface survey may also include mini-excavation techniques such as augers, corers, and shovel test pits. An auger is a device for moving material or liquid (see Archimedes' screw) by means of a rotating Helical flighting A shovel test pit (STP is a standard method for Phase I of an Archaeological survey
Aerial survey is conducted using cameras attached to airplanes, balloons, or even kites. Aerial survey is a Geomatics method of collecting information by utilising Aerial photography or from Remote sensing Imagery using other bands A camera is a device used to capture images either as still Photographs or as sequences of moving images ( Movies or Videos. Overview Fixed-wing aircraft range from small training and recreational aircraft to Wide-body aircraft and military cargo aircraft. "Ballooning" redirects here For the behavior of Spiders and other Arthropods see Ballooning (spider. A kite is a flying tethered object that depends upon the tension of a tethering system A bird's-eye view is useful for quick mapping of large or complex sites. Aerial photographs are used to document the status of the archaeological dig. Aerial imaging can also detect many things not visible from the surface. Plants growing above a buried man made structure, such as a stone wall, will develop more slowly, while those above other types of features (such as middens) may develop more rapidly. Plants are living Organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. A midden, also known as a kitchen midden, or a shell heap, is a dump for domestic waste. Photographs of ripening grain, which changes colour rapidly at maturation, have revealed buried structures with great precision. Aerial photographs taken at different times of day will help show the outlines of structures by changes in shadows. Aerial survey also employs infrared, ground-penetrating radar wavelengths, and thermography. Infrared ( IR) radiation is Electromagnetic radiation whose Wavelength is longer than that of Visible light, but shorter than that of Radar is a system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range altitude direction or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as Aircraft, ships wiki stranglesnakejpg|thumb|Thermographic image of a Snake held by a human]] Infrared Thermography, thermal imaging, or thermal video, is a type of
Archaeological geophysics can be the most effective way to see beneath the ground. Archaeological Geophysics most often refers to Geophysical survey techniques used for archaeological imaging or mapping Magnetometers detect minute deviations in the Earth's magnetic field caused by iron artifacts, kilns, some types of stone structures, and even ditches and middens. A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and/or direction of the Magnetic field in the vicinity of the instrument Earth 's magnetic field (and the surface magnetic field) is approximately a Magnetic dipole, with one pole near the North pole (see Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Kilns are thermally insulated chambers or Ovens in which controlled temperature regimes are produced Stone structures, or " Megaliths quot have been erected by mankind for thousands of years Devices that measure the electrical resistivity of the soil are also widely used. Electrical resistivity (also known as specific electrical resistance) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of Electric current. Archaeological Features whose electrical resistivity contrasts with that of surrounding soils can be detected and mapped. Some archaeological features (such as those composed of stone or brick) have higher resistivity than typical soils , while others (such as organic deposits or unfired clay) tend to have lower resistivity.
Although some archaeologists consider the use of metal detectors to be tantamount to treasure hunting, others deem them an effective tool in archaeological surveying. Metal detectors use Electromagnetic induction to detect Metal. Examples of formal archaeological use of metal detectors include musketball distribution analysis on English Civil War battlefields, metal distribution analysis prior to excavation of a nineteenth century ship wreck, and service cable location during evaluation. The English Civil War (1642-1651 was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. Metal detectorists have also contributed to the archaeological record where they have made detailed records of their results and refrained from raising artifacts from their archaeological context. The archaeological record is a term used in Archaeology to denote all archaeological evidence, including the physical remains of past human activities which Archaeologists In the UK, metal detectorists have been solicited for involvement in the Portable Antiquities Scheme. The Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS is a voluntary programme run by the United Kingdom government to record the increasing numbers of small finds of archaeological
Regional survey in underwater archaeology uses geophysical or remote sensing devices such as marine magnetometer, side-scan sonar, or sub-bottom sonar. Underwater archaeology is the study of past Human life behaviours and cultures using the physical remains found in salt or Fresh water or buried beneath Side-scan sonar (also sometimes called side scan sonar, sidescan sonar, side looking sonar, side-looking sonar and bottom classification
Archaeological excavation existed even when the field was still the domain of amateurs, and it remains the source of the majority of data recovered in most field projects. It can reveal several types of information usually not accessible to survey, such as stratigraphy, three-dimensional structure, and verifiably primary context. Stratigraphy, a branch of Geology, studies rock layers and layering ( stratification)
Modern excavation techniques require that the precise locations of objects and features, known as their provenance or provenience, be recorded. Provenance, from the French provenir, "to come from" means the Origin, or the source, of something or the history of the ownership or location This always involves determining their horizontal locations, and sometimes vertical position as well (also see Primary Laws of Archaeology). The Harris matrix or Winchester seriation diagram is a tool used to depict the temporal succession of Archaeological contexts and thus the sequence of deposition on Similarly, their association, or relationship with nearby objects and features, needs to be recorded for later analysis. Association in Archaeology has more than one meaning and is confusing to the Layman. An archaeological relationship is the position in space and by implication in time of an object or context with respect to another Feature in archaeology and especially Excavation has several different but allied meanings This allows the archaeologist to deduce what artifacts and features were likely used together and which may be from different phases of activity. In Archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological Archaeological phase and phasing refers to the logical reduction of contexts recorded during Excavation to near contemporary Archaeological horizons that For example, excavation of a site reveals its stratigraphy; if a site was occupied by a succession of distinct cultures, artifacts from more recent cultures will lie above those from more ancient cultures. Stratigraphy, a branch of Geology, studies rock layers and layering ( stratification) Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic
Excavation is the most expensive phase of archaeological research,in relative terms. Also, as a destructive process, it carries ethical concerns. Ethics is a major branch of Philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life As a result, very few sites are excavated in their entirety. Again the percentage of a site excavated depends greatly on the country and "method statement" issued. In places 90% excavation is common. Sampling is even more important in excavation than in survey. Sampling is that part of Statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern It is common for large mechanical equipment, such as backhoes (JCBs), to be used in excavation, especially to remove the topsoil (overburden), though this method is increasingly used with great caution. A backhoe, also called a rear actor or back actor, is a piece of excavating equipment consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm JCB, or J C Bamford (Excavators Ltd as it is more properly known is a family business named after its founder J Topsoil is the upper outermost layer of soil usually the top 2 to 8 inches Overburden is the term used in Mining to describe material that lies above the area of economic interest e Following this rather dramatic step, the exposed area is usually hand-cleaned with trowels or hoes to ensure that all features are apparent. A trowel is one of several similar Hand tools used for digging smoothing or otherwise moving around small amounts of viscous or particulate material Hoes are Bladed Tools used to agitate the surface of the Soil around Plants to remove weeds pile soil around the base
The next task is to form a site plan and then use it to help decide the method of excavation. In an Archaeological excavation, an archaeological plan is a drawn record of features (and artifacts in the horizontal plane Features dug into the natural subsoil are normally excavated in portions in order to produce a visible archaeological section for recording. Natural in Archaeology is a term to denote a horizon in the stratigraphic record representing the point from which there is no Anthropogenic activity on site and the In Archaeology a section is a view in part of the archaeological sequence showing it in the vertical plane as a cross section, and thereby illustrating A feature, for example a pit or a ditch, consists of two parts: the cut and the fill. In Archaeology and archeological stratification a cut or truncation is a context that represents a moment in time when other archaeological deposits In Archaeology fills are contexts representing material that has accumulated or has been deposited into a cut feature such as ditch or pit of The cut describes the edge of the feature, where the feature meets the natural soil. It is the feature's boundary. The fill is, understandably, what the feature is filled with, and will often appear quite distinct from the natural soil. The cut and fill are given consecutive numbers for recording purposes. Scaled plans and sections of individual features are all drawn on site, black and white and colour photographs of them are taken, and recording sheets are filled in describing the context of each. In Archaeology a section is a view in part of the archaeological sequence showing it in the vertical plane as a cross section, and thereby illustrating Single context recording was developed in the 1970's by the Museum of London amongst others (notably at Winchester and York where the system was first used and has become In Archaeology, not only the context (physical location of a discovery is a significant fact but the formation of the context is as well All this information serves as a permanent record of the now-destroyed archaeology and is used in describing and interpreting the site.
Once artifacts and structures have been excavated, or collected from surface surveys, it is necessary to properly study them, to gain as much data as possible. In Archaeology once the Archaeological record of given site has been excavated or collected from surface surveys it is necessary to gain as much data as possible and organize This process is known as post-excavation analysis, and is normally the most time-consuming part of the archaeological investigation. It is not uncommon for the final excavation reports on major sites to take years to be published.
