Antiseptics (from Greek αντί - anti, '"against" + σηπτικός - septikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. Povidone-iodine ( PVPI) is a water- Soluble complex of Iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP with from 9 Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of Microbes such as Bacteria, Fungi, or Viruses. Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism The skin is the outer covering of living tissue of an animal (or plant An infection is the detrimental Colonization of a host Organism by a foreign Species. Sepsis is a serious medical condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (called a Systemic inflammatory response syndrome or SIRS caused Putrefaction is the decomposition of animal Proteins especially by anaerobic microorganisms, described as Putrefying bacteria. They should generally be distinguished from antibiotics that destroy bacteria within the body, and from disinfectants, which destroy microorganisms found on non-living objects. In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa The Bacteria ( singular: bacterium) are a large group of unicellular Microorganisms Typically a few Micrometres in length bacteria have Disinfectants are Antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy Microorganisms, the process of which is known as disinfection. Some antiseptics are true germicides, capable of destroying microbes (bacteriocidal), whilst others are bacteriostatic and only prevent or inhibit their growth. Antiseptics (from Greek αντί - anti, '"against" + σηπτικός - septikos, "putrefactive" are antimicrobial A bactericide or bacteriocide is a substance that kills bacteria and preferably nothing else Bacteriostatic Antibiotics limit the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacterial Protein production DNA replication or other aspects of Antibacterials are antiseptics that only act against bacteria. In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa
Use in surgery
The widespread introduction of antiseptic surgical methods followed the publishing of the paper Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery in 1867 by Joseph Lister, inspired by Louis Pasteur's germ theory of putrefaction. Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental " Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery " is a paper regarding Antiseptics written by Joseph Lister in 1867. Year 1867 ( MDCCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Joseph Lister 1st Baron Lister, OM, FRS ( 5 April 1827 &ndash 10 February 1912) was an English surgeon Louis Pasteur (27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895 a French Chemist and Microbiologist, is best known for remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and In this paper he advocated the use of carbolic acid (phenol) as a method of ensuring that any germs present were killed. Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell" Some of this work was anticipated by:
- Dr. George H Tichenor who experimented with the use of alcohol on wounds ca. George Humphrey Tichenor ( April 12, 1837 -- January 14, 1923) was a Kentucky -born physician who introduced Antiseptic surgery 1861-1863, and subsequently marketed a product for this purpose known as "Dr. Tichenor's Patent Medicine " after the US Civil War. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South
- Ignaz Semmelweis who published his work "The Cause, Concept and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever" in 1861, summarizing experiments and observations since 1847. Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis ( July 1, 1818 &ndash August 13, 1865) also Ignac Semmelweis (born Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp 
- Florence Nightingale, who contributed substantially to the report on the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army (1856–1857), based on her earlier work
- Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., who published "The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever" in 1843. Florence Nightingale, OM, RRC (in her own pronunciation ˈflɒɾəns ˈnaɪtɪŋgeɪl 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910 who came to be known as "The The term Royal Commission may also be used in the United Kingdom to describe the group of Lords Commissioners who may act in the stead of the Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr, (August 29 1809 &ndash October 7 1894 was a Physician by profession but achieved fame as a Writer; he was one of the best
and even the ancient Greek physicians Galen (ca 130–200 AD) and Hippocrates (ca 400 BC). Galen ( Greek: Γαληνός Galēnos; Latin: Claudius Galenus, Aelius Galenus, Claudius Aelius Galenus, or Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos ( ca. 460 BC – ca There is even a Sumerian clay tablet dating from 2150 BC advocating the use of similar techniques. 
