This is an article about the western scholars known as Arabists, not the political movement Pan-Arabism. Pan-Arabism is a movement for Unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the
An Arabist is an academic (normally from outside the Arabic-speaking world) who specialises in the study of the Arabic language and Arab culture, and often Arabic literature. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Arabic literature ( Arabic: الأدب العربي Al-Adab Al-Arabi) is the writing produced both Prose and Poetry, by speakers
Arabists began in medieval Muslim Spain, which lay on the frontier between the Muslim and Christian worlds. Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth At various times, either a Christian or a Muslim kingdom might be the most hospitable toward scholars. Although some translation of Arabic texts into Latin (mostly of works on mathematics and astronomy) began as early as the 10th century, major work dates from the School of Toledo, which began during the reign of Alfonso VII of Castile, (1105–1157), when Jews literate in Arabic were driven north from al-Andalus (now Andalusia) by the religious rigidity of the Almohad dynasty. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Mathematics is the body of Knowledge and Academic discipline that studies such concepts as Quantity, Structure, Space and Astronomy (from the Greek words astron (ἄστρον "star" and nomos (νόμος "law" is the scientific study Alfonso VII ( 1 March 1105 &ndash 21 August 1157) called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Al-Andalus (الأندلس was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims or Andalusia (Andalucía is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the most populous and the second largest in terms of land area The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i
Translations were made into medieval Latin or Church Latin, then Europe's lingua franca, or into medieval Spanish, which was the vernacular language of that time and place. Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the Liturgical language of the medieval Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) is the Latin dialect as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies A lingua franca (from Italian, literally meaning Frankish language, see etymology under Sabir and Italian below is any Language widely Vernacular refers to the Native language of a country or a locality Early translations included works by Avicenna, Al-Ghazali, Avicebron, etc. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> ( Persian /ابو علی الحسین ابن عبدالله ابن سینا (born Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī (1058-1111 ( ابو حامد محمد ابن محمد الغزالی or امام محمد غزالی was born and died Solomon ibn Gabirol, also Solomon ben Judah ( שלמה בן יהודה אבן גבירול, Shelomo ben Yehuda ibn Gevirol; أبو أيوب سليمان ; books on astronomy, astrology, and medicine; and the works of some of the Ancient Greek philosophers, especially Aristotle, who unlike Plato had been relatively unknown and largely ignored in medieval Christendom prior thereto. Astrology (from Greek grc ἄστρον astron, "constellation star" and grc -λογία -logia) is a group of Systems Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Biography Early life Birth and family Plato was born in Athens Greece Christendom usually refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon The philosophical translations were accompanied by the Islamic commentaries, e. g. , on Al-Ghazali, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), and Ibn Rushd (Averroës), to the point of there being an identifiable Averroist school of philosophy in Christian Europe. Abū 'l-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rushd (Arabicأبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد better known just as Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد and in European Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the
This cultural borrowing from the Arab culture enjoyed the strong patronage of Alfonso X of Castile (1221-1284), who himself commissioned translations of major works into the Latin and the Castilian Spanish of the time. Alfonso X (November 23 1221 Toledo Spain &ndash April 4 1284 Seville Spain) was a Spanish monarch who ruled as the King of Castile, Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. This led to the first Spanish translation of the Qur'an, and of such influential works as Kalilah and Dimnah, Libro de los Engannos e Asayamientos de las Mugeres (Book of the Deceits and Lies of Women), the Escala de Mahomá (The Ascension of Mohammed) and Los juegos del ajedrez (The Games of Chess). The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran The Panchatantra (also spelled Pañcatantra, in Sanskrit: पञ्चतन्त्र 'Five Principles' or Kalīleh o Demneh In Islamic tradition the Isra and Mi'raj (الإسراء والمعراج) are the two parts of a journey that Muhammad took in one night around the year 620
The works of Alfonso X in history and astronomy noticeably drew on numerous elements of Muslim knowledge. Also, the Tales of Count Lucanor, by Juan Manuel and El Libro de buen amor (The Book of Good Love) by Arcipreste de Hita from this period both show an interpenetration and symbiosis of Oriental and Spanish cultures. Don Juan Manuel 's Libro de los ejemplos del conde Lucanor y de Patronio ("Book of the examples of Count Lucanor and of Patronio" known commonly as El Conde Lucanor Juan Ruiz (ca 1283 - ca 1350 known as the Archpriest of Hita ( Arcipreste de Hita) was a medieval Spanish poet
With the Reconquista well under way, Arabist efforts in Spain were sometimes closely tied to the goal of the possibility of proselytizing Christianity in the Arab world. The Reconquista (a Spanish and Portuguese word for "Reconquest" Arabic: الاسترداد, "Recapturing" was a period Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
Spain was so dynamic a center of medieval Arabism as to draw scholars from throughout Christian Europe, notably Gerard of Cremona, Herman of Carinthia, Michael Scotus, and Robert of Ketton. Gerard of Cremona ( Italian: Gerardo da Cremona; Latin: Gerardus Cremonensis; c Herman of Carinthia or Herman Dalmatin (also known in Latin as Sclavus Dalmata Secundus was a Philosopher, Astronomer, Astrologer, Mathematician Michael Scot ( Latin: Michael Scotus) (1175 &ndash 1232? was a Medieval mathematician and Scholar. Robert of Ketton ( Latin: Robertus Ketenensis) (1110? &ndash 1160? was an English Medieval theologian, astronomer and Arabist. In 1143, Robert of Ketton made the first Latin translation of the Qur'an, at the request of Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny. The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Peter the Venerable (about 1092 – December 25, 1156 in Cluny, France) also known as Peter of Montboissier, abbot of The Abbot of Cluny was the head of the powerful monastery of Cluny Abbey in medieval France. Marcos de Toledo produced another translation of the Qur'an in the 13th century under a mandate from archbishop Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada, who later edited the landmark Historia Arabum ("history of the Arabs"), drawing on the work of al-Razi for the knowledge of al-Andalus prior to the Almoravid conquest. Rodrigo Jiménez (or Ximenez de Rada ( Puente la Reina, Navarre, Spain, c The Almoravids, was a Berber dynasty from the Sahara that spread over a wide area of North-Western Africa and the Iberian peninsula during
Raymundus Martini, author of Pugio fidei adversos mauros et iudaeos (The Fight of Faith Against Moors and Jews), also wrote an Arabic dictionary. Ramón Martí was a Thirteenth century Catalan Dominican monk and theologian Ramon Llull, established a school in Majorca in 1275 to teach Arabic to preachers. Ramon Llull (1232 &ndash June 29, 1315) (sometimes Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull, in Latin Raimundus or Majorca ( Spanish and Mallorca is the largest island of Spain. Pope Honorius IV granted permission to Martini and Llull to found a center for "oriental studies" in Rome. Pope Honorius IV (c 1210 &ndash April 3, 1287) born Giacomo Savelli, was Pope for two years from 1285 to 1287 Orientalism refers to the imitation or depiction of aspects of Eastern cultures in the West by writers designers and artists and can also refer to a sympathetic stance Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 While Llull may have been motivated in large measure by the desire to proselytise, his relationship to the Arab world was not so simple. According to Julián Ribera, Llull wrote his Book of the Gentile and the Three Wise Men in Arabic, then translated it into Catalan as the Llibre del gentil e dels tres savis. Catalan ˈkætəˌlæn ( català kətəˈla or) is a Romance language, the national and official language of Andorra, and a co-official
This trend continued in the 15th century, with Juan de Segovia's trilingual Qur'an (Arabic, Spanish, and Latin), now lost, and Cardinal Cisneros's multilingual Bible. John of Segovia, or in Spanish Juan de Segovia, was a theologian In the 16th century, Pedro de Alcalá produced his Arabic primers for Spanish speakers, and several histories were written about the previous century's reconquest of the Kingdom of Granada with its aftermath of Moorish uprisings. Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain. 
The Adams Professorship in the Arabic language was established at Cambridge University in England in July 1632. (See "Islamic Studies" section below. )
These countries have enjoyed a long and fruitful involvement in the study of the Arab language and Arab cultures, as well of Islam. (See "Islamic Studies by non-Muslim scholars" section below. )
Many other European countries have also contributed scholars making notable contributions to the study of the Arabs and Arabic cultures, including Sweden, Poland, Scotland, Hungary, Belgium, Russia. (See "Islamic Studies" section below. )
The following Arabists are not representative of the thousands of Arabist of Europe over the last millennium, which Arabists would include a wide variety of expertise and points of view. (See "Islamic Studies" section below. )
Richard Francis Burton entered Trinity College, Oxford in autumn 1840, after his family had travelled extensively in Europe (he spoke English, French and Italian). Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG FRGS (19 March 1821 &ndash 20 October 1890 was an English Explorer, Translator, writer The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity in the University of Oxford of the foundation of Sir Thomas Pope (Knight, or Trinity College for short is one of the His studies at Oxford included falconry and Arabic.
Burton's time in the Indian province of Sindh prepared him well for the transgressive pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina that he undertook in 1853 (he was not a Muslim and non-Muslims are forbidden to enter these holy cities ). Sindh ( Sindhī: سنڌ Urdu: سندھ is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Medina mɛˈdiːnə (المدينة المنورة ælmæˈdiːnæl muˈnɑwːɑrɑ or المدينة ælmæˈdiːnæ also transliterated into English as Seven years in India had given Burton a familiarity with the customs and behaviour of Muslims. This journey made Burton famous. He had planned it whilst travelling disguised among the Muslims of Sindh, and had laboriously prepared for the ordeal by study and practice (including having himself circumcised to further lower the risk of being discovered). Male circumcision is the removal of some or all of the Foreskin (prepuce from the Penis.
Although Burton was not the first non-Muslim European to make the Hajj (that distinction belonging to Ludovico di Barthema in 1503), his pilgrimage is the most famous and the best documented of the time. Ludovico di Varthema, also known as Barthema and Vertomannus (c He adopted various disguises, including that of a Pathan, to account for any oddities in speech, but he still had to master intricate Islamic ritual, and the minutiae of Eastern manners and etiquette. Pashtuns ( Pashto: پښتون Paṣtūn, Paxtūn, also rendered as Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns) also called Burton's trek to Mecca was quite dangerous and his caravan was attacked by bandits (a common experience at the time). As he put it, although ". . . neither Koran or Sultan enjoin the death of Jew or Christian intruding within the columns that note the sanctuary limits, nothing could save a European detected by the populace, or one who after pilgrimage declared himself an unbeliever. " The pilgrimage entitled him to the title of Hajji and to wear a green turban. Hajji (الحجّي al-ḥağğī Hadžija Pilgrim) or El-Hajj, is an honorific title given to a Muslim person who has successfully completed Burton's own account of his journey is given in Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al Madinah and Meccah (1855).
Hans Wehr (1909–1981) was a German Arabist, professor at the University of Münster from 1957–1974. Hans Wehr (1909-1981 was a German Arabist. A professor at the University of Münster from 1957-1974 he published the Arabisches Wörterbuch (1952 The University of Münster ( German Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, WWU is a public University located in the city of Münster Wehr published the Arabisches Wörterbuch (1952), which was later published in an English edition as A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, edited by J. Milton Cowan. As part of this dictionary, Wehr created a transliteration scheme to represent the Arabic alphabet.
As Arabism was declining in Europe after the Reformation, this was also the case in Spain for like reasons, and due in particular to Mediterranean politics and to the repressive atmosphere created by the Spanish Inquisition. The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain Some Moriscos hesitated to show their knowledge of their mother tongue. A morisco (Spanish " Moor -like" or mourisco (Portuguese was any Muslim of Spain or Portugal  In the mid-1700s a new phase of Arabism arose in Spain. Later, in the era of the Generación del 98 Spanish Arabism began to produce widely recognized studies, and thus regained its prominence, particularly regarding such Arabists as Miguel Asín Palacios (1871-1944), and Emilio García Gómez (1905-1995), as well as many others. The Generation of '98 (also called Generation of 1898 or in Spanish, Generación del 98 or Generación de 1898 was a group of Novelists Miguel Asín Palacios (1871-1944 was a Spanish scholar (an Arabist) and a Roman Catholic Priest. Emilio García Gómez ( 4 June 1905 &ndash 31 May 1995) was a Spanish Arabist literary historian and critic whose talent as a poet 
Academic study of the Arabs and Arabic culture and language as done by Arabists is sometimes united with the academic study of Islam and Islamic cultures. Such study has for over a millennium been conducted by scholars world wide, including those of India and China.