Antwerp (Dutch: , French: Anvers) is a city and municipality in Belgium and the capital of the Antwerp province in Flanders, one of Belgium's three regions. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people A city is an Urban area with a large Population and a particular Administrative, Legal, or Historical status A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly denotes a City, Town, or Village, or The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Antwerp ( Antwerpen) is the northernmost province both of the Flemish Region, also called Flanders and of Belgium. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Antwerp's total population is ca. 461,496 (as of January 2006) and its total area is 204. 51 km² with a population density of 2,257 inhabitants per km².,
Antwerp has long been an important city in the nations of the Benelux both economically and culturally. The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt The Benelux is an economic union in Western Europe that includes three neighboring monarchies, '''Be'''lgium, the '''Ne'''therlands, and It is located on the right bank of the river Scheldt, which is linked to the North Sea by the Westerschelde. The Scheldt (Dutch Schelde, French Escaut, Latin Scaldis) is a 350 km[http //www The North Sea is a marginal, Epeiric sea of the Atlantic Ocean on the European Continental shelf. Western Scheldt (Dutch Westerschelde) in the province Zeeland in the southwestern Netherlands, is the Estuary of the Scheldt river
According to folklore, and as celebrated by the statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend involving a mythical giant called Antigoon who lived near the river Scheldt. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological A statue is a Sculpture in the round representing a person or persons an animal or an event normally full-length as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size A city hall or town hall is the chief administrative building of a City or Town 's administration and usually houses the city or A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to The Mythology and Legends of many different Cultures include monsters of human appearance but prodigious size and strength Druon Antigoon was a mythical giant who lived in Antwerp and who was killed by a Roman soldier called Silvius Brabo. The Scheldt (Dutch Schelde, French Escaut, Latin Scaldis) is a 350 km[http //www He exacted a toll from those crossing the river, and for those who refused, he severed one of their hands and threw it into the river Scheldt. Eventually, the giant was slain by a young hero named Brabo, who cut off the giant's own hand and flung it into the river. Silvius Brabo is a mythical Roman soldier who is said to have killed a giant and by this would have created the name Brabant Later this story was also used Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen—akin to Old English hand and wearpan (= to throw), that has changed to today's warp. Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname 
In favour of this folk etymology is the fact that hand-cutting was indeed practised in Europe, the right hand of a man who died without issue being cut off and sent to the feudal lord as proof of main-morte. However, John Lothrop Motley argues that Antwerp's name derives from an 't werf (on the wharf). John Lothrop Motley ( April 15, 1814 - May 29, 1877) was an American Historian.  Aan 't werp (at the warp) is also possible. This 'warp' (thrown ground) would be a man made hill, just high enough to remain dry at high tide, whereupon a farm would be built. An other word for werp is pol (hence polders). A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments known as dikes, that forms an artificial hydrological entity meaning it has no connection with
The most prevailing theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante (against) Verpia (deposition, sedimentation), indicating land that forms by deposition in the inside curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a transition period between 600 to 750, followed a different track. This must have coincided roughly with the current ringway south of the city, situating the city within a former curve of the river. 
The historical Antwerp had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus civilization. In the history of the Roman empire, a vicus (pl vici was an ad hoc provincial civilian settlement that sprang up close to and because of a nearby official Roman Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952-1961 (ref. Princeton), pottery shards and fragments of glass from mid-second century to the end of the third century.
In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named, having been settled by the Germanic Franks. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 4th century (per the Julian calendar and Anno Domini / Common era) was that Century The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group  The name was reputed to have been derived from "anda" (at) and "werpum" (wharf). 
The Merovingian Antwerp, now fortified, was evangelized by Saint Amand in the seventh century. The Merovingians (also Merovings) were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region (known as Francia in Latin For places named after Saint Amandus see Saint-Amand. For the leaders of the Gallic rebellion under Diocletian, including Amandus see Aelianus (rebel At the end of the tenth century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Antwerp became a margraviate, a border province facing the County of Flanders. Margrave (marchio is the English and French form (recorded since 1551 of the German Title Markgraf (from Mark " The County of Flanders was a historical region in the Low Countries.