But every antiseptic, however good, is more or less toxic and irritating to a wounded surface. Hence it is that the antiseptic method has been replaced in the surgery of today by the aseptic method, which relies on keeping free from the invasion of bacteria rather than destroying them when present. Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē, via chirurgiae meaning "hand work" is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental Aseptic technique refers to a procedure that is performed under sterile conditions
How it works
For the growth of bacteria there must be a certain food supply, moisture, in most cases oxygen, and a certain minimum temperature (see bacteriology). Microbiology (from Greek grc μῑκρος mīkros, "small" grc βίος bios, " Life " and grc -λογία These conditions have been specially studied and applied in connection with the preserving of food and in the ancient practice of embalming the dead, which is the earliest illustration of the systematic use of antiseptics. Food preservation is the process of treating and handling Food in a way that preserves its edibility and nutrition value Embalming, in most modern Cultures is the Art and Science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall Decomposition
In early inquiries a great point was made of the prevention of putrefaction, and work was done in the way of finding how much of an agent must be added to a given solution, in order that the bacteria accidentally present might not develop. But for various reasons this was an inexact method, and today an antiseptic is judged by its effects on pure cultures of definite pathogenic celicular single helix microbes, and on their vegetative and spore forms. Their standardization has been affected in many instances, and a water solution of phenol of a certain fixed strength is now taken as the standard with which other antiseptics are compared. Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell"
Some common antiseptics
- Most commonly used are ethanol (60-90%), 1-propanol (60-70%) and 2-propanol/isopropanol (70-80%) or mixtures of these alcohols. In Chemistry, an alcohol is any Organic compound in which a Hydroxyl group ( - O[[hydrogen H]]) is bound to a Carbon Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol, iso, isopro, Rubbing alcohol, or the abbreviation IPA) is a common name for They are commonly referred to as "surgical alcohol". Used to disinfect the skin before injections are given, often along with iodine (tincture of iodine) or some cationic surfactants (benzalkonium chloride 0. Tincture of iodine is a disinfectant usually 8% elemental Iodine in Ethanol. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the Surface tension of a liquid allowing easier spreading and lower the Interfacial tension between two liquids Benzalkonium chloride, also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides of various even-numbered 05 - 0. 5%, chlorhexidine 0. Chlorhexidine is a chemical Antiseptic.It kills (is bactericidal to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative Microbes although it is less effective 2 - 4. 0% or octenidine dihydrochloride 0. 1 - 2. 0%).
- Quaternary ammonium compounds
- Also known as Quats or QAC's, include the chemicals benzalkonium chloride (BAC), cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTMB), cetylpyridinium chloride (Cetrim, CPC) and benzethonium chloride (BZT). Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged Polyatomic ions of the structure NR4+ with R being Benzalkonium chloride, also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride and ADBAC, is a mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides of various even-numbered Cetrimonium bromide ((C16H33N(CH33Br is one of the components of the topical Antiseptic cetrimide Cetylpyridinium chloride ( CPC) is a Cationic Quaternary ammonium compound in some types of Mouthwashes Toothpastes Lozenges Benzethonium chloride is a synthetic Quaternary ammonium salt. Benzalkonium chloride is used in some pre-operative skin disinfectants (conc. 0. 05 - 0. 5%) and antiseptic towels. The antimicrobial activity of Quats is inactivated by anionic surfactants, such as soaps. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the Surface tension of a liquid allowing easier spreading and lower the Interfacial tension between two liquids Related disinfectants include chlorhexidine and octenidine. Chlorhexidine is a chemical Antiseptic.It kills (is bactericidal to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative Microbes although it is less effective
- Boric acid
- Used in suppositories to treat yeast infections of the vagina, in eyewashes, and as an antiviral to shorten the duration of cold sore attacks. Boric acid, also called boracic acid or orthoboric acid or Acidum Boricum, is a mild Acid often used as an Antiseptic, Insecticide Candidiasis, commonly called yeast infection or thrush, is a Fungal infection (mycosis of any of the Candida species of which The vagina (from Latin, literally " Sheath " or " Scabbard " is a fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the Uterus An oral ulcer (from Latin ulcus) is the name for the appearance of an open sore inside the mouth caused by a break in the Mucous membrane or the epithelium Put into creams for burns. Also common in trace amounts in eye contact solution. Though it is popularly known as an antiseptic, it is in reality only a soothing fluid, and bacteria will flourish comfortably in contact with it.
- Chlorhexidine Gluconate
- A biguanidine derivative, used in concentrations of 0. Chlorhexidine is a chemical Antiseptic.It kills (is bactericidal to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative Microbes although it is less effective 5 - 4. 0% alone or in lower concentrations in combination with other compounds, such as alcohols. Used as a skin antiseptic and to treat inflammation of the gums (gingivitis). Gingivitis (" Inflammation of the gums quot ( Gingiva) around the Teeth is a general term for gingival diseases affecting the gingiva The microbicidal action is somewhat slow, but remanent. It is a cationic surfactant, similar to Quats. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the Surface tension of a liquid allowing easier spreading and lower the Interfacial tension between two liquids
- Hydrogen peroxide
- Used as a 6% (20Vols) solution to clean and deodorize wounds and ulcers. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution slightly more Viscous than water Ulcers are healing wounds that develop on the skin mucous membranes or eye More common 1% or 2% solutions of hydrogen peroxide have been used in household first aid for scrapes, etc. However, even this less potent form is no longer recommended for typical wound care as the strong oxidization causes scar formation and increases healing time. Gentle washing with mild soap and water or rinsing a scrape with sterile saline is a better practice.
- Usually used in an alcoholic solution (called tincture of iodine) or as Lugol's iodine solution as a pre- and post-operative antiseptic. Iodine (ˈaɪədaɪn ˈaɪədɪn or /ˈaɪədiːn/ from ιώδης iodes "violet" is a Chemical element that has the symbol I and Atomic Tincture of iodine is a disinfectant usually 8% elemental Iodine in Ethanol. Lugol's iodine, also known as Lugol's solution, first made in 1829 is a solution of elemental Iodine and potassium iodide in water named after the French No longer recommended to disinfect minor wounds because it induces scar tissue formation and increases healing time. Gentle washing with mild soap and water or rinsing a scrape with sterile saline is a better practice. Novel iodine antiseptics containing povidone-iodine (an iodophor, complex of povidone, a water-soluble polymer, with triiodide anions I3-, containing about 10% of active iodine) are far better tolerated, don't affect wound healing negativelly and leave a depot of active iodine, creating the so-called "remanent," or persistent, effect. Povidone-iodine ( PVPI) is a water- Soluble complex of Iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP with from 9 An Iodophor is a preparation containing Iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent such as a surfactant or Povidone (forming Povidone-iodine A polymer is a large Molecule ( Macromolecule) composed of repeating Structural units typically connected by Covalent Chemical bonds The great advantage of iodine antiseptics is the widest scope of antimicrobial activity, killing all principial pathogenes and given enough time even spores, which are considered to be the most difficult form of microorganisms to be inactivated by disinfectants and antiseptics. In Biology, a spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions
- Not recognized as safe and effective by the U. Merbromin (marketed as Mercurochrome, Merbromine, Sodium mercurescein, Asceptichrome, Supercrome and Cinfacromin) is a S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to concerns about its mercury content. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Another obsolete organomercury antiseptics include bis-(fenylmercury) monohydrogenborate (Famosept).
- Octenidine dihydrochloride
- A cationic surfactant and bis-(dihydropyridinyl)-decane derivative, used in concentrations of 0. Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the Surface tension of a liquid allowing easier spreading and lower the Interfacial tension between two liquids 1 - 2. 0%. It is similar in its action to the Quats, but is of somewhat broader spectrum of activity. Octenidine is currently increasingly used in continental Europe as a QAC's and chlorhexidine (with respect to its slow action and concerns about the carcinogenic impurity 4-chloroaniline) substitute in water- or alcohol-based skin, mucosa and wound antiseptic. The term carcinogen refers to any substance Radionuclide or radiation that is an agent directly involved in the promotion of Cancer or in the fatation of its propagation In aqueous formulations, it is often potentiated with addition of 2-phenoxyethanol. Phenoxyethanol is an organic chemical compound, a Glycol ether often used in Dermatological products such as skin creams
- Phenol (carbolic acid) compounds
- Phenol is germicidal in strong solution, inhibitory in weaker ones. Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell" Used as a "scrub" for pre-operative hand cleansing. Used in the form of a powder as an antiseptic baby powder, where it is dusted onto the navel as it heals. The navel (also called an umbilicus or colloquially belly button) is a Scar on the Abdomen, caused when the Umbilical cord is removed Also used in mouthwashes and throat lozenges, where it has a painkilling effect as well as an antiseptic one. Mouthwash or mouth rinse is a product used for Oral hygiene. Antiseptic and anti-plaque mouth rinse claims to kill the bacterial plaque Example: TCP. TCP is a mild Antiseptic, produced and sold in the United Kingdom by Pfizer. Other phenolic antiseptics include historically important, but today rarely used (sometimes in dental surgery) thymol, today obsolete hexachlorophene, still used triclosan and sodium 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate (Dibromol). Thymol is a Monoterpene phenol derivative of Cymene, C10H14OH Isomeric with Carvacrol, found in oil of Hexachlorophene, also known as Nabac is a Disinfectant related to the herbicides 245-T and 24-D. Triclosan ( IUPAC name: 5-chloro-2-(24-dichlorophenoxyphenol is a potent wide spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent
- Sodium chloride
- Used as a general cleanser. For sodium chloride in the diet see Salt. Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or Halite, is a Also used as an antiseptic mouthwash. Only a weak antiseptic effect, due to hyperosmolality of the solution above 0. Renal physiology is the study of the Physiology of the Kidneys Functions of the kidney The functions of the kidney can be divided into two groups 9%.
- Sodium hypochlorite
- Used in the past, diluted, neutralized and combined with potassium permanganate in the Daquin's solution. Sodium hypochlorite is a Chemical compound with the formula NaClO Potassium permanganate is the Chemical compound K[[manganese Mn]] O 4 It is now used only as disinfectant.
Stuart B. Levy, in a presentation to the 2000 Emerging Infectious Diseases Conference, expressed concern that the overuse of antiseptic and antibacterial agents might lead to an increase in dangerous, resistant strains of bacteria. 
The body produces its own antiseptics, which are a part of the chemical barriers of the immune system. An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor An immune system is a collection of mechanisms within an Organism that protects against Disease by identifying and killing Pathogens and Tumor The skin and respiratory tract secrete antimicrobial peptides such as the β-defensins. Antimicrobial peptides (also called host defence peptides are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response and are found among all classes of life  Enzymes such as lysozyme and phospholipase A2 in saliva, tears, and breast milk are also antiseptic. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Lysozyme is a family of Enzymes ( which damage bacterial cell walls by catalyzing Hydrolysis of 14-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s are upstream regulators of many inflammatory processes For the band see Saliva (band; for the village in Azerbaijan see Səliva. Breast milk refers to the Milk produced by a mother to feed her baby  Vaginal secretions serve as a chemical barrier following menarche, when they become slightly acidic, while semen contains defensins and zinc to kill pathogens. The vagina (from Latin, literally " Sheath " or " Scabbard " is a fibromuscular tubular tract leading from the Uterus Menarche (American English məˈnɑrki British English mɛˈnɑːki is the first menstrual period, or first menstrual bleeding in the females of Human beings In Computer science, ACID ( Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) is a set of properties that guarantee that Database transactions are Physiological aspects Internal and external fertilization Depending on the Species, spermatozoa can fertilize Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30  In the stomach, gastric acid and proteases serve as powerful chemical defenses against ingested pathogens. In Human anatomy, the stomach is a J-shaped hollow muscular organ of the Gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of Digestion, following Gastric acid is one of the main Secretions of the Stomach, together with several Enzymes and Intrinsic factor. A protease is any Enzyme that conducts Proteolysis, that is begins protein Catabolism by Hydrolysis of the Peptide bonds that link
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- ^ Hankiewicz J, Swierczek E (1974). "Lysozyme in human body fluids. ". Clin Chim Acta 57 (3): 205-9. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(74)90398-2. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. PMID 4434640.
- ^ Fair W, Couch J, Wehner N (1976). "Prostatic antibacterial factor. Identity and significance. ". Urology 7 (2): 169-77. doi:10.1016/0090-4295(76)90305-8. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. PMID 54972.
- ^ Yenugu S, Hamil K, Birse C, Ruben S, French F, Hall S (2003). "Antibacterial properties of the sperm-binding proteins and peptides of human epididymis 2 (HE2) family; salt sensitivity, structural dependence and their interaction with outer and cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli.". Biochem J 372 (Pt 2): 473-83. doi:10.1042/BJ20030225. A digital object identifier ( DOI) is a permanent identifier given to an Electronic document. PMID 12628001.
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