At its most basic, the artifacts found are cleaned, catalogued and compared to published collections, in order to classify them typologically and to identify other sites with similar artifact assemblages. However, a much more comprehensive range of analytical techniques are available through archaeological science, meaning that artifacts can be dated and their compositions examined. Archaeological science, also known as archaeometry, consists of the application of Scientific techniques and methodologies to Archaeology The bones, plants and pollen collected from a site can all be analyzed (using the techniques of zooarchaeology, paleoethnobotany, and palynology), while any texts can usually be deciphered. Zooarchaeology, also known as Archaeozoology, is the study of Animal Remains from archaeological sites. Paleoethnobotany, also known as archaeobotany in European (particularly British academic circles is the archaeological sub-field that studies Plant remains from Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil Palynomorphs including Pollen, Spores, Dinoflagellate Cysts Acritarchs
These techniques frequently provide information that would not otherwise be known and therefore contribute greatly to the understanding of a site.
As with most academic disciplines, there are a very large number of archaeological sub-disciplines characterised by a specific method or type of material (e. As with most academic disciplines there are a number of archaeological sub-disciplines typically characterised by a focus on a specific method or type of material geographical As with most academic disciplines there are a number of archaeological sub-disciplines typically characterised by a focus on a specific method or type of material geographical g. lithic analysis, music, archaeobotany), geographical or chronological focus (e. In Archaeology, lithic analysis is the analysis of Stone tools and other Chipped stone artifacts using basic scientific techniques In the History of music, prehistoric music (previously called primitive music) is all Music produced in preliterate cultures ( Prehistory Paleoethnobotany, also known as archaeobotany in European (particularly British academic circles is the archaeological sub-field that studies Plant remains from g. Near Eastern archaeology, Medieval archaeology), other thematic concern (e. Near Eastern Archaeology (sometimes known as Middle Eastern archaeology) is a regional branch of the wider global discipline of Archaeology. Medieval archaeology is the study of humankind through its material culture specialising in the period of the European Middle Ages. g. maritime archaeology, landscape archaeology, battlefield archaeology), or a specific archaeological culture or civilisation (e. Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the Sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels Landscape archaeology is a body of method and theory for the study of the material traces of past peoples within the context of their interactions in the wider (typically regional social Introduction Battlefield archaeology is a sub-discipline of Archaeology that began in North America with Dr In addition to its usual meaning in Social science, in Archaeology, the term culture is also used in reference to several related concepts unique to A Civilization is a society in which large numbers of people share a variety of common elements g. Egyptology). Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek grc -λογία -logia. علم المصريات مصر شناسی is a major field of Archaeology
Historical archaeology is the study of cultures with some form of writing. Historical archaeology is a branch of Archaeology that concerns itself with "historical" Societies, i
In England, archaeologists have uncovered the long-lost layouts of medieval villages abandoned after the crises of the 14th century and the equally lost layouts of 17th century parterre gardens swept away by a change in fashion. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland In downtown New York City archaeologists have exhumed the 18th century remains of the African burial ground. The City of New York
Ethnoarchaeology is the archaeological study of living people. Ethnoarchaeology is the Ethnographic study of peoples for archaeological reasons usually focusing on the material remains of a society rather than its Culture The approach gained notoriety during the emphasis on middle range theory that was a feature of the processual movement of the 1960's. Early ethnoarchaeological research focused on hunting and gathering or foraging societies. Ethnoarchaeology continues to be a vibrant component of post-processual and other current archaeological approaches.
Experimental archaeology represents the application of the experimental method to develop more highly controlled observations of processes that create and impact the archaeological record. Experimental archaeology employs a number of different methods techniques analyses and approaches in order to generate and test hypotheses or an interpretation based upon archaeological  In the context of the context of the logical positivism of processualism with its goals of improving the scientific rigor of archaeological epistemologies the experimental method gained importance. Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, "knowledge" + λόγος, " Logos " or theory of knowledge Experimental techniques remain a crucial component to improving the inferential frameworks for interpreting the archaeological record.
Archaeometry is a field of study that aims to systematize archaeological measurement. Archaeological science, also known as archaeometry, consists of the application of Scientific techniques and methodologies to Archaeology It emphasizes the application of analytical techniques from physics, chemistry, and engineering. It is a lively field of research that frequently focuses on the definition of the chemical composition of archaeological remains for source analysis.
While archaeology can be done as a pure science, it can also be an applied science, namely the study of archaeological sites that are threatened by development. In such cases, archaeology is a subsidiary activity within Cultural resources management (CRM), also called heritage management in Britain. This article is concerned with cultural resources in the widest sense for traditional archaeological and historic culture specifically see Cultural Heritage Management Today, CRM accounts for most of the archaeological research done in the United States and much of that in western Europe as well. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' In the US, CRM archaeology has been a growing concern since the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, and most taxpayers, scholars, and politicians believe that CRM has helped preserve much of that nation's history and prehistory that would have otherwise been lost in the expansion of cities, dams, and highways. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA Public Law 89-665 16 U Along with other statutes, the NHPA mandates that projects on federal land or involving federal funds or permits consider the effects of the project on each archaeological site. An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either Prehistoric or historic or contemporary and
The application of CRM in the United Kingdom is not limited to government-funded projects. Since 1990 PPG 16 has required planners to consider archaeology as a material consideration in determining applications for new development. Planning Policy Guidance 16 Archaeology and Planning commonly abbreviated as PPG 16, is a document produced by the British Government to advise local planning authorities A material consideration in the UK is a process in Planning Law in which the decision maker when assessing an application for development must consider in deciding the outcome As a result, numerous archaeological organisations undertake mitigation work in advance of (or during) construction work in archaeologically sensitive areas, at the developer's expense. Rescue archaeology, sometimes called "preventive" or "salvage" archaeology is archaeological survey and excavation carried out in areas threatened by or revealed by The Polluter Pays Principle is a principle in Environmental law where the polluting party pays for the damage done to the Natural environment.
In England, ultimate responsibility of care for the historic environment rests with the Department for Culture, Media and Sport in association with English Heritage. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The Department for Culture Media and Sport ( DCMS) is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport English Heritage is a Non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government ( Department for Culture Media and Sport) with a broad remit of In Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the same responsibilities lie with Historic Scotland, Cadw and the Environment and Heritage Service (Northern Ireland) respectively. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a Country within the United Kingdom, lying in the northeast of Historic Scotland is an Executive agency of the Scottish Government, responsible for historic monuments in Scotland. Cadw (to keep is a Welsh government body with the mission to protect conserve and to promote the built heritage of Wales. The Environment and Heritage Service is a Northern Ireland Executive conservation agency within the Department of the Environment.
Among the goals of CRM are the identification, preservation, and maintenance of cultural sites on public and private lands, and the removal of culturally valuable materials from areas where they would otherwise be destroyed by human activity, such as proposed construction. Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic This study involves at least a cursory examination to determine whether or not any significant archaeological sites are present in the area affected by the proposed construction. If these do exist, time and money must be allotted for their excavation. If initial survey and/or test excavation indicates the presence of an extraordinarily valuable site, the construction may be prohibited entirely. CRM is a thriving entity, especially in the United States and Europe where archaeologists from private companies and all levels of government engage in the practice of their discipline.
Cultural resources management has, however, been criticized. CRM is conducted by private companies that bid for projects by submitting proposals outlining the work to be done and an expected budget. It is not unheard-of for the agency responsible for the construction to simply choose the proposal that asks for the least funding. CRM archaeologists face considerable time pressure, often being forced to complete their work in a fraction of the time that might be allotted for a purely scholarly endeavour. Compounding the time pressure is the vetting process of site reports which are required (in the US) to be submitted by CRM firms to the appropriate State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). From the SHPO's perspective there is to be no difference between a report submitted by a CRM firm operating under a deadline, and a multi-year academic project. The end result is that for a Cultural Resource Management archaeologist to be successful, they must be able to produce academic quality documents at a corporate world pace.
The annual ratio of open academic archaeology positions (inclusive of Post-Doc, temporary, and non tenure track appointments) to the annual number of archaeology MA/MSc and PhD students is grossly disproportionate. A postdoctoral fellow (colloquially " post-doc " is a temporary research position held by a person who has completed his or her doctoral studies This dearth of academic positions causes a predictable excess of well educated individuals who join the ranks of the following year's crop of non-academically employed archaeologists. Cultural Resource Management, once considered an intellectual backwater for individuals with "strong backs and weak minds" has reaped the benefit of this massive pool of well educated professionals. This results in CRM offices increasingly staffed by advance degreed individuals with a track record of producing scholarly articles but who have the notches on their trowels to show they have been in the trenches as a shovelbum. Shovelbum (from the Old English words scofl = shovel/an excavating machine and American English Bum = with no settled residence is a term used
Early archaeology was largely an attempt to uncover spectacular artifacts and features, or to explore vast and mysterious abandoned cities. (בֵּית שְׁאָן بيسان Bayt Šān or بيسان, Beisan or Bisan) is a city in the North District of Israel For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. Such pursuits continue to fascinate the public. Books, films, and video games, such as Indiana Jones, 'King Solomon's Mines, The Mummy, and Tomb Raider all testify to the public's interest in the discovery aspect of archaeology. Dr (also Col Henry Walton Jones Jr, better known as Indiana Jones or Indy after his pet dog is a fictional Adventurer, Soldier King Solomon's Mines ( 1885) is a popular Novel by the Victorian adventure writer and Fabulist, Sir H The Mummy is a 1999 American Adventure film written and directed by Stephen Sommers, starring Brendan Fraser and Rachel Tomb Raider is a Video game developed by Core Design and published by Eidos Interactive.
Much thorough and productive research has indeed been conducted in dramatic locales such as Copán and the Valley of the Kings, but the bulk of activities and finds of modern archaeology are not so sensational. The Pre-Columbian city today known as Copán is a locale in extreme western Honduras, in the Copán Department, near to the Guatemalan border The Valley of the Kings ( Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; "Gates of the King" is a Valley in Egypt where for Archaeological adventure stories tend to ignore the painstaking work involved in carrying out modern survey, excavation, and data processing. Archaeological field survey is the methodological process by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) collect information about the location distribution and organisation Some archaeologists refer to such portrayals as "pseudoarchaeology". Pseudoarchaeology (also called "fantastic archaeology" or "cult archaeology" is Pseudoscientific Archaeology, the unscientific interpretation
Archaeology has been portrayed in the mainstream media in sensational ways. This has its advantages and disadvantages. Many practitioners point to the childhood excitement of Indiana Jones films and Tomb Raider games as the inspiration for them to enter the field. Dr (also Col Henry Walton Jones Jr, better known as Indiana Jones or Indy after his pet dog is a fictional Adventurer, Soldier Tomb Raider is a series of Action-adventure games comic books novels theme park rides and movies, centring around the adventures of the female Archaeologists are also very much reliant on public support, the question of exactly who they are doing their work for is often discussed. Without a strong public interest in the subject, often sparked by significant finds and celebrity archaeologists, it would be a great deal harder for archaeologists to gain the political and financial support they require.
Motivated by a desire to halt looting, curb pseudoarchaeology, and to help preserve archaeological sites through education and fostering public appreciation for the importance of archaeological heritage, archaeologists are mounting public-outreach campaigns.  They seek to stop looting by combatting people who illegally take artifacts from protected sites, and by alerting people who live near archaeological sites of the threat of looting. Common methods of public outreach include press releases, and the encouragement of school field trips to sites under excavation by professional archaeologists. Public appreciation of the significance of archaeology and archaeological sites often leads to improved protection from encroaching development or other threats.
One audience for archaeologists' work is the public. They increasingly realize that their work can benefit non-academic and non-archaeological audiences, and that they have a responsibility educate and inform the public about archaeology. Local heritage awareness is aimed at increasing civic and individual pride through projects such as community excavation projects, and better public presentations of archaeological sites and knowledge.
In the UK, popular archaeology programs such as Time Team and Meet the Ancestors have resulted in a huge upsurge in public interest. Time Team is a British television series that has aired on Channel 4 since 1994 Where possible, archaeologists now make more provisions for public involvement and outreach in larger projects than they once did, and many local archaeological organizations operate within the Community archaeology framework to expand public involvement in smaller-scale, more local projects. Community archaeology is Archaeology by the people for the people Archaeological excavation, however, is best undertaken by well-trained staff that can work quickly and accurately. Often this requires observing the necessary health and safety and indemnity insurance issues involved in working on a modern building site with tight deadlines. Occupational safety and health is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the Safety, Health and welfare of people engaged in In the fields of Architecture and Civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the Building or assembling of Infrastructure Certain charities and local government bodies sometimes offer places on research projects either as part of academic work or as a defined community project. Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a State. There is also a flourishing industry selling places on commercial training excavations and archaeological holiday tours. Training excavations are normally run by University departments or large contractors and employ professional Archaeologists in several disciplines to teach the basics of archaeological
Archaeologists prize local knowledge and often liaise with local historical and archaeological societies, which is one reason why Community archaeology projects are starting to become more common. Community archaeology is Archaeology by the people for the people Often archaeologists are assisted by the public in the locating of archaeological sites, which professional archaeologists have neither the funding, nor the time to do. Anyone looking to participate in archaeological opportunities should contact one of these local societies or organizations.
Pseudoarchaeology is an umbrella term for all activities that claim to be archaeological but in fact violate commonly accepted archaeological practices. Pseudoarchaeology (also called "fantastic archaeology" or "cult archaeology" is Pseudoscientific Archaeology, the unscientific interpretation Pseudoarchaeology (also called "fantastic archaeology" or "cult archaeology" is Pseudoscientific Archaeology, the unscientific interpretation It includes much fictional archaeological work (discussed above), as well as some actual activity. Many non-fiction authors have ignored the scientific methods of processual archaeology, or the specific critiques of it contained in post-processualism. Processual archaeology is a form of Archaeological theory which arguably had its genesis in 1958 with Willey and Phillips' work Method and Theory in American Postprocessual Archaeology is a form of Archaeological theory which is related to the broader development of Postmodernism during the 1980s
An example of this type is the writing of Erich von Däniken. Erich Anton Paul von Däniken (b Zofingen, Aargau, Switzerland, April 14 1935 is a controversial Swiss author best known for his books which present His Chariots of the Gods (1968), together with many subsequent lesser-known works, expounds a theory of ancient contacts between human civilisation on Earth and more technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilisations. Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved Mysteries of the Past is a book written in 1968 by Erich von Däniken. This theory, known as palaeocontact theory, or Ancient astronaut theory, is not exclusively Däniken's, nor did the idea originate with him. Ancient astronaut theories or paleocontact are various proposals that intelligent extraterrestrial beings have visited Earth and that this contact Ancient astronaut theories or paleocontact are various proposals that intelligent extraterrestrial beings have visited Earth and that this contact Works of this nature are usually marked by the renunciation of well-established theories on the basis of limited evidence and the interpretation of evidence with a preconceived theory in mind.
Xenoarchaeology is the hypothetical future examination of the archaeology of extraterrestrials. Xenoarchaeology is a hypothetical form of Archaeology concerned with the physical remains of past (but not necessarily extinct) alien Cultures It is theoretical and based in science fiction work, and is not a recognised sub-discipline of archaeology.
Cryptoarchaeology claims to be a valid form of archaeology, in that it may follow commonly accepted best practices and the scientific method of processual archaeology, though it focuses on anomalous discoveries and other such remains that do not adhere to orthodox theory and thought. Cryptoarchaeology a field of study which its proponents call a form of archaeology and its detractors label as a pseudoscience Scientific method refers to bodies of Techniques for investigating phenomena Processual archaeology is a form of Archaeological theory which arguably had its genesis in 1958 with Willey and Phillips' work Method and Theory in American
Looting of archaeological sites by people in search of hoards of buried treasure is an ancient problem. In Archaeology, a Hoard is a collection of artifacts purposely buried in the ground For instance, many of the tombs of the Egyptian pharaohs were looted in antiquity. Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods
Archaeology stimulates interest in ancient objects, but it can also attract unwelcome attention by looters to these places. The commercial demand for artifacts encourages looting and the illicit antiquities trade, which smuggles items abroad to private collectors. Illicit antiquities are Antiquities, or artifacts of Archaeological interest found in illegal or unregulated excavations and traded covertly Looters damage or destroy archaeological sites, deny archaeologists valuable information that would be recovered from excavation, and ultimately rob people of the opportunity to know their past. 
Popular consciousness often associates looting with poor Third World countries, but this is a false assumption . Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically A lack of financial resources and political will are chronic worldwide problems inhibiting more effective protection of archaeological sites.
In 1937 W. F. Hodge the Director of the Southwest Museum in Los Angeles CA, released a statement that the museum would no longer purchase or accept collections from looted contexts. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West  The first conviction of the transport of artifacts illegally removed from private property under the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA; Public Law 96-95; 93 Statute 721; 16 U.S.C. 470aamm) was in 1992 in the State of Indiana. 
In the United States, examples such as the case of Kennewick Man have illustrated the tensions between Native Americans and archaeologists which can be summarized as a conflict between a need to remain respectful towards burials sacred sites and the academic benefit from studying them. Kennewick Man is the name for the skeletal Remains of a prehistoric man found on a bank of the Columbia River near Kennewick Washington Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States For years, American archaeologists dug on Indian burial grounds and other places considered sacred, removing artifacts and human remains to storage facilities for further study. In some cases human remains were not even thoroughly studied but instead archived rather than reburied. Furthermore, Western archaeologists' views of the past often differ from those of tribal peoples. The West views time as linear; for many natives, it is cyclic. From a Western perspective, the past is long-gone; from a native perspective, disturbing the past can have dire consequences in the present.
As a consequence of this, American Indians attempted to prevent archaeological excavation of sites inhabited by their ancestors, while American archaeologists believed that the advancement of scientific knowledge was a valid reason to continue their studies. This contradictory situation was addressed by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA, 1990), which sought to reach a compromise by limiting the right of research institutions to possess human remains. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act ( NAGPRA),, is a United States federal law passed on 16 November 1990 requiring Due in part to the spirit of postprocessualism, some archaeologists have begun to actively enlist the assistance of indigenous peoples likely to be descended from those under study. The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical
Archaeologists have also been obliged to re-examine what constitutes an archaeological site in view of what native peoples believe to constitute sacred space. To many native peoples, natural features such as lakes, mountains or even individual trees have cultural significance. Australian archaeologists especially have explored this issue and attempted to survey these sites in order to give them some protection from being developed. Such work requires close links and trust between archaeologists and the people they are trying to help and at the same time study.
While this cooperation presents a new set of challenges and hurdles to fieldwork, it has benefits for all parties involved. Tribal elders cooperating with archaeologists can prevent the excavation of areas of sites that they consider sacred, while the archaeologists gain the elders' aid in interpreting their finds. There have also been active efforts to recruit aboriginal peoples directly into the archaeological profession.
A new trend in the heated controversy between First Nations groups and scientists is the repatriation of native artifacts to the original descendants. First Nations is a term of Ethnicity that refers to the Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland is the process of return of Refugees or Soldiers to their homes In Archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological An example of this occurred June 21, 2005, when community members and elders from a number of the 10 Algonquian nations in the Ottawa area convened on the Kitigan Zibi reservation near Maniwaki, Quebec, to inter ancestral human remains and burial goods — some dating back 6,000 years. Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Algonquian (also Algonkian, and pronounced both and) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality. Maniwaki is a town north of Gatineau and located north-west of Montreal Quebec, Canada
The ceremony marked the end of a journey spanning thousands of years and many miles. The remains and artifacts, including beads, tools and weapons, were originally excavated from various sites in the Ottawa Valley, including Morrison and the Allumette Islands. A bead is a small decorative object that is pierced for threading or stringing A broader definition of a tool is an entity used to interface between two or more domains that facilitates more effective action of one domain upon the other A weapon is a Tool used either in Hunting, or attack or defence in Combat for the purpose of subduing enemy personnel or to destroy enemy weapons The Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben (also known as the Ottawa Graben) with its branch the Timiskaming Graben, is an ancient Rift valley in the L'Isle-aux-Allumettes is a municipality in the Outaouais region, part of the Pontiac Regional County Municipality Quebec, Canada They had been part of the Canadian Museum of Civilization’s research collection for decades, some since the late 1800s. The Canadian Museum of Civilization (CMC is Canada’s national museum of human history and the most-visited museum in the country Elders from various Algonquin communities conferred on an appropriate reburial, eventually deciding on traditional redcedar and birchbark boxes lined with redcedar chips, muskrat and beaver pelts. Birch bark or birchbark is generally understood to be the Bark of the Paper Birch tree ( Betula papyrifera) or sometimes of related species such The muskrat ( Ondatra zibethicus) the only Species in Genus Ondatra, is a medium-sized semi-aquatic Rodent native to North America
Now, an inconspicuous rock mound marks the reburial site where close to 90 boxes of various sizes are buried. Although negotiations were at times tense between the Kitigan Zibi community and museum, they were able to reach agreement. 
Kennewick Man is another repatriation candidate that has been the source of heated debate. Kennewick Man is the name for the skeletal Remains of a prehistoric man found on a bank of the Columbia River near Kennewick Washington