In the eleventh century Godfrey of Bouillon was for some years best known as marquis of Antwerp. Godfrey of Bouillon (c 1060 Boulogne-sur-Mer &ndash 18 July 1100, Jerusalem) was a medieval knight who was a leader of the First A marquess (ˈmɑrkwɪs or marquis (/mɑrˈkiː/ is a Nobleman of hereditary rank in various European monarchies and some of their colonies In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Saint Norbert of Xanten (c 1080&ndash 6 June 1134) is a Christian Saint and founder of the Norbertine or Premonstratensian order The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians (OPraem and in Britain and Ireland as the White Canons (from the colour of Michael’s Abbey at Caloes.
Antwerp was the headquarters of Edward III during his early negotiations with Jacob van Artevelde, and his son Lionel, the earl of Cambridge, was born there in 1338. Edward III (13 November 1312 &ndash 21 June 1377 was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages. Jacob van Artevelde (c 1290 - July 24 1345) also known as the Wise Man and the Brewer of Ghent, was a Flemish statesman The title of Earl of Cambridge was created several times in the Peerage of England, and since 1362 the title has been closely associated with the Royal Family
After the closing of the Zwin and the consequent decline of Bruges, the city of Antwerp, then part of the Duchy of Brabant, became of importance. The Zwin is a Nature reserve at the North Sea coast on the Belgian - Dutch border Bruges (Brugge is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. The Duchy of Brabant was a historical region in the Low Countries. At the end of the 15th century the foreign trading houses were transferred from Bruges to Antwerp, and the building assigned to the English nation is specifically mentioned in 1510. Bruges (Brugge is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Fernand Braudel states that Antwerp became "the center of the entire international economy—something Bruges had never been even at its height. Fernand Braudel ( August 24 1902 &ndash November 27 1985) was the foremost French historian of the postwar era " (Braudel 1985 p. 143. ) Antwerp's "Golden Age" is tightly linked to the "Age of Exploration". The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored Over the first half of the 16th century Antwerp grew to become the second largest European city north of the Alps by 1560. Many foreign merchants were resident in the city. Guicciardini, the Venetian envoy, stated that hundreds of ships would pass in a day, and 2000 carts entered the city each week. Francesco Guicciardini ( March 6, 1483 - May 22, 1540) was an Italian Historian and Statesman. Portuguese ships laden with pepper and cinnamon would unload their cargo. Black pepper ( Piper nigrum) is a flowering Vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its Fruit, which is usually dried Cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum, synonym C zeylanicum) is a small Evergreen Tree 10–15 metres (32
Without a long-distance merchant fleet, and governed by an oligarchy of banker-aristocrats forbidden to engage in trade, the economy of Antwerp was foreigner-controlled, which made the city very international, with merchants and traders from Venice, Ragusa, Spain and Portugal. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the ||-||-||-||-||-||-||} Dubrovnik (ˈdǔbro̞ːʋniːk Dalmatian: Ragusa; Latin: Ragusium, also Rhausium, Rhaugia; Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Antwerp had a policy of toleration, which attracted a large orthodox Jewish community. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Antwerp was not a "free" city though, since it had been reabsorbed into the duchy of Brabant in 1406 and was controlled from Brussels. The Duchy of Brabant was a historical region in the Low Countries. Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is
Antwerp experienced three booms during its golden age, the first based on the pepper market, a second launched by American silver coming from Seville (ending with the bankruptcy of Spain in 1557), and a third boom, after the stabilising Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, in 1559, based on the textiles industry. The term Golden age is best known from Greek mythology and legend but can also be found in other ancient cultures (see below The Italian War of 1551 ( 1551 – 1559) sometimes known as the Habsburg-Valois War, began when Henry II of France, who had succeeded The boom-and-bust cycles and inflationary cost-of-living squeezed less-skilled workers.
The religious revolution of the Reformation erupted in violent riots in August 1566, as in other parts of the Netherlands. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time The regent Margaret, duchess of Parma, was swept aside when Philip II sent the Duke of Alba at the head of an army the following summer. Philip II (Felipe II de España Filipe I ( May 21, 1527 &ndash September 13 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598 Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel 3rd Duke of Alba (Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel tercer duque de Alba ( October 29, When the Eighty Years' War broke out in 1572, commercial trading between Antwerp and the Spanish port of Bilbao was not possible. The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years' War or the Revolt of the Netherlands (1568—1648 was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries Bilbao, (also Bilbo) in the North of Spain, is the largest city in the Basque Country and the capital of the province of Biscay (Basque On November 4, 1576, the Spanish soldiers plundered the city. Events 1333 - Flood of the Arno River, causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani During the Spanish Fury 6000 citizens were massacred, 800 houses were burnt down, and over two millions sterling of damage was done. The sack of Antwerp during the Eighty Years' War is known as the Spanish Fury.
Antwerp became the capital of the Dutch revolt. The Dutch Revolt, Eighty Years' War or the Revolt of the Netherlands (1568—1648 was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Low Countries In 1585, Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, captured it after a long siege and sent its Protestant citizens into exile. Alexander Farnese ( Italian: Alessandro Farnese, Spanish: Alejandro Farnesio, ( August 27 1545 &ndash Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Antwerp's banking was controlled for a generation by Genoa and Amsterdam became the new trading centre. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Amsterdam (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland in the west
The recognition of the independence of the United Provinces by the Treaty of Munster in 1648 stipulated that the Scheldt should be closed to navigation, which destroyed Antwerp's trading activities. "United Netherlands" redirects here For the "Kingdom of the United Netherlands" see United Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Scheldt (Dutch Schelde, French Escaut, Latin Scaldis) is a 350 km[http //www This impediment remained in force until 1863, although the provisions were relaxed during French rule from 1795 to 1814, and also during the time Belgium formed part of the Kingdom of the United Netherlands (1815 to 1830). Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Year 1814 ( MDCCCXIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those United Kingdom of the Netherlands (or Kingdom of the United Netherlands) (1815 - 1830 (1839 (Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas was the unofficial Antwerp had reached the lowest point of its fortunes in 1800, and its population had sunk under 40,000, when Napoleon, realizing its strategic importance, assigned two millions for the construction of two docks and a mole. Year -of the Julian calendar. The Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar until Friday, but 12 days ahead since Saturday. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. In 1830, the city was captured by the Belgian insurgents, but the citadel continued to be held by a Dutch garrison under General David Hendrik Chassé. For the game see 1830 (board game. Year 1830 ( MDCCCXXX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display David Hendrik Baron Chassé ( Tiel, March 18, 1765 &ndash Breda, May 2, 1849) was a Dutch soldier who fought For a time this officer subjected the town to a periodic bombardment which inflicted much damage, and at the end of 1832 the citadel itself was besieged by a French army. Year 1832 ( MDCCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian During this attack the town was further injured. In December 1832, after a gallant defence, Chassé made an honourable surrender.
Antwerp was the first city to host the World Gymnastics Championships, in 1903. The Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique organises World Gymnastics Championships for each of the gymnastic disciplines Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting During World War I, the city became the fallback point of the Belgian Army after the defeat at Liège. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Liège (ljɛːʒ Older English: Luick, Walloon: Lidje, German: Lüttich; Latin: Leodium, Dutch It was taken after heavy fighting by the German Army, and the Belgians were forced to retreat westward.
Antwerp hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics. The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1920 During World War II the city was occupied by Germany in May 1940 and was liberated when the British 11th Armoured Division entered the city on September 4, 1944. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Events 476 - Romulus Augustus, last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed when Odoacer proclaims himself Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. After this, the Germans attempted to destroy the Port of Antwerp, which was used by the Allies to bring new material ashore. ||-||-||-||-||}The Port of Antwerp is a Port accessible to Capesize ships in the heart of Europe Thousands of V-1 and V-2 missiles battered the city. The Fieseler Fi 103, better known as V-1 (German Vergeltungswaffe 1 was an early Cruise missile used during World War Two See also Vergeltungswaffe The V-2 rocket ( Vergeltungswaffe 2 was the first Ballistic missile and first man-made object to achieve The city was hit by more V-2s than any other target during the entire war, but the attack did not succeed in destroying the port since many of the missiles fell upon other parts of the city. As a result, the city itself was severely damaged and rebuilt after the war in a modern style. After the war, Antwerp, which had already had a sizable Jewish population before the war, once again became a major European center of Haredi (and particularly Hasidic) Orthodox Judaism. Haredi or Chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc from the Hebrew: he '''''חסידות''''', Chassidus, meaning "piety" from the Hebrew Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized
This is the population of the city of Antwerp only, not of the larger current municipality of the same name.
The municipality comprises the city of Antwerp proper and several towns. It is divided into nine entities (districts):
In the 16th century, Antwerp was noted for the wealth of its citizens ("Antwerpia nummis"); the houses of these wealthy merchants and manufacturers have been preserved throughout the city. However fire has destroyed several old buildings, such as the house of the Hanseatic League on the northern quays in 1891. The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hansa) was an alliance of trading cities and their Guilds that established and maintained trade The city also suffered considerable war damage by V-bombs, and in recent years other noteworthy buildings were demolished for new developments. Vergeltungswaffe ( German for "retaliatory weapon" "reprisal weapon" or "vengeance weapon" was a term assigned during World War II by the Nazis
Although Antwerp was formerly a fortified city, nothing remains of the former enceinte or of the old citadel defended by General Chassé in 1832, except for the Steen, which has been restored. Enceinte ( Lat. in, within cinctus, girdled to be distinguished from the word meaning pregnant, from in, not and cinctus A citadel is a fortress for protecting a Town, sometimes incorporating a Castle. David Hendrik Baron Chassé ( Tiel, March 18, 1765 &ndash Breda, May 2, 1849) was a Dutch soldier who fought Het Steen is a historic Medieval Castle in the old city center of Antwerp, Belgium, one of Europe's biggest ports Modern Antwerp's broad avenues mark the position of the original fortifications. After the establishment of Belgian independence, Antwerp was defended by the citadel and an enceinte around the city. In 1859, seventeen of the twenty-two fortresses constructed under Wellington's supervision in 1815-1818 were dismantled and the old citadel and enceinte were removed. Wellington (ˈwælɪŋtən is the Capital of New Zealand, the country's second largest urban area, the A new enceinte 8 miles long was constructed, and the villages of Berchem and Borgerhout, now parishes of Antwerp, were absorbed within the city. For the Dutch Golden Age painter see Nicolaes Pieterszoon Berchem Berchem is a southern district of the Municipality Borgerhout is a district of the Municipality and city of Antwerp in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
This enceinte is protected by a broad wet ditch, and in the caponiers are the magazines and store chambers of the fortress. A Caponier is a type of Fortification structure The word originates from the French word "caponnière" - which strictly means Capon -cote i The enceinte has nineteen openings or gateways, but of these seven are not used by the public. As soon as the enceinte was finished eight detached forts from 2 to 2-½ miles from the enceinte were constructed. They begin on the north near Wijnegem and the zone of inundation, and terminate on the south at Hoboken. Wijnegem is a Municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp. Hoboken is a southern district of the arrondissement and city of Antwerp, in the Flemish Region of Belgium. In 1870 Fort Merksem and the redoubts of Berendrecht and Oorderen were built for the defence of the area to be inundated north of Antwerp. Merksem is a district of the Municipality and city of Antwerp in the Flemish Region of Belgium. Berendrecht is a village in Antwerp Province in Belgium. Its name means " dike of the Bear " according to the area's dialect Oorderen was a small Belgian village near the city of Antwerp until 1965
In the 1870s, the fortifications of Antwerp were deemed to be out of date, given the increased range and power of artillery and explosives. Events and Trends Technology The invention of the prototype telephone by Alexander G Antwerp was transformed into a fortified position by constructing an outer line of forts and batteries 6 to 9 miles from the enceinte.
According to the American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) Antwerp's sea port was the seventeenth largest (by tonnage) port in the world in 2005 and second only to Rotterdam in Europe. ||-||-||-||-||}The Port of Antwerp is a Port accessible to Capesize ships in the heart of Europe The American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA is a trade association, founded in 1912 that represents over 150 Port authority organizations throughout Rotterdam (pronounced) is the 2nd-largest City by population in the Netherlands, located in the province of Importantly it handles high volumes of economically attractive general cargo and project cargo, as well as bulk . Definition The transportation handling and installation of heavy items which are indivisible and of weights generally accepted to be in the range of 1 ton to over 1000 tons and Antwerp's docklands, with five oil refineries, are home to a massive concentration of petrochemical industries, second only to the petrochemical cluster in Houston, Texas. An oil refinery is an industrial Process plant where Crude oil is processed and refined into more useful Petroleum products, such as Gasoline Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of Petroleum or other Hydrocarbon origin Power generation is also an important activity, with four nuclear power plants at Doel, a conventional power station in Kallo, as well as several smaller combined cycle plants. A combined cycle is characteristic of a power producing engine or plant that employs more than one Thermodynamic cycle. There are plans for a wind farm in a disused area of the docklands. The old Belgian bluestone quays bordering the Scheldt for a distance of 3 ½ miles to the north and south of the city centre have been retained for their sentimental value and are used mainly by cruise liners and short-sea shipping.
Antwerp's other great mainstay is the diamond trade. In Mineralogy, diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in The city has four diamond bourses. One for boart and three for gem quality goods. Bort or boart is a term used in the Diamond industry to refer to shards of gem -grade/quality diamonds Since WW2 families of the large Hasidic Jewish community have dominated Antwerp's diamond trading industry although the last two decades have seen Indian and Armenian traders become increasingly important. The Jewish community of Antwerp consists of around 22000 Jews In Mineralogy, diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Antwerp World Diamond Centre , the successor to the Hoge Raad voor Diamant, plays an important role in setting standards, regulating professional ethics, training and promoting the interests of Antwerp as a centre of the diamond industry.
A motorway bypass encircles much of the city centre. Known locally as the "Ring" it offers motorway connections to Brussels, Hasselt and Liège, Ghent, Lille and Bruges and Breda and Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands). Brussels (Bruxelles pronounced; Brussel pronounced) officially the Brussels Capital-Region, is ||-||-||} Hasselt is a Belgian City and municipality, and capital of the Flemish province of Limburg. Liège (ljɛːʒ Older English: Luick, Walloon: Lidje, German: Lüttich; Latin: Leodium, Dutch Ghent (ˈɡɛnt Gent ʝɛnt in Dutch, Gand in French, and formerly Gaunt in English) is a City and a Lille (lil Rijsel is a city in northern France. It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in the country Bruges (Brugge is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. Breda ( is a Municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. Bergen op Zoom ( is a Municipality and a city in the south of the Netherlands. The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands The banks of the Scheldt are linked by three road tunnels (in order of construction): the Waasland Tunnel (1934), the Kennedy Tunnel (1967) and the Liefkenshoek Tunnel (1991). A tunnel is an underground passageway The definition of what constitutes a tunnel is not universally agreed upon Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Currently a fourth high volume highway link called "Oosterweelconnection" is in the tendering stage. The "Oosterweelconnection" is a controversial planned Highway that will make the inner ring-road around Antwerp (the R1 complete It will entail the construction of a long viaduct and bridge (the Lange Wapper Bridge) over the Scheldt on the north side of the city. The completion date is as yet uncertain. The cost of the connection is estimated at 2. 2 billion euros.
Antwerp has two major railway stations: Central, which is a monument in itself, and Berchem. Antwerpen-Centraal (Antwerp Central is the name of the main Railway station in the Belgian city of Antwerp. Central Station is a terminal, except for trains to the Netherlands. A through underground connection under Central Station to the north has been completed in 2007 and allows international trains (Brussels-Amsterdam) to call at Central Station without reversing. Before, trains to the Netherlands stopped only at Berchem Station, 2 km to the south of Central, or had to reverse in and out of Central Station and go back to Berchem to follow a railway-line around the city to the north. Further there are international trains to Paris and Lille and national trains going directly to Ghent, Bruges, Ostend, Brussels, Charleroi, Hasselt, Liège and Turnhout. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Lille (lil Rijsel is a city in northern France. It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest Metropolitan area in the country ||-||-||} Ostend  (  Oostende, French and German Ostende) is a Belgian City and municipality located in the Flemish Charleroi (Tchålerwè is the largest city and municipality of Wallonia, located in the province of Hainaut, Belgium. Turnhout is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of Antwerp.
The city has a web of tram and bus lines operated by De Lijn and providing access to the city centre, suburbs and the Left Bank. ||-||-||} Vlaamse Vervoersmaatschappij De Lijn - usually known as De Lijn (in English The Line) - is a company run by the Flemish government in Belgium The tram network has 11 lines, of which the underground section is called the "premetro" and includes a tunnel under the river. A tram, tramcar, trolley, trolley car, or streetcar is a railborne vehicle, of lighter weight and construction than a Train
Antwerp International Airport is in the district of Deurne. Antwerpen International Airport (Deurne is located 2 km from the City of Antwerp, Belgium. Deurne is the second largest district of the municipality of Antwerp, Belgium, (right after the Antwerp town district and has 69408 inhabitants VLM Airlines flies to London (City Airport) and Manchester in England. VLM Airlines (short for Vlaamse Luchttransportmaatschappij - Flemish Air Transport Company is a Belgian business airline London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. VLM is the only airline with scheduled air services to and from Antwerp International Airport. The airport is connected by bus to the city center.
Brussels Airport is about 45 km from the city of Antwerp, and connects the city worldwide. Brussels Airport (also called Brussel Nationaal/Bruxelles-National (Brussels National The airport is connected by bus and by train to the city centre of Antwerp
Antwerp had an artistic reputation in the 17th century, based on its school of painting, which included Rubens, Van Dyck, Jordaens, the two Teniers and many others. This ecumenical article is about general Christian views on and veneration of the Virgin Mary The Antwerp School is a term for the artists active in Antwerp, first during the sixteenth century when the city was the economic center of the Low Countries, and Jacob Jordaens ( May 19, 1593 - October 18, 1678) was one of three Flemish Baroque painters, along with Peter Paul Rubens Teniers was a family of celebrated Flemish painters that included David Teniers the Elder (1582-1649 David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690 Informally, most Antverpians (in Dutch Antwerpenaren, people from Antwerp) daily speak Antverpian, a dialect that Dutch-speakers know as distinctive from other Brabantic dialects through its typical vowel pronunciations: approximating the vowel sound in 'bore'— for one of its 'a'-sounds while other 'a's are very sharp. Standardization The first attempts on standardizing the Dutch language in the 1540s were based on the Brabantian dialect specifically that of Antwerp and its surroundings The Echt Antwaarps Teater ('Authentic Antverpian Theatre') brings the dialect on stage.
Antwerp is a rising fashion city, and has produced designers such as the Antwerp Six. The Antwerp Six refers to a group of influential avantgarde fashion designers graduating from Antwerp 's Royal Academy of Fine Arts between 1980-1981 The city has a cult status in the fashion world, due to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, one of the most important fashion academies in Europe. The Royal Academy of Fine Arts Antwerp ( Dutch: Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten van Antwerpen) is one of the oldest of its kind in Europe It has served as the learning centre for a large number of Belgian fashion designers.
The major sport clubs are K.F.C. Germinal Beerschot and R. Antwerp F.C. (football) and Antwerp Diamond Giants (basketball). A sports club, athletics club or sports association is an eclectic institution oriented to multiple Sports which fields many Teams and in several KFC Germinal Beerschot is a Belgian Football club. This club was established in 1999 as a result of the merger between K Royal Antwerp FC is a Belgian football club from the city of Antwerp in Antwerp (province. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a Team sport played between two teams of eleven players and is widely considered Antwerp Giants is a Belgian professional Basketball club based in Antwerp. Basketball is a team Sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by propelling a ball through a 10 feet (3 m Since the 1980s, several graduates of the Belgian Royal Academy of Fine Arts have become internationally successful fashion designers in Antwerp. The 1980s was the decade spanning from January 1 1980 to December 31 1989. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Fashion design is the Applied art dedicated to Clothing and lifestyle Accessories created within the cultural and social influences of a specific time Antwerp hosted the 50th anniversary celebrations of The Tall Ships' Races in the summer of 2006. The Tall Ships' Races are races for Sail training "Tall Ships" ( Sailing ships. Antwerp was the opening city in the Guy Ritchie movie, Snatch. Guy Stuart Ritchie (born 10 September 1968 in Hatfield, Hertfordshire) is an English Screenwriter and Film director. Snatch is a 2000 Film by British writer - director Guy Ritchie. It is where the 86 carat (17. The carat is a unit of Mass used for measuring gems and Pearls Currently a carat is defined as exactly 200  mg (0 2 g) diamond is first stolen from.
After the Holocaust and the destruction of its many semi-assimilated Jews, Antwerp became a major centre for Orthodox Jews. The Jewish community of Antwerp consists of around 22000 Jews The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as At present, about 20,000 Haredi Jews, mostly Hasidic, live in Antwerp. Haredi or Chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc from the Hebrew: he '''''חסידות''''', Chassidus, meaning "piety" from the Hebrew The city has three official Jewish Congregations: Shomrei Hadass, headed by Rabbi Dovid Moishe Lieberman, Machsike Hadass, headed by Rabbi Eliyahu Sternbuch (formerly Chief Rabbi Chaïm Kreiswirth) and the Portuguese Community Bne Moshe. Antwerp has an extensive network of synagogues, shops, schools and organizations, within the Machsike Hadas community. Significant Hasidic movements in Antwerp include Pshevorsk, based in Antwerp, as well as branches of Satmar, Belz, Bobov, Ger, Skver, Klausenburg, Lubavitch and several others. Pshevorsk is a small Hasidic movement based in Antwerp, Belgium, led by the Leiser rabbinical dynasty originating in the Polish town of Przeworsk Satmar (or Satmar Hasidism or Satmarer Hasidism) (חסידות סאטמאר is a Hasidic movement of mostly Hungarian Grand Rebbe Yoel Teitelbaum Belz is a Hasidic dynasty named for the town of Belz, a small town in Western Ukraine. Bobov, (or Bobover Hasidism) (חסידות באבוב is a Hasidic group within Haredi Judaism originating in Bobowa, Galicia in Ger, or Gur (or Gerrer when used as an adjective is a Hasidic dynasty originating from Ger the Yiddish name of Góra Kalwaria Skver (also Skvir or Skwere; סקווירא) is the name of a Hasidic dynasty founded by Rebbe Yitzchok Twerski in the city of This article below discusses the Sanz-Klausenburger dynasty that began with Rabbi Yekusiel Yehudah Halberstam and presently the two Chabad-Lubavitch is one of the largest Hasidic movements in Orthodox Judaism, and is based in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn Rabbi Chaim Kreiswirth, chief rabbi of the Machsike Hadas community, who died in 2003, was arguably one of the better known personalities to have been based in Antwerp. Rabbi Chaim Kreiswirth (1918-2001 was an Orthodox Rabbi who served as the longtime Chief Rabbi of Antwerp, Belgium. An attempt to have a street named after him has received the support of the Town Hall and is in the process to be implemented.
A number of Christian missions to seafarers are based in Antwerp, notably on the Italiëlei. These include the British & International Sailors’ Society, the Finnish Seamen's Mission, the Norwegian Sjømannskirken and the Apostleship of the Sea. Sailors’ Society is an inter-denominational Christian organisation providing pastoral care to seafarers The Finnish Seamen's Mission was established in 1875 In Finland's two official languages it is known as Suomen Merimieskirkko ry in Finnish and Finlands They provide cafeterias, cultural and social activities as well as religious services.
The following places are sister cities to Antwerp:
Within the context of development cooperation, Antwerp is also linked to: