Appalachians in North Carolina
|Countries||United States, Canada|
|Regions||Newfoundland and Labrador, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee|
|Highest point||Mount Mitchell|
|- elevation||6,684 ft (2,037 m)|
The Appalachian Mountains (system of mountains in eastern North America. North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Newfoundland and Labrador (ˈnuːfɨn(dlənd ən(d ˈlæbrəˌdɔr (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's New Brunswick ( French: Nouveau-Brunswick /nuvobʁɔnzwik/ is one of Canada 's three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. A foot (plural feet or foot; symbol or abbreviation ft or sometimes &prime – the prime symbol) is a non-SI unit The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The Taconic orogeny was a great mountain building period that perhaps had the greatest overall effect on the geologic structure of basement rocks within the New York Bight The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six of the Paleozoic era, and covers the time between 488 A mountain range is a chain of Mountains bordered by highlands or separated from other mountains by passes or valleys Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians. The USGS defines the Appalachian Highlands physiographic division as consisting of thirteen provinces: The Atlantic Coast Uplands, Eastern Newfoundland Atlantic, Maritime Acadian Highlands, Maritime Plain, Notre Dame And Megantic Mountains, Western Newfoundland Mountains, Piedmont, Blue Ridge, Valley And Ridge, St. Lawrence Valley, Appalachian Plateaus, New England province, and the Adirondack provinces. The United States Geological Survey ( USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. The physiographic regions of the world are a means of defining the Earth's landforms into distinct regions based upon Nevin Fenneman 's classic three-tiered approach of divisions The Maritime Plain is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division Piedmont is a plateau region located in the eastern United States between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching The Blue Ridge, or Blue Ridge Mountains, is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division The Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, also called the Ridge and Valley Province or the Valley and Ridge Appalachians, are a physiographic province of Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway The Appalachian Plateau is the western part of the Appalachian mountains, stretching from New York to Georgia and Alabama. The New England province is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division of eastern North America. The Adirondack Mountains are a Mountain range located in the northeastern part of New York, that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin  A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which are often said to have more in common with the Canadian Shield than the Appalachians. The Canadian Shield &mdash also called the Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier Canadien (French &mdash is a large geological shield covered by ), or Appalachians, are a vast
The range is mostly located in the United States but extends into southeastern Canada, forming a zone, from 100 to 300 miles (160 to 480 km) wide, running from the island of Newfoundland 1,500 miles (2,400 km) south-westward to central Alabama in the United States (with foothills in northeastern Mississippi). The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States The system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft (900 m). The highest of the group is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet (2,037 m), which is the highest point in the United States east of the Mississippi River. North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to
The term Appalachia refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range. Appalachia is a term used to describe a region in the eastern United States that stretches from southern New York state to northern Alabama, Most broadly, it refers to the entire mountain range with its surrounding hills and the dissected plateau region. However, the term is often used more restrictively to refer to regions in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, usually including areas in the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, and North Carolina, and sometimes extending as far south as northern Georgia and western South Carolina, as far north as Pennsylvania, and as far west as southern Ohio. The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule South Carolina ( is a state in the southern region ( Deep South) of the United States of America. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads
The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were originally part of the Appalachians as well, but were disconnected through geologic history. The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range located in west central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Oklahoma ( is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America.
While exploring the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American town whose name they transcribed as Apalachen [a. The Narváez expedition was a Spanish attempt to install Pánfilo de Narváez as Adelantado (governor of Spanish Florida during Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca ( Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, ca Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States paˈla. tʃɛn]. This name and its pronunciation were applied to the Apalachee Native Americans, as well as a nearby body of water, now spelled Apalachee Bay, to the Apalachicola River, Apalachicola Bay, and the Apalachicola Native Americans, and to the city known as Apalachicola, Florida.
The word "Apalachen" was also applied to an inland mountain range, and through the course of time it became applied to the entire range and its spelling was changed.
In southern U. S. dialects, the mountains are pronounced as the [æ. pəˈlæ. tʃənz], with the third and fourth syllables sounding like "latch". In northern U. S. dialects, the mountains are pronounced as the [æ. pəˈleɪ. tʃənz] or [æ. pəˈleɪ. ʃənz]; the third syllable is like "lay", and the fourth is either "chins", "shins", or "shuns". Among non-natives, it is common to pronounce the last two syllables like "Asians".
The whole system may be divided into three great sections: the Northern, from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River; the Central, from the Hudson Valley to the New River (Great Kanawha), in Virginia and West Virginia; and the Southern, from the New River onwards. The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second largest country in total area. Newfoundland and Labrador (ˈnuːfɨn(dlənd ən(d ˈlæbrəˌdɔr (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami The New River, a tributary of the Kanawha River, is approximately 320 mi (515 km long flowing through the states of North Carolina, Virginia, and
The northern section includes the Long Range Mountains and Annieopsquotch Mountains on the island of Newfoundland, Chic-Choc Mountains and Notre Dame Range in Quebec and New Brunswick, scattered elevations and small ranges elsewhere in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the Longfellow Mountains in Maine, the White Mountains in New Hampshire, the Green Mountains in Vermont, and The Berkshires in Massachusetts and Connecticut. The Long Range Mountains are a series of Mountains along the west coast of the Canadian island of Newfoundland. The Annieopsquotch Mountains are located in the southwestern interior of the island of Newfoundland, east of Bay St The Chic-Choc Mountains, often called Shick Shocks in English, is a group of mountains in the central Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec, Canada The Notre Dame Mountains are a portion of the Appalachian Mountains, extending from the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec to the Green Mountains of The Longfellow Mountains, named after the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1959 are an interrupted Mountain range in the state of Maine, running from The White Mountains are a Mountain range that covers about a quarter of the state of New Hampshire and a small portion of western Maine in the The Green Mountains are a Mountain range in the US state of Vermont. Please note that this article on the Berkshires is about a geologic and cultural region in the United States for other uses see Berkshire (disambiguation The central section comprises, besides various minor groups, the Valley Ridges between the Allegheny Front of the Allegheny Plateau and the Great Appalachian Valley, the New York - New Jersey Highlands, the Taconic Mountains in New York, and a large portion of the Blue Ridge. The Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, also called the Ridge and Valley Province or the Valley and Ridge Appalachians, are a physiographic province of The Allegheny Front is a portion of the Escarpment that delineates the eastern edge of the Appalachian Plateau (locally called the Allegheny Plateau The Allegheny Plateau is a large Dissected plateau area in western and central New York, northern and western Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia The Great Valley, also called the Great Appalachian Valley or Great Valley Region, is one of the major landform features of eastern North America. The New York - New Jersey Highlands is a Geological formation composed primarily of Precambrian Igneous and Metamorphic rock running from the The Taconic Mountains are a physiographic section of the larger New England province and part of the Appalachian Mountains, running along the eastern border The Blue Ridge, or Blue Ridge Mountains, is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division The southern section consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, the Unaka Range, and the Valley Ridges adjoining the Cumberland Plateau, with some lesser ranges. The Unaka Range is a Mountain range on the border of Tennessee and North Carolina, in the southeastern United States The Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, also called the Ridge and Valley Province or the Valley and Ridge Appalachians, are a physiographic province of The Cumberland Plateau is the southern part of the Appalachian Plateau.
The Adirondack Mountains in New York are sometimes considered part of the Appalachian chain but, geologically speaking, are a southern extension of the Laurentian Mountains of Canada. The Adirondack Mountains are a Mountain range located in the northeastern part of New York, that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin The Laurentian Mountains (French Laurentides) are a Mountain range in southern Quebec, Canada, north of the St Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page 
In addition to the true folded mountains, known as the ridge and valley province, the area of dissected plateau to the north and west of the mountains is usually grouped with the Appalachians. The Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, also called the Ridge and Valley Province or the Valley and Ridge Appalachians, are a physiographic province of A dissected plateau is a Plateau area that has been uplifted then severely eroded so that the relief is sharp This includes the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York, the Poconos in Pennsylvania, and the Allegheny Plateau of southwestern New York, western Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio and northern West Virginia. The Catskill Mountains (also known as simply the Catskills) a natural area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The Pocono Mountains region is a mountainous region of about 2400 square miles (6200 km² located in northeastern Pennsylvania. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern The Allegheny Plateau is a large Dissected plateau area in western and central New York, northern and western Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by This same plateau is known as the Cumberland Plateau in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, western Virginia, and eastern Tennessee. The Cumberland Plateau is the southern part of the Appalachian Plateau. West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States.
The dissected plateau area, while not actually made up of geological mountains, is popularly called "mountains", especially in eastern Kentucky and West Virginia, and while the ridges are not high, the terrain is extremely rugged. A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak In Ohio and New York, some of the plateau has been glaciated, which has rounded off the sharp ridges, and filled the valleys to some extent. The glaciated regions are usually referred to as hill country rather than mountains.
The Appalachian region is generally considered the geographical dividing line between the eastern seaboard of the United States and the Midwest region of the country. The Eastern Continental Divide follows the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania to Georgia. The Eastern Divide or Eastern Continental Divide (ECD is a Continental divide in the United States that separates the Gulf of Mexico and The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern
The Appalachian Trail is a 2,175-mile (3,500 km) hiking trail that runs all the way from Mount Katahdin in Maine to Springer Mountain in Georgia, passing over or past a large part of the Appalachian system. The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail or simply The A Mount Katahdin (USGS name is the highest mountain in Maine. Called Katahdin by people local to the peak and by the Penobscot Indians: the term means "The Springer Mountain is located in the Chattahoochee National Forest in Fannin County of northern Georgia. The International Appalachian Trail is an extension of this hiking trail into the Canadian portion of the Appalachian range. The International Appalachian Trail ( IAT; French: Sentier International des Appalaches, SIA) is a Hiking trail which runs from the
The Appalachian belt includes, with the ranges enumerated above, the plateaus sloping southward to the Atlantic Ocean in New England, and south-eastward to the border of the coastal plain through the central and southern Atlantic states; and on the north-west, the Allegheny and Cumberland plateaus declining toward the Great Lakes and the interior plains. A remarkable feature of the belt is the longitudinal chain of broad valleys—the Great Appalachian Valley—which in the southerly sections divides the mountain system into two subequal portions, but in the northernmost lies west of all the ranges possessing typical Appalachian features, and separates them from the Adirondack group. The mountain system has no axis of dominating altitudes, but in every portion the summits rise to rather uniform heights, and, especially in the central section, the various ridges and intermontane valleys have the same trend as the system itself. None of the summits reaches the region of perpetual snow.
Mountains of the Long Range in Newfoundland reach heights of nearly 3,000 ft (910 m). The Long Range Mountains are a series of Mountains along the west coast of the Canadian island of Newfoundland. Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of In the Shickshocks and Notre Dame ranges in Quebec the higher summits rise to about 4,000 ft (1,200 m). The Notre Dame Mountains are a portion of the Appalachian Mountains, extending from the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec to the Green Mountains of elevation. Isolated peaks and small ranges in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick vary from of 1,000 - 2,700 ft (820 m). Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's New Brunswick ( French: Nouveau-Brunswick /nuvobʁɔnzwik/ is one of Canada 's three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally In Maine several peaks exceed 4,000 ft (1,200 m). The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean , including Mount Katahdin (5,267 ft). Mount Katahdin (USGS name is the highest mountain in Maine. Called Katahdin by people local to the peak and by the Penobscot Indians: the term means "The In New Hampshire, many summits rise above 4,000 feet (1,200 m), including Mount Washington in the White Mountains (6,288 ft), plus Adams (5,771), Jefferson (5,712), Monroe (5,380), Madison (5,367), and Lafayette (5,260). New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Mount Washington is the highest peak in the Northeastern United States at. The White Mountains are a Mountain range that covers about a quarter of the state of New Hampshire and a small portion of western Maine in the Mount Adams, elevation above Sea level, is the second highest Mountain in New Hampshire, after Mt Mount Jefferson is located in Coos County, New Hampshire, and is the third highest mountain in the state Mount Monroe is the highest peak south of Mount Washington in the Presidential Range of New Hampshire. Mount Madison is a mountain in the Presidential Range of New Hampshire in the United States Mount Lafayette is a mountain at the northern end of the Franconia Range in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. In the Green Mountains the highest point, Mt. Mansfield, is 4,393 feet (1,339 m) in elevation; others include Killington Peak at 4,226 ft (1,288 m). The Green Mountains are a Mountain range in the US state of Vermont. Mount Mansfield is the highest mountain in the US state of Vermont. Killington Peak is the second highest summit in the Green Mountains and in the U , Camel's Hump at 4,083 ft (1,244 m). Camel's Hump is Vermont 's third highest Mountain and highest undeveloped peak moreover because of its distinctive profile perhaps the state's most recognized , Mt. Abraham at 4,006 ft (1,221 m). Mount Abraham is the fifth tallest peak in Vermont at 4006 ft , and a number of other heights exceeding 3,000 ft (910 m).
In Pennsylvania, there are over sixty summits that rise over 2,500 ft (760 m); the summits of Mount Davis and Blue Knob rise over 3,000 ft (910 m). Mount Davis is the highest Mountain in Pennsylvania, located in the 5685 acre (23 Blue Knob is a peak in the Allegheny Mountains of Pennsylvania in the United States at 3136 feet (955 m In Maryland, Eagle Rock and Dans Mountain are conspicuous points reaching 3,162 ft (964 m). Dans Mountain is located in Allegany County Maryland, USA between Georges Creek and the North Branch Potomac River. and 2,882 ft (878 m). respectively. On the same side of the Great Valley, south of the Potomac, are the Pinnacle (3,007 ft) and Pidgeon Roost (3,400 ft). In West Virginia, more than 150 peaks rise above 4,000 ft (1,200 m). West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by , including Spruce Knob (4863 ft), the highest point in the Allegheny Mountains. Spruce Knob, at, is the highest point in the state of West Virginia, USA and the summit of Spruce Mountain, the tallest mountain in the Alleghenies A number of other points in the state rise above 4,800 ft (1,500 m). Thorny Flat (4,848 ft) and Bald Knob (4,842 ft) are among the more notable peaks in West Virginia. Bald Knob is the highest point on Back Allegheny Mountain in Pocahontas County, West Virginia and is part of Cass Scenic Railroad State Park
The Blue Ridge Mountains, rising in southern Pennsylvania and there known as South Mountain, attain in that state an elevation of about 2,000 ft (610 m). The Blue Ridge, or Blue Ridge Mountains, is a physiographic province of the larger Appalachian division The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern South Mountain is a long Mountain Ridge in Maryland and Pennsylvania which comprises a northern extension of the Blue Ridge Mountains ; southward to the Potomac its altitudes diminish, but once in Virginia the Blue Ridge again reaches 2,000 ft (610 m). The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid- Atlantic coast of the United States. and higher. In the Virginia Blue Ridge, the following are the highest peaks east of the New River: Mary's Rock (3,523 ft), Stony Man (4,031), Hawksbill Mountain (4,066), and Peaks of Otter (4001 and 3875). The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state The New River, a tributary of the Kanawha River, is approximately 320 mi (515 km long flowing through the states of North Carolina, Virginia, and Hawksbill Mountain is the tallest Mountain in Shenandoah National Park with an elvation of 4050 feet (1234 meters The Peaks of Otter are three Mountain peaks in the Blue Ridge Mountains, near, overlooking the town of Bedford Virginia, nine miles (14km
In the southern section of the Blue Ridge are Grandfather Mountain (5,964 ft), with three other summits above 5,000, and a dozen more above 4000. Grandfather Mountain is a mountain near Linville North Carolina. The Unaka Ranges (including the Black and Great Smoky Mountains) have eighteen peaks higher than 5,000 ft (1,500 m). The Unaka Range is a Mountain range on the border of Tennessee and North Carolina, in the southeastern United States , and eight surpassing 6,000 ft (1,800 m). In the Black Mountains, Mt. Mitchell (the culminating point of the whole system) attains an altitude of 6,684 feet (2,037 m). The Black Mountains are a mountain range in western North Carolina, in the southeastern United States In the Great Smoky Mountains, Clingmans Dome (6,643 ft) is the highest peak, with several others above 6,000 and many higher than 5,000. The Great Smoky Mountains are a major Mountain range in the southern part of the Appalachian Mountains, the second ridge line forming a north-south running mountain Clingmans Dome (or Clingman's Dome) is a mountain in the Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina, in the southeastern United States
In spite of the existence of the Great Appalachian Valley, the master streams are transverse to the axis of the system. The height of land (water divide) of the Appalachians follows a tortuous course which crosses the mountainous belt just north of the New River in Virginia; south of the New River the rivers head in the Blue Ridge, cross the higher Unakas, receive important tributaries from the Great Valley, and traversing the Cumberland Plateau in spreading gorges, escape by way of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to the Ohio and Mississippi, and thus to the Gulf of Mexico; in the central section the rivers, rising in or beyond the Valley Ridges, flow through great gorges (water gaps) to the Great Valley, and by south-easterly courses across the Blue Ridge to tidal estuaries penetrating the coastal plain; in the northern section the height of land lies on the inland side of the mountainous belt, the main lines of drainage running from north to south. A drainage divide, water divide, divide or (outside North America) watershed is the line separating neighbouring Drainage basins A drainage divide, water divide, divide or (outside North America) watershed is the line separating neighbouring Drainage basins
The Appalachians are aging mountains. A look at rocks exposed in today's Appalachian mountains reveals elongated belts of folded and thrust faulted marine sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks and slivers of ancient ocean floor, which provides strong evidence that these rocks were deformed during plate collision. In Geology a fault, or fault line, is a planar rock fracture which shows evidence of relative movement Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock types (the others being igneous and Metamorphic rock) Volcanic rock is an Igneous rock of volcanic origin Texture Volcanic rocks are usually fine-grained or Aphanitic to glassy in The birth of the Appalachian ranges, some 300 million years ago, marks the first of several mountain building plate collisions that culminated in the construction of the supercontinent Pangaea with the Appalachians near the center. Pangaea, Pangæa or Pangea (pænˈdʒiːə from παν pan, meaning entire, and Γαῖα Gaea, meaning Earth in Because North America and Africa were connected, the Appalachians form part of the same mountain chain as the Anti-Atlas in Morocco. The Anti-Atlas (الأطلس الصغير is one of the mountain ranges lying in Morocco lying as part of the Atlas mountains in the northwest of Africa Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa To the northeast, the same mountain chain continues into Scotland, from the North America/Europe collision.
During the middle Ordovician Period (about 496-440 million years ago), a change in plate motions set the stage for the first Paleozoic mountain building event (Taconic orogeny) in North America. The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six of the Paleozoic era, and covers the time between 488 The Taconic orogeny was a great mountain building period that perhaps had the greatest overall effect on the geologic structure of basement rocks within the New York Bight The once-quiet Appalachian passive margin changed to a very active plate boundary when a neighboring oceanic plate, the Iapetus, collided with and began sinking beneath the North American craton. The Iapetus Ocean was an Ocean that existed in the Southern Hemisphere between Laurentia ( Scotland and North America) and Baltica Laurentia (also known as the North American craton) like all Craton land was created as continents moved about the surface of the Earth With the birth of this new subduction zone, the early Appalachians were born. In Geology, a subduction zone is an area on Earth where two tectonic plates meet and move towards one another with one sliding underneath the other Along the continental margin, volcanoes grew, coincident with the initiation of subduction. Thrust faulting uplifted and warped older sedimentary rock laid down on the passive margin. As mountains rose, erosion began to wear them down. Streams carried rock debris down slope to be deposited in nearby lowlands. The Taconic Orogeny was just the first of a series of mountain building plate collisions that contributed to the formation of the Appalachians, culminating in the collision of North America and Africa (see Appalachian orogeny). The Alleghenian orogeny or Appalachian orogeny is one of the geological Mountain -forming events ( Orogeny) that formed the Appalachian Mountains
By the end of the Mesozoic era, the Appalachian Mountains had been eroded to an almost flat plain. The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. It was not until the region was uplifted during the Cenozoic Era that the distinctive topography of the present formed. The Cenozoic (also Caenozoic or Cainozoic) Era (ˌsiːnəˈzoʊɪk/ /ˌsɛn- (meaning "new life" ( Greek ( kainos) "new" Uplift rejuvenated the streams, which rapidly responded by cutting downward into the ancient bedrock. A river is said to be rejuvenated when the base level that it is flowing down to is lowered Some streams flowed along weak layers that define the folds and faults created many millions of years earlier. Other streams downcut so rapidly that they cut right across the resistant folded rocks of the mountain core, carving canyons across rock layers and geologic structures. Downcutting, also called erosional downcutting or downward erosion or vertical erosion is a geological process that deepens the channel
The Appalachian Mountains contain major deposits of anthracite coal as well as bituminous coal. Anthracite ( Greek Ανθρακίτης literally "a type of coal" from Anthrax, coal is a hard compact variety of mineral Coal that has a high Bitumen is a mixture of organic Liquids that are highly Viscous, black sticky entirely soluble in Carbon disulfide, and composed primarily In the folded mountains the coal is in metamorphosed form as anthracite represented by the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The Coal Region is a term used to refer to an area of Northeastern Pennsylvania in the central Appalachian Mountains comprising Lackawanna The bituminous coal fields of western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, southeastern Ohio, eastern Kentucky, southwestern Virginia, and West Virginia is the sedimentary form. Western Pennsylvania consists of the western third of the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. See Western Maryland Railway for the Railroad. Western Maryland is the portion of U Southwest Virginia, often abbreviated as SWVA, is a mountainous region of Virginia in the westernmost part of the commonwealth. Some plateaus of the Appalachian Mountains contain metallic minerals such as iron and zinc. Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30
The floras of the Appalachians are diverse and vary primarily in response to geology, latitude, elevation and moisture availability. Geobotanically, they constitute a floristic province of the North American Atlantic Region. A Phytochorion, in Phytogeography, is a geographic area with a relatively uniform composition of plant species Liriodendronflower0117JPG|thumb|right| Liriodendron tulipifera, closely related to L The Appalachians consist primarily of deciduous broad-leaf trees and evergreen needle-leaf conifers, but also contain the evergreen broad-leaf American Holly (Ilex opaca), and the deciduous needle-leaf conifer, the Tamarack, or Eastern Larch (Larix laricina). Ilex opaca ( American Holly) is a species of Holly, native to the eastern United States, from coastal Massachusetts south to central Tamarack Larch, or Tamarack or American Larch ( Larix laricina) is a species of Larch native to northern North America, mainly
The dominant northern and high elevation conifer is the Red Spruce (Picea rubens), which grows from near sea level to above 4000 feet (1219 m) above sea level (asl) in northern New England and southeastern Canada. Picea rubens ( Red Spruce) is a species of Spruce native to eastern North America. History See also History of New England New England's earliest inhabitants were Algonquian -speaking Native Americans including the It also grows southward along the Appalachian crest to the highest elevations of the southern Appalachians, as in North Carolina and Tennessee. In the central Appalachians it is usually confined above 3000 feet (914 m) asl, except for a few cold valleys in which it reaches lower elevations. In the southern Appalachians it is restricted to higher elevations. Another species is the Black Spruce (Picea mariana), which extends farthest north of any conifer in North America, is found at high elevations in the northern Appalachians, and in bogs as far south as Pennsylvania. Picea mariana ( Black Spruce) is a species of Spruce native to northern North America, from Newfoundland west to Alaska
The Appalachians are also home to two species of fir, the boreal Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea), and the southern high elevation endemic, Fraser Fir (Abies fraseri), which is confined to the highest parts of the southern Appalachian mountains. The Balsam Fir ( Abies balsamea) is a North American Fir, native to most of eastern and central Canada ( Newfoundland west to central Abies fraseri ( Fraser Fir) is a species of Fir native to the mountains of the eastern United States. By contrast, Balsam Fir is found from near sea level to the tree line in the northern Appalachians, but ranges only as far south as Virginia and West Virginia in the central Appalachians, where it is usually confined above 3900 feet (1189 m)asl, except in cold valleys. Curiously, it is associated with oaks in Virginia. The Balsam Fir of Virginia and West Virginia is thought by some to be a natural hybrid between the more northern variety and Fraser Fir. While Red Spruce is common in both upland and bog habitats, Balsam Fir, as well as Black Spruce and Tamarack, are more characteristic of the latter. However Balsam Fir also does well in soils with a pH as high as 6 .
Eastern or Canada Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is another important evergreen needle-leaf conifer that grows along the Appalachian chain from north to south, but is confined to lower elevations than Red Spruce and the firs. Tsuga canadensis, also known as Eastern or Canadian Hemlock, and in the French-speaking regions of Canada as Pruche du Canada It generally occupies richer and less acidic soils than the spruce and firs and is characteristic of deep, shaded and moist mountain valleys and coves. It is, unfortunately, subject to the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an introduced insect, that is rapidly extirpating it as a forest tree. Hemlock woolly adelgid ( Adelges tsugae) commonly abbreviated as HWA is a True bug native to East Asia that feeds by sucking sap from hemlock Less abundant, and restricted to the southern Appalachians, is Carolina Hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana). Tsuga caroliniana ( Carolina Hemlock) is a species of Tsuga, native to the Appalachian Mountains in southwest Virginia Like Canada Hemlock, this tree suffers severely from the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid.
Several species of pines characteristic of the Appalachians are Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus ), Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana), Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida ), Table Mountain Pine (Pinus pungens) and Shortleaf Pine (Pinus echinata). Eastern White Pine' ( Pinus strobus) is a large Pine native to eastern North America, occurring from Newfoundland west to Minnesota The Virginia Pine ( Pinus virginiana) is a medium-sized Tree, often found on poorer soils from Long Island in southern New York south through The Pitch Pine ( Pinus rigida) is a small-to-medium sized (6-30 m Tree, often contorted due to fire or weather The Table Mountain Pine ( Pinus pungens) is a small Pine native to the Appalachian Mountains in the United States. Pinus echinata ( Shortleaf Pine) is a species of Pine native to the eastern United States from southern New York south Red Pine (Pinus resinosa) is a boreal species that forms a few high elevation outliers as far south as West Virginia. The Red Pine ( Pinus resinosa) is a Pine native to northeastern North America, occurring from Newfoundland west to southeast Manitoba All of these species except White Pine tend to occupy sandy, rocky, poor soil sites, which are mostly acidic in character. White Pine, a large species valued for its timber, tends to do best in rich, moist soil, either acidic or alkaline in character. Pitch Pine is also at home in acidic, boggy soil, and Table Mountain Pine may occasionally be found in this habitat as well. Shortleaf Pine is generally found in warmer habitats and at lower elevations than the other species. All the species listed do best in open or lightly shaded habitats, although White Pine also thrives in shady coves, valleys, and on floodplains.
The Appalachians are characterized by a wealth of large, beautiful deciduous broadleaf (hardwood) trees. Their occurrences are best summarized and described in E. Lucy Braun's 1950 classic, Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America (Macmillan, New York). E Lucy Braun ( April 19, 1889 &ndash March 5, 1971) was a prominent botanist, ecologist, and expert on the forests of The most diverse and richest forests are the Mixed Mesophytic or medium moisture types, which are largely confined to rich, moist montane soils of the southern and central Appalachians, particularly in the Cumberland and Allegheny Mountains, but also thrive in the southern Appalachian coves. Characteristic canopy species are White Basswood (Tilia heterophylla), Yellow Buckeye (Aesculus octandra), Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum), American Beech (Fagus grandifolia), Tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera), White Ash (Fraxinus americana ) and Yellow Birch (Betula alleganiensis). Tilia heterophylla ( White Basswood) is a species of Tilia native to Mesic forests in eastern North America from central Yellow Buckeye ( Aesculus flava, syn A octandra) is a species of buckeye native to the Ohio Valley and Appalachian Mountains Acer saccharum ( Sugar Maple) is a species of Maple native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia The American Beech Fagus grandifolia is a species of Beech native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Ontario "Tulip tree" redirects here For the African tulip tree see Spathodea campanulata. Fraxinus americana ( White Ash or American Ash) is a species of Fraxinus native to eastern North America Betula alleghaniensis ( Yellow Birch) is a species of Birch native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia, Other common trees are Red Maple (Acer rubrum), Shagbark and Bitternut Hickories (Carya ovata and C. Acer rubrum ( Red Maple, also known as Swamp or Soft Maple) is one of the most common and widespread deciduous Trees of eastern The Shagbark Hickory ( Carya ovata) is a common Hickory in the eastern United States and southeast Canada. The Bitternut Hickory ( Carya cordiformis) is a common Hickory native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada, from Minnesota cordiformis) and Black or Sweet Birch (Betula lenta ). Betula lenta ( Sweet Birch, also known as Black Birch, Cherry Birch, Mahogany Birch, or Spice Birch) is a species of Small understory trees and shrubs include Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida), Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) and Spicebush (Lindera benzoin). Cornus florida ( Flowering Dogwood, syn Benthamidia florida (L Ostrya is a Genus of eight to ten small Deciduous Trees belonging to the birch family Betulaceae. Witch-hazel ( Hamamelis) is a Genus of Flowering plants in the family Hamamelidaceae, with two species in North America Lindera is a genus of about 80-100 species of Flowering plants in the family Lauraceae, mostly native to eastern Asia but with three species There are also hundreds of perennial and annual herbs, among them such herbal and medicinal plants as American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) and Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). Ginseng refers to species within Panax, a genus of 11 species of slow-growing Perennial plants with fleshy roots in the family Araliaceae. Goldenseal ( Orange-root, Orangeroot; Hydrastis canadensis) is a perennial Herb in the Buttercup family Bloodroot ( Sanguinaria canadensis) is a perennial, Herbaceous Flowering plant native to eastern North America from Nova Actaea racemosa ( Black cohosh, Black bugbane or Black snakeroot or Fairy candle; syn
The foregoing trees, shrubs and herbs are also more widely distributed in less rich mesic forests that generally occupy coves, stream valleys and flood plains throughout the southern and central Appalachians at low and intermediate elevations. In Ecology, a mesic habitat is a type of Habitat with a moderate or well-balanced supply of Moisture, i In the northern Appalachians and at higher elevations of the central and southern Appalachians these diverse mesic forests give way to less diverse "Northern Hardwoods" with canopies dominated only by American Beech, Sugar Maple, American Basswood (Tilia americana) and Yellow Birch and with far fewer species of shrubs and herbs. Tilia americana is a species of Tilia, native to eastern North America, from southeast Manitoba east to New Brunswick
Dryer and rockier uplands and ridges are occupied by Oak-Chestnut type forests dominated by a variety of oaks (Quercus spp. ), hickories (Carya spp. Trees in the genus Carya (from Ancient Greek κάρυον " Nut " are commonly known as Hickory. ) and, in the past, by the American Chestnut (Castanea dentata). The American Chestnut ( Castanea dentata) is a large Deciduous tree of the oak family native to eastern North America The American Chestnut was virtually eliminated as a canopy species by the introduced fungal Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectaria parasitica), but lives on as sapling-sized sprouts that originate from roots, which are not killed by the fungus. The chestnut blight is a fungal disease caused by the sac fungus ( Ascomycota) Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly Endothia parasitica) which In present day forest canopies Chestnut has been largely replaced by oaks.
The oak forests of the southern and central Appalachians consist largely of Black, Northern Red, White, Chestnut and Scarlet Oaks (Quercus velutina, Q. The Northern Red Oak or Champion Oak, Quercus rubra ( syn Quercus borealis) is an Oak in the red oak group ( The tree species Quercus alba, also called "white oak" is one of the pre-eminent hardwoods of eastern North America The Chestnut oak ( Quercus prinus; synonyms Quercus montana Willd The Scarlet Oak ( Quercus coccinea) is an Oak in the red oak section Quercus sect rubra, Q. alba, Q. prinus and Q. coccinea) and hickories, such as the Pignut (Carya glabra) in particular. The richest forests, which grade into mesic types, usually in coves and on gentle slopes, have dominantly White and Northern Red Oaks, while the driest sites are dominated by Chestnut Oak, or sometimes by Scarlet or Northern Red Oaks. In the northern Appalachians the oaks, except for White and Northern Red, drop out, while the latter extends farthest north.
The oak forests generally lack the diverse small tree, shrub and herb layers of mesic forests. Shrubs are generally ericaceous, and include the evergreen Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia), various species of blueberries (Vaccinium spp. Kalmia latifolia, commonly called Mountain-laurel or Spoonwood, is a Flowering plant in the family Ericaceae, native Blueberries are Flowering plants in the genus Vaccinium, sect ), Black Huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), a number of deciduous rhododendrons (azaleas), and smaller heaths such as Teaberry ( Gaultheria procumbens) and Trailing Arbutus (Epigaea repens ). Rhododendron (from the Greek: rhodos, "rose" and dendron, "tree" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Gaultheria procumbens ( Eastern Teaberry, Checkerberry, Boxberry or American Wintergreen) is a species of Gaultheria Epigaea repens ( Mayflower or Trailing Arbutus) is a low spreading Shrub in the Ericaceae family The evergreen Great Rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) is characteristic of moist stream valleys. These occurrences are in line with the prevailing acidic character of most oak forest soils. In contrast, the much rarer Chinquapin Oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) demands alkaline soils and generally grows where limestone rock is near the surface. The Chinkapin Oak ( Quercus muhlenbergii) is an Oak in the white oak group ( Quercus sect Hence no ericaceous shrubs are associated with it.
The Appalachian floras also include a diverse assemblage of bryophytes (mosses and liverworts), as well as fungi. Bryophytes are all Embryophytes ('land Plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems but they lack Vascular tissue A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Some species are rare and/or endemic. As with vascular plants, these tend to be closely related to the character of the soils and thermal environment in which they are found.
Eastern deciduous forests are subject to a number of serious insect and disease outbreaks. Among the most conspicuous is that of the introduced Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar), which infests primarily oaks, causing severe defoliation and tree mortality. The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin But it also has the benefit of eliminating weak individuals, and thus improving the genetic stock, as well as creating rich habitat of a type through accumulation of dead wood. Because hardwoods sprout so readily, this moth is not as harmful as the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. Hemlock woolly adelgid ( Adelges tsugae) commonly abbreviated as HWA is a True bug native to East Asia that feeds by sucking sap from hemlock Perhaps more serious is the introduced Beech Bark Disease Complex, which includes both a scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga) and fungal components.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries the Appalachian forests were subject to severe and destructive logging and land clearing, which resulted in the designation of the National Forests and Parks as well many state protected areas. However, these and a variety of other destructive activities continue, albeit in diminished forms; and thus far only a few ecologically based management practices have taken hold.
Animals that characterize the Appalachian forests include five species of tree squirrels. The most commonly seen is the low to moderate elevation Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). The eastern gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis) is a Tree squirrel native to the eastern and Midwestern United States and to the southerly Occupying similar habitat is the slightly larger Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger) and the much smaller Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans). The Fox Squirrel ( Sciurus niger) is the largest species of tree Squirrels native to North America. The Southern Flying Squirrel ( Glaucomys volans) is one of two Species of the Genus Glaucomys, the only Flying More characteristic of cooler northern and high elevation habitat is the Red Squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), whereas the Appalachian Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus), which closely resembles the Southern Flying Squirrel, is confined to northern hardwood and spruce-fir forests. The American Red Squirrel ( Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) is one of two species of tree squirrel currently classified in the genus Tamiasciurus and The Northern flying squirrel ( Glaucomys sabrinus) is one of two species of the genus Glaucomys, the only Flying squirrels found in North
As familiar as squirrels are the Eastern Cottontail rabbit (Silvilagus floridanus) and the White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The Eastern Cottontail ( Sylvilagus floridanus) is a New World Cottontail rabbit, a member of the family Leporidae. The White-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) also known as the Virginia deer, or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized Deer found throughout The latter in particular has greatly increased in abundance as a result of the extirpation of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus ) and the Eastern Cougar or Mountain Lion (Felis concolor cougar) by Euro-Americans. The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The cougar ( Puma concolor) also puma, mountain lion, or panther, depending on region is a Mammal of the Felidae family This has led to the overgrazing and browsing of many plants of the Appalachian forests, as well as destruction of agricultural crops. Other deer include the Moose (Alces alces ), found only in the north, and the Elk (Cervus canadensis), which, although once extirpated, is now making a comeback, through transplantation, in the southern and central Appalachians. The moose (North America or elk (Europe Alces alces, is the largest extant Species in the Deer family. The elk, or wapiti ( Cervus canadensis) is one of the largest Species of Deer in the world and one of the largest Mammals in In Quebec, the Chic-Chocs host the only population of Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) south of the St. Lawrence River. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway An additional species that is common in the north but extends its range southward at high elevations to Virginia and West Virginia is the Varying or Snowshoe Hare (Lepus americanus). The Snowshoe Hare ( Lepus americanus) also called the Varying Hare, is a species of Hare found in North America. However, these central Appalachian populations are scattered and very small.
Another species of great interest is the Beaver (Castor canadensis), which is showing a great resurgence in numbers after its near extirpation for its pelt. Beavers are two primarily nocturnal semi-aquatic species of Rodent, one native to North America and one to Europe This resurgence is bringing about a drastic alteration in habitat through the construction of dams and other structures throughout the mountains.
Other common forest animals are the Black Bear (Ursus americanus), Striped Skunk (Mephitis mephitis), Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Woodchuck (Marmota monax), Bobcat (Felis rufus), Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and in recent years, the Coyote (Canis latrans), another species favored by the advent of Europeans and the extirpation of the Gray Wolf. The American Black Bear ( Ursus americanus) is the most common Bear Species native to North America. The Striped Skunk, Mephitis mephitis, is an Omnivorous Mammal of the skunk family Mephitidae. The raccoon ( Procyon lotor) (sometimes spelt as racoon) also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, northern raccoon The groundhog ( Marmota monax) also known as the woodchuck land beaver or whistlepig, is a Rodent of the family Sciuridae The Bobcat ( Lynx rufus) is a North American Mammal of the cat family Felidae. The Gray Fox ( Urocyon cinereoargenteus) is a Mammal of the order Carnivora ranging throughout most of the southern half of North America The coyote (kaɪˈoʊti ˈkaɪoʊt ( Canis latrans) also known as the prairie wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora
Characteristic birds of the forest are Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus), Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura), Common Raven (Corvus corax), Wood Duck (Aix sponsa), Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus), Barred Owl (Strix varia), Screech Owl (Megascops asio), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus), and Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), as well as a great variety of "songbirds" (Passeriformes), like the warblers in particular. The Wild Turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) is native to North America and is the heaviest member of the Galliformes. The Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus, is a medium-sized Grouse occurring in forests from the Appalachian Mountains across Canada For the Native American author of the same name see Mourning Dove (author The Mourning Dove ( Zenaida macroura) is a member of the See also Australian Wood Duck. The Wood Duck or Carolina Duck ( Aix sponsa) is a medium-sized Perching duck. The Great Horned Owl, Bubo virginianus, is a large owl native to North and South America The Barred Owl, Strix varia, is a large Typical owl. It goes by many other names including eight hooter, rain owl, wood owl, Scops-owls are Strigidae (typical Owls belong to the Genus Otus. The Red-tailed Hawk ( Buteo jamaicensis) is a medium-sized Bird of prey, one of three species colloquially known in the United States as the " The Red-shouldered Hawk, (Buteo lineatus, is a medium-sized Hawk. The Goshawk ('ɡɔːshɔːk Accipiter gentilis; from OE góshafoc 'goose-hawk' is a medium-large Bird of prey in the family Accipitridae
Of great importance are the many species of salamanders, and in particular the lungless species (Family Plethodontidae) that live in great abundance concealed by leaves and debris, on the forest floor. Salamander (orig from Persian: sām, "fire" and andarūn, "within" is the common name for a group of approximately 500 Species Lungless salamanders (family Plethodontidae) are distinguished from other families of Salamanders by the following traits No lungs Most frequently seen, however, is the Eastern or Red-spotted Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens), whose terrestrial eft form is often encountered on the open, dry forest floor. The eastern newt ( Notophthalmus viridescens) is a common Salamander of eastern North America. It has been estimated that salamanders represent the largest class of animal biomass in the Appalachian forests. Frogs and toads are of lesser diversity and abundance, but the Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica) is, like the eft, commonly encountered on the dry forest floor, while a number of species of small frogs, such as Spring Peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), enliven the forest with their calls. Wood frog is the common name given to Rana sylvatica. The wood frog has a broad North American distribution extending from the southern Appalachians to the boreal forest A spring peeper ( Pseudacris crucifer) is a small Tree frog widespread throughout the eastern USA and Canada. Salamanders and other amphibians contribute greatly to nutrient cycling through their consumption of small life forms on the forest floor and in aquatic habitats.
Although reptiles are less abundant and diverse than amphibians, a number of snakes are conspicuous members of the fauna. One of the largest is the non-poisonous Black Rat Snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta), while the Common Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) is among the smallest but most abundant. Common names black rat snake pilot black snake black snake Elaphe obsoleta is a non-venomous Colubrid Species The common garter snake ( Thamnophis sirtalis) is a Snake indigenous to North America. The American Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the Timber Rattler (Crotalus horridus) are poisonous pit vipers. Common names: copperhead (snake chunk head death adder (dry-land moccasin more. Common names timber rattlesnake canebrake rattlesnake banded rattlesnake more. Common names: pit vipers pitvipers The Crotalinae, or crotalines are a subfamily of venomous vipers found There are few lizards, but the Broad-headed Skink (Eumeces laticeps), at up to 13 inches (33 cm) in length, and an excellent climber and swimmer, is one of the largest and most spectacular in appearance and action. The Broad-headed Skink ( Eumeces laticeps) is &mdash together with the Great Plains Skink  &mdash the largest of the Eumeces -skinks The most common turtle is the Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina), which is found in both upland and lowland forests in the central and southern Appalachians. The Eastern Box Turtle ( Terrapene carolina carolina) is a Subspecies within a group of Hinge -shelled turtles normally called Box turtles Prominent among aquatic species is the large Common Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina), which occurs throughout the Appalachians. The Common Snapping Turtle ( Chelydra serpentina) is a large freshwater Turtle of the family Chelydridae
Appalachian streams are notable for their highly diverse freshwater fish life. Among the most abundant and diverse are those of the minnow family (Family Cyprinidae), while species of the colorful Darters (Percina spp. The family Cyprinidae, from the Ancient Greek κυπρῖνος ( kuprīnos "carp" consists of the Carps The fish popularly known as darters are small Perch -like fish ) are also abundant .
A characteristic fish of shaded, cool Appalachian forest streams is the Wild Brook or Speckled Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), which is much sought after for its sporting qualities. The brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, (sometimes called the eastern brook trout, Adirondack coaster lake trout) is a Species of Fish However in past years such trout waters have been much degraded by increasing temperatures due to timber cutting, global warming and by pollution from various sources.
For a century, the Appalachians were a barrier to the westward expansion of the British colonies (or, from a different perspective, a major protection to the Native American tribes living to the west of the mountains). Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The continuity of the mountain system, the bewildering multiplicity of its succeeding ridges, the tortuous courses and roughness of its transverse passes, a heavy forest, and dense undergrowth all conspired to hold the settlers on the seaward-sloping plateaus and coastal plains. Only by way of the Hudson and Mohawk Valleys, and round about the southern termination of the system were there easy routes to the interior of the country, and these were long closed by powerful Native American tribes such as the Iroquois, Creek, and Cherokee, among others. For the Magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine The Mohawk Valley ( Yenęˀná•ˀna•č in Tuscarora) region of the U Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact British expansion was also blocked by Spanish colonies in the south and French activity throughout the interior.
In eastern Pennsylvania the Great Appalachian Valley, or Great Valley, was accessible by reason of a broad gateway between the end of South Mountain and the Highlands, and here between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers settled many Germans and Moravians, whose descendants even now retain the peculiar patois known as "Pennsylvania Dutch". The Great Valley, also called the Great Appalachian Valley or Great Valley Region, is one of the major landform features of eastern North America. South Mountain is a long Mountain Ridge in Maryland and Pennsylvania which comprises a northern extension of the Blue Ridge Mountains The German people (Deutsche are an Ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, descent and speaking the German language as This article deals with the modern national/ethnic group For other meanings see Moravian. The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch, Pennsylvania Germans or Pennsylvania Deutsch) are the descendants of German These were late comers to the New World forced to the frontier to find cheap land. With their followers of both German and Scots-Irish origin, they worked their way southward and soon occupied all of the Shenandoah Valley, ceded by the Iroquois, and the upper reaches of the Great Valley tributaries of the Tennessee, ceded by the Cherokee. Scotch-Irish (the historically common term in North America) or Scots-Irish refers to inhabitants of the United States and by some of Canada The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia and West Virginia is bounded by the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Appalachian Tennessee ( is a state located in the Southern United States.
By 1755, the obstacle to westward expansion had been thus reduced by half; outposts of the English colonists had penetrated the Allegheny and Cumberland plateaus, threatening French monopoly in the transmontane region, and a conflict became inevitable. Making common cause against the French to determine the control of the Ohio valley, the unsuspected strength of the colonists was revealed, and the successful ending of the French and Indian War extended England's territory to the Mississippi. The Ohio River is the largest Tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. The French and Indian War (1754&ndash1763 was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to To this strength the geographic isolation enforced by the Appalachian mountains had been a prime contributor. The confinement of the colonies between an ocean and a mountain wall led to the fullest occupation of the coastal border of the continent, which was possible under existing conditions of agriculture, conducing to a community of purpose, a political and commercial solidarity, which would not otherwise have been developed. As early as 1700 it was possible to ride from Portland, Maine, to southern Virginia, sleeping each night at some considerable village. Portland is the largest city in the US state of Maine and the County seat of Cumberland County. The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state In contrast to this complete industrial occupation, the French territory was held by a small and very scattered population, its extent and openness adding materially to the difficulties of a disputed tenure. Bearing the brunt of this contest as they did, the colonies were undergoing preparation for the subsequent struggle with the home government. Unsupported by shipping, the American armies fought toward the sea with the mountains at their back protecting them against British leagued with the Aboriginals. The few settlements beyond the Great Valley were free for self-defence because debarred from general participation in the conflict by reason of their position.
Before the French and Indian War, the Appalachian Mountains lay on the indeterminate boundary between Britain's colonies along the Atlantic and French areas centered in the Mississippi basin. The French and Indian War (1754&ndash1763 was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. After the French and Indian War, the Proclamation of 1763 restricted settlement for Great Britain's thirteen original colonies in North America to east of the summit line of the mountains (except in the northern regions where the Great Lakes formed the boundary). The Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by King George III following Great Britain 's acquisition of French territory See also Kingdom of Great Britain Great Britain (Breatainn Mhòr Prydain Fawr Breten Veur Graet Breetain is the larger of the two main islands The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. Although the line was adjusted several times to take frontier settlements into account and was impossible to enforce as law, it was strongly resented by backcountry settlers throughout the Appalachians. The Proclamation Line can be seen as one of the grievances which led to the American Revolutionary War. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" Many frontier settlers held that the defeat of the French opened the land west of the mountains to English settlement, only to find settlement barred by the British King's proclamation. The backcountry settlers who fought in the Illinois campaign of George Rogers Clark were motivated to secure their settlement of Kentucky. The Illinois campaign was a series of events in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783 in which a small force of Virginia militiamen led by George Rogers Clark (November 19 1752 – February 13 1818 was a soldier from Virginia and the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during
With the formation of the United States of America, an important first phase of westward expansion in the late 18th century and early 19th century consisted of the migration of European-descended settlers westward across the mountains into the Ohio Valley through the Cumberland Gap and other mountain passes. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the This is a simplified list of United States territorial acquisitions, beginning with American independence. The Ohio River is the largest Tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. "Cumberland Gap" is also the informal name for a section of the A74 in England; the name of a song by Skiffle artist Lonnie Donegan The Erie Canal, finished in 1825, formed the first route through the Appalachians that was capable of large amounts of commerce. The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes
These journals feature useful articles about Appalachian flora and fauna: