|Latest release||2. A software developer is a person or organization concerned with facets of the software development process wider than design and coding a somewhat broader scope of Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics A software release is the distribution whether public or private of an initial or new and upgraded version of a Computer software product 0/ 2007-10-26|
|OS||System 7, Mac OS 8, Mac OS 9, Mac OS X|
|License||Apple EULA (parts available under APSL)|
AppleScript is a scripting language devised by Apple Inc., and built into Mac OS. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 740 - An Earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a Computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination System 7 (codenamed "Big Bang" and sometimes called Mac OS 7) is a single-user Graphical user interface -based Operating system for Macintosh Mac OS 8 is an Operating system released by Apple Computer on July 26 1997. Mac OS is the trademarked name for a series of Graphical user interface -based Operating systems developed by Apple Inc Mac OS 9 is the final major release of Apple's "Classic" Mac OS. Mac OS X (mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn is a line of computer Operating systems developed marketed and sold by Apple Inc, the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently A software license (or software licence in commonwealth usage is a Legal instrument governing the usage or redistribution of copyright protected software The Apple Public Source License is the open source and Free software license under which Apple 's Darwin Operating system was released A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages "Scripting" redirects here For other uses see Script. Apple Inc, ( formerly Apple Computer Inc, is an American Multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing Consumer electronics Mac OS is the trademarked name for a series of Graphical user interface -based Operating systems developed by Apple Inc More generally, "AppleScript" is the word used to designate the Mac OS scripting interface, which is meant to operate in parallel with the graphical user interface.
The AppleScript project was an outgrowth of the HyperCard project. HyperCard was an Application program created by Bill Atkinson for Apple Computer Inc HyperCard had an English language-based scripting language called HyperTalk, which could be used for embedding logic and behavior into a HyperCard stack. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States HyperTalk is a high-level Programming language created in 1987 by Dan Winkler and used in conjunction with Apple Computer 's HyperCard hypermedia Apple engineers recognized that a similar scripting language could be designed to be used with any application, and the AppleScript project was born as part of System 7. Application software is a subclass of Computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform System 7 (codenamed "Big Bang" and sometimes called Mac OS 7) is a single-user Graphical user interface -based Operating system for Macintosh
AppleScript was released in October 1993 as part of System 7. 1. 1 (System 7 Pro, the first major upgrade to System 7). QuarkXPress (ver. 3. 2) was one of the first major software applications that supported AppleScript, and as a result, AppleScript was widely adopted within the publishing segment of the Apple market. It is arguable that the main reason that the Mac remained a powerhouse in the publishing market after Quark (and other applications) were ported to Microsoft Windows, was that Mac users could automate complex workflows.
The move to Mac OS X and its Cocoa frameworks has seen AppleScript come into its own. Mac OS X (mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn is a line of computer Operating systems developed marketed and sold by Apple Inc, the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently Cocoa is Apple Inc 's native Object-oriented application program environment for the Mac OS X Operating system Cocoa applications offer basic scriptability with little effort on the part of the developer. AppleScript Studio, released with Mac OS X 10.2, allows users to build entire applications using AppleScript and Cocoa objects. AppleScript is a Scripting language devised by Apple Inc, and built into Mac OS. Mac OS X version 102 “Jaguar” was the third major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system.
AppleScript was designed to be used as an end-user scripting language, offering users an intelligent mechanism to control applications, information and documents in order to create automated workflows. A workflow is a depiction of a sequence of operations declared as work of a person work of a simple or complex mechanism work of a group of persons work of an organization of staff AppleScript is designed as a scripting interface to control various applications. Automating a workflow with AppleScript often reduces the amount of time it takes to perform various tasks, reduces the opportunities for human error, provides consistent output and creates a manageable production system for working against deadlines.
For example, a script might open a photo in a photo-editing application, reduce its resolution, add a border, a photo credit, then export a Web-ready copy, then write a Web link for that photo into a text editor, then move on to the next photo in the set, and so on through hundreds or thousands of photos, eventually creating a Web-ready photo gallery, which the script uses an FTP client to upload to the user's Web site. For the user, hundreds of steps in multiple applications with potentially thousands of documents have been reduced to one: run a script. Even if the user were to use such a script only once, the initial AppleScript development time may be completely leveraged. In practice, scripts are used again and again, further leveraging the initial development time such that it becomes a trivial consideration.
An important AppleScript concept is that scripts drive applications in a fundamentally different way from the way users interact with them. Users manipulate the application's user interface, pulling down menus and clicking buttons; AppleScript scripts request and set values and invoke actions exposed by the application's internal object model. So, for example, rather than simulating keystrokes to enter text into fields in a database application, an AppleScript script would typically use commands that directly set the values of the desired fields of the record, possibly without the application even displaying the record being updated. AppleScript also has the ability to control non-scriptable applications through Graphical User Interface (GUI) scripting, which allows AppleScripts to select menu items, click buttons, enter text into text fields, and generally control the interfaces of most Mac OS X 10. x applications to handle operations not available through the scripting interface.
Since applications are all different from each other, the number of standard commands supported by all applications is fairly small. Each scriptable application publishes the terminology it understands in the form of an Apple Event dictionary, which AppleScript uses to determine the valid commands that can be issued in each application's context.
AppleScript support is provided by many Mac OS X applications, from both Apple and third parties. Scriptable applications include Apple's Finder, Safari, iPhoto, and iTunes, as well as Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop, Bare Bones BBEdit and TextWrangler, Microsoft Word and Excel, VMwareFusion and many more. The Finder is the default application program used on the Mac OS and Mac OS X Operating systems that is responsible for the overall user-management Safari is a Web browser developed by Apple Inc and included in Mac OS X. iPhoto is a software application made by Apple Inc exclusively for their Mac OS X operating system iTunes is a proprietary digital media player application introduced by Apple Inc Adobe Systems Incorporated (pronounced a-DOE-bee əˈdoʊbiː ( is an American Computer software company headquartered in San Jose California Adobe Illustrator is a vector-based drawing program developed and marketed by Adobe Systems. Bare Bones Software is a Bedford Massachusetts, USA Software company developing software tools for the Apple Macintosh platform TextWrangler is a popular Text editor for Mac OS X from Bare Bones Software. Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer Microsoft Word is Microsoft 's flagship word processing software. In Computing, Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) consists of a proprietary Spreadsheet -application written and distributed VMware Fusion is a Virtual machine software product developed by VMware for Macintosh computers with Intel processors
Prior to System 7, the Mac OS application runtime had only a rudimentary event model that could specify a small and fixed number of low-level events such as "key was pressed" or "mouse was clicked". System 7 (codenamed "Big Bang" and sometimes called Mac OS 7) is a single-user Graphical user interface -based Operating system for Macintosh The event model is a Programming paradigm commonly used in building Graphical user interfaces A very common and very programmer-friendly variant is Each application was responsible for decoding these low-level events into meaningful high-level user actions, such as "choose cut from the Edit menu". In many cases, the code for reading the event and decoding it was mixed together; for instance, the code handling a mouse click might decode it to selecting the Quit item from the File menu, and then quit the application immediately.
Adding AppleScript support required the application author to fully separate this decoding from carrying out the command, a task Apple referred to as factoring (. . . the application). Application developers were encouraged to write two complete event handling "stacks", one for handling the low-level events (clicks, etc. ), and another for high-level events (AppleEvents). The actual work code that handled these commands, once decoded, was to be completely separated and called identically from both stacks.
In Mac OS X AppleScript is simpler for developers to implement, particularly for those applications being developed in Cocoa. Mac OS X (mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn is a line of computer Operating systems developed marketed and sold by Apple Inc, the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently Cocoa is Apple Inc 's native Object-oriented application program environment for the Mac OS X Operating system Unlike the Mac OS where events are handled by the applications, under Cocoa, events are decoded into a "high level" command by the
NSApplication object, and the messages dispatched directly to the correct object. That is, all Cocoa applications are "factored" by default; the developer doesn't write any of the event handling code (normally) and writes only the "work methods" that those events will call.
Another major advantage is that Cocoa objects are presented to the outside world (other applications and even machines) in a standardized format that anyone can examine directly. Under Cocoa, AppleScript is much "thinner"; the script engine decodes the script, translates object names from human-readable to their internal format, and then calls those methods on the target application directly.
Whereas Apple Events are a way to send messages into applications, AppleScript is a particular language designed to send Apple Events. In keeping with the Mac OS tradition of ease-of-use, the AppleScript language is designed on the natural language metaphor, just as the graphical user interface is designed on the desktop metaphor. In the Philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a Language that is spoken or written in phonemic-alphabetic or phonemically-related Metaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, meaning "transfer" is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects The desktop metaphor is an Interface metaphor which is a set of unifying concepts used by Graphical user interfaces to help users more easily interact with the AppleScript programs are generally readable by anyone, and editable by most. The language is based largely on HyperCard's HyperTalk language, extended to refer not only to the HyperCard world of cards and stacks, but also theoretically to any document. HyperCard was an Application program created by Bill Atkinson for Apple Computer Inc HyperTalk is a high-level Programming language created in 1987 by Dan Winkler and used in conjunction with Apple Computer 's HyperCard hypermedia To this end, the AppleScript team introduced the AppleEvent Object Model (AEOM), which specified the objects any particular application "knew".
The heart of the AppleScript language is the use of terms that act as nouns and verbs that can be combined. For example, rather than a different verb to print a page, document or range of pages (printPage, printDocument, printRange) appleScript uses a single "print" verb which can be combined with an object, such as a page, a document or a range of pages.
print page 1 print document 2 print pages 1 thru 5 of document 2
Generally, AEOM defined a number of objects, like "document" or "paragraph", and the actions that could be done to them, like "cut" and "close". The system also defined ways to refer to properties of objects, so one could refer to the "third paragraph of the document 'Good Day'", or the "color of the last word of the front window". AEOM uses an application dictionary to associate the Apple Events with human-readable terms, allowing the translation back and forth between human-readable AppleScript and bytecode Apple Events. Bytecode is a term which has been used to denote various forms of Instruction sets designed for efficient execution by a software interpreter as well as being suitable To discover what elements of a program are scriptable, dictionaries for supported applications may be viewed. (In the Xcode and Script Editor applications, this is under File → Open Dictionary. Xcode is a suite of tools for developing software on Mac OS X, developed by Apple. )
To designate which application is meant to be the target of such a message, AppleScript uses a "tell" construct:
tell application "Microsoft Word" quitend tell
Alternatively, the tell may be expressed in one line by using an infinitive:
tell application "Microsoft Word" to quit
For events in the "Core Suite" (activate, open, reopen, close, print, and quit), the application may be supplied as the direct object to transitive commands:
quit application "Microsoft Word"
The concept of an object hierarchy can be expressed using nested blocks:
tell application "QuarkXPress" tell document 1 tell page 2 tell text box 1 set word 5 to "Apple" end tell end tell end tellend tell
pixel 7 of row 3 of TIFF image "my bitmap"
getTIFF("my bitmap"). In Grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages In its simplest embodiment an object is an allocated region of storage @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ - @@@ main@@@ - title Hierarchy@@@ keywords structure; sociology; information@@@ review@@@ - An adpositional phrase is a Linguistics term that includes (a prepositional phrase(s (which are usually found in head-first languages like English) and A programming language is an Artificial language that can be used to write programs which control the behavior of a machine particularly a Computer. In Computer science, a subroutine ( function, method, procedure, or subprogram) is a portion of code within a larger getRow(3). getPixel(7);
AppleScript includes syntax for ordinal counting, "the first paragraph", as well as cardinal, "paragraph one". Likewise, the numbers themselves can be referred to as text or numerically, "five", "fifth" and "5" are all supported, they are called synonyms. Also, to add to the English-likeness, the word "the" can legally be used anywhere in the script in order to enhance readability: it has no effect on the functionality of the script.
AppleScript is not dependent on other applications. For many tasks, AppleScript can be used for self-contained applets. An applet is a software component that runs in the context of another program for example a Web browser. For instance, the script:
set pix to 72set answer to text returned of (display dialog "Enter in the number of inches" default answer "1")display dialog answer & "in = " & (answer * pix) & "px"
brings up a dialog box requesting a number of inches from the user. In Graphical user interfaces a dialog (or dialogue) box is a special window, used in user interfaces to display Information to the Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches. This number is then converted to pixels, assuming 72 pixels per inch. In Digital imaging, a pixel ( pict ure el ement is the smallest piece of information in an image A second dialog box is then brought up displaying the result.
With Mac OS X, AppleScript has grown significantly. Mac OS X (mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn is a line of computer Operating systems developed marketed and sold by Apple Inc, the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently AppleScript Studio is a development environment, which comes with Mac OS X, and can use AppleScript as the primary programming language, in conjunction with the Cocoa framework used to construct graphical user interfaces. Cocoa is Apple Inc 's native Object-oriented application program environment for the Mac OS X Operating system
The more recent versions of Script Editor for writing, editing, compiling and running AppleScripts have also been enhanced. One new feature of this editor is that if you right-click (or control-click) on the editing area, you get a pop-up menu with a large range of options for script fragments to paste into your script. This is an excellent feature for people learning to write AppleScript. From that menu, you can also open the directory where these scripts are kept. You can also add your own scripts (which will appear in the pop-up menu after you restart Script Editor). The Script editor also has a record button, which can be used to create AppleScript commands from user interface actions from certain applications. Recording works with a limited number of applications.
An AppleScript script can be saved as an applet, a script contained in a Mac application that runs the script when it's launched. When a user double-clicks an applet, the script's run handler is called.
on run -- do something when this script is launchedend run
Every script has a run handler, but declaring it is optional. If the run handler is undeclared, commands in the script's top level, outside of any other handler, are considered to be an implicit run handler.
If the script has an open handler:
on open theItems -- do something when filesystem items are dropped on this scriptend open
then the applet becomes a droplet: when the user drags and drops filesystem items onto the script, it will be launched and the open handler will be invoked and a list of aliases will be set with the open handler's variable name. A droplet can also run as an applet: when double-clicked, the run handler is called. Adding a run handler with a choose file command to your droplet enables a second pathway for the user to provide the script with a list of filesystem items.
If the script has an idle handler:
on idle -- do something, then pause, then do it again, then pause, etc. return 20end idle
then the applet will pause for a specified number of seconds (20 in this example) and will execute the script within the idle handler again, and again . . .
(Note: "on" is a synonym for "to" when starting a handler; for example, "on run" instead of "to run". This article deals with the general meaning of the term "synonym" )
An important aspect of the AppleScript implementation was the Open Scripting Architecture (OSA). Apple provided OSA for third-party scripting/automation products such as QuicKeys and UserLand Frontier, to function on an equal status with AppleScript. UserLand Software is a US Software company founded by Dave Winer in 1988. AppleScript was implemented as a scripting component, and the basic specs for interfacing such components to the OSA were public, allowing other developers to add their own scripting components to the system. In Apple Macintosh Computer programming, Component Manager was one of many approaches to sharing code that originated on the pre- PowerPC Macintosh Public client APIs for loading, saving and compiling scripts would work the same for all such components, which also meant that applets and droplets could hold scripts in any of those scripting languages.
One of the most interesting features of the OSA are "scripting additions", or osax for Open Scripting Architecture eXtension, which were based on Hypercard's External Commands. Scripting Additions allow programmers to extend the function of AppleScript. Commands included as Scripting Additions are available system wide, and are not dependent on an application. Mac OS X includes a collection of scripting additions referred to as Standard Additions, which extends the function of AppleScript with a variety of new commands, including user interaction dialogs, reading and writing files, file system commands, date functions, text and math operations. Mac OS X (mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn is a line of computer Operating systems developed marketed and sold by Apple Inc, the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently