|Related social movements|
|Anarchism · Anti-globalization · Childfree · Environmentalism · Situationist International · Postmodernism · Socialism|
|Ideas and theory|
|Society of the Spectacle · Culture jamming · Corporate crime · Productivism · Media bias · Buy Nothing Day · Alternative culture · Affluenza · Simple living · Do it yourself · Cultural Creatives · Commodity fetishism · Cultural hegemony · Conspicuous consumption · Ethical consumerism · Post-materialism|
|Culture Jamming: Hacking, Slashing, and Sniping in the Empire of the Signs · No Logo · The Corporation · The Theory of the Leisure Class · Surplus|
|Persons and organizations|
|Adbusters · Ralph Nader · Green party · John Zerzan · Noam Chomsky · Ron English · Naomi Klein · Thorstein Veblen · Guy Debord · Michael Moore · Michel Foucault · RTMark · The Yes Men · Reverend Billy · CounterCorp|
|Advertising · Capitalism · Economic problems · Left wing politics · Sweatshops · Anti-consumerists · Social movements|
Anti-globalization is a social movement that understands economic development as the expansion of markets for the interests of ruling elites. Anti-consumerism refers to the socio-political movement against Consumerism. Social movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of Individuals and/or Organizations focused on specific Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Childfree is a term used to describe individuals who neither have nor desire to have Children An alternative term is childless by choice. Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and Social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment. The Situationist International ( SI) was a small group of international political and artistic Agitators with roots in Marxism, Lettrism and the Postmodernism literally means 'after the modernist movement' While " Modern " itself refers to something "related to the present" the movement of modernism Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution The Society of the Spectacle ( La Société du spectacle) is a work of philosophy and critical theory by Situationist and Marxist theorist A precise definition of culture jamming is elusive It has been called a Resistance movement to Cultural hegemony, whereas some say the defining theme of culture jamming In Criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a Corporation (i Productivism is the belief that measurable economic productivity and growth is the purpose of human organization (e Media bias in the United States Buy Nothing Day is an informal day of Protest against Consumerism observed by Social activists. Alternative culture is a type of Culture that exists outside or on the fringes of mainstream or Popular culture, usually under the domain of one or more Affluenza is a term used by critics of Consumerism, a Portmanteau of affluence and Influenza. Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals choose to minimize the 'more-is-better' pursuit of Wealth and consumption. Cultural Creatives is a term coined by Sociologist Paul H Ray and Psychologist Sherry Ruth Anderson to describe a large segment in Western society that In Marxist theory Commodity Fetishism is a state of social relations said to arise in capitalist market based societies in which social relationships Cultural hegemony is a Concept coined by Marxist Philosopher Antonio Gramsci. Conspicuous consumption is a term used to describe the lavish spending on goods and services acquired mainly for the purpose of displaying Income or Wealth. Ethical consumerism is buying products and services that are made ethically. The theory of Post-materialism assumes an ongoing transformation of individuals and society which liberates them gradually from the stress of basic acquisitive or materialistic needs No Logo Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies is a book by Canadian journalist Naomi Klein. The Corporation is a 2003 Canadian Documentary film critical of the modern-day Corporation, considering it as a class of Person and The Theory of the Leisure Class is a book first published in 1899 by the American Economist Thorstein Veblen while he was a professor at the Surplus Terrorized Into Being Consumers is a 2003 Swedish Documentary film on Consumerism and Globalization, created by director Adbusters Media Foundation (called Adbusters or the Media Foundation is a Not-for-profit, anti-consumerist organization founded in 1989 by Kalle Lasn Ralph Nader (born February 27 1934 is an American Attorney, Author, Lecturer, political activist, and independent candidate for President A Green party' or ecologist party is a formally organized Political party based on the principles of Green politics. John Zerzan (born 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist Philosopher and author Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political Ron English is a contemporary Pop artist who explores popular Brand imagery and Advertising. Naomi Klein (b 8 May 1970, Montreal Quebec) is a Canadian Journalist, Author and activist well known for her Thorstein Bunde Veblen (born Tosten Bunde Veblen July 30, 1857 &ndash August 3, 1929) was a Norwegian-American sociologist Guy Ernest Debord ( December 28, 1931 - November 30, 1994) was a Marxist theorist French writer Filmmaker, hypergraphist Michael Francis Moore (born April 23 1954 is an Academy Award -winning American filmmaker author and liberal Political commentator. Michel Foucault ( (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984 was a French philosopher, Historian, Intellectual, Critic and Sociologist. RTMark is an activist collective that subverts the "Corporate Shield" protecting US corporations The Yes Men are a group of Culture jamming activists who practice what they call "identity correction" by pretending to be powerful people and spokespersons for prominent The Church of Stop Shopping is an activist performance group based in New York City, led by Reverend Billy, the stage name of Bill Talen The CounterCorp International Anti-Corporate Film Festival is a three-day series of anti-corporate films panel discussions and related events held every year since 2006 in Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand Capitalism is the Economic system in which the Means of production are owned by private Persons and operated for Profit and where A sweatshop is a working environment with very difficult or dangerous conditions usually where the workers have few rights or ways to address their situation An Anti-consumerist is one who opposes Consumerism. The following is a list of notable anti-consumerists see Anti-consumerism for the main page This is a partial list of Social movements. Abahlali baseMjondolo - South African shack dwellers' movement Abolitionism Social movements are a type of group action. They are large informal groupings of Individuals and/or Organizations focused on specific Activists in this subject have various concerns with the growing power and influence of this global marketplace.
"Anti-globalization" is an umbrella term that encompasses a number of related ideas. An umbrella term is a word that provides a Superset or grouping of related concepts also called a Hypernym.  What is shared is that participants stand in opposition to the unregulated political power of large, multi-national corporations, and the powers exercised through trade agreements. Multinational corporation ( MNC) or transnational corporation ( TNC) is a Corporation or enterprise that manages Production or delivers A trade pact is a wide ranging Tax tariff and trade pact that often includes Investment guarantees Recent developments, which are unprecedented changes in the global economy, have been characterised as 'turbo-capitalism' (Edward Luttwak), 'market fundamentalism' (George Soros), 'casino-capitalism' (Richard Longworth), 'cancer-stage capitalism' (John Mcmurtry), and 'McWorld' (Benjamin Barber). Edward Nicolae Luttwak (born 1942 is an American military strategist and historian who has published works on Military strategy, history Market fundamentalism (also known as free market fundamentalism) is an expression used by critics of Laissez-faire capitalism, usually by adherents of Interventionist George Soros (ˈsɔroʊs or /ˈsɔrəs/ Hungarian ˈʃoroʃ (born August 12, 1930, in Budapest, Hungary, as György Schwartz) is Richard W Longworth ( January 19, 1968 &ndash April 15, 2005) was a Murderer executed by the U John McMurtry FRSC is a moral philosopher and Ethicist who works at the University of Guelph in Ontario Canada. Benjamin R Barber (born August 2, 1939) is an American political theorist perhaps best known for his 1996 bestseller Jihad vs The political power of multinationals is criticized for harming the environment, undermining the cultural practices and traditions of developing countries, and limiting national governments sovereignty to determine labor rights. See also Nature The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, is a terminology that is comprised of all living and Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of Legal rights and claimed Human rights having to do with Labor relations between Workers
Anti-globalization activists generally call for forms of global integration that better provide democratic representation, respect of human rights, and more egalitarian states. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system Human rights refers to the "basic Rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have 
Some similar terms include the Global Justice Movement, the Anti-Corporate-Globalization Movement, the Movement of Movements (a popular term in Italy), the Alter-globalization movement (popular in France), the Counter-Globalization movement, and a number of other terms. The global justice movement is the broad globalized Social movement opposing what is often known as “corporate globalization” and promoting equal distribution Alter-globalisation (or Alter-mondialization from the French altermondialisme) is the name of a Social movement whose political line is close to Anti-globalization
Supporters believe that by the late twentieth century those they characterized as "ruling elites" sought to harness the expansion of world markets for their own interests; this combination of the Bretton Woods institutions, states, and multinational corporations has been called "globalization" or "globalization from above. The twentieth century of the Common Era began on Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones " In reaction, various social movements emerged to challenge their influence; these movements have been called "anti-globalization" or "globalization from below. "
Generally speaking, protesters believe that the global financial institutions and agreements undermine local decision-making methods. Many governments and free trade institutions are seen as acting for the good of transnational (or multinational) corporation. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business Corporations exercise privileges that human citizens cannot: moving freely across borders, extracting desired natural resources, and utilizing a diversity of human resources. Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified ( natural) form They are able to move on after doing permanent damage to the natural capital and biodiversity of a nation, in a manner impossible for that nation's citizens. Natural capital is the extension of the economic notion of capital (manufactured means of production to environmental goods and services Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. Activists also claim that corporations impose a kind of "global monoculture". Some of the movements' common goals are, therefore, an end to the legal status of "corporate personhood" and the dissolution of free market fundamentalism or the radical economic privatization measures of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization. Note This Wikipedia entry deals with the legal concept legal person. Market fundamentalism (also known as free market fundamentalism) is an expression used by critics of Laissez-faire capitalism, usually by adherents of Interventionist The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic
The activists are especially opposed to "globalization abuse" and the international institutions that are promote neoliberalism without regard to ethical standards. Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism Common targets include World Bank (WB), International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) and "free trade" treaties like the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), the Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI) and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions The Free Trade Area of the Americas ( FTAA) ( Spanish: Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas (ALCA French: Zone de libre-échange des The Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI was negotiated between members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD between 1995 and 1998 The General Agreement on Trade in Services ( GATS) is a Treaty of the World Trade Organization (WTO that entered into force in January 1995 as In light of the economic gap between rich and poor countries, movement adherents claim “free trade” without measures in place to protect the environment and the health and wellbeing of workers will contribute only to the strengthening the power of industrialized nations (often termed the "North" in opposition to the developing world's "South") while the poverty of the poorest citizens of the developing world increase.
A report by Jean Ziegler, UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food, notes that "millions of farmers are losing their livelihoods in the developing countries, but small farmers in the northern countries are also suffering" and concludes that "the current inequities of the global trading system are being perpetuated rather than resolved under the WTO, given the unequal balance of power between member countries. " . Activists point to the unequal footing and power between developed and developing nations within the WTO and with respect to global trade, most specifically in relation to the protectionist policies towards agriculture enacted in many developed countries. These activists also point out that heavy subsidization of developed nations' agriculture and the aggressive use of export subsidies by some developed nations to make their agricultural products more attractive on the international market are major causes of declines in the agricultural sectors of many developing nations.
Activists often also oppose some business alliances like the World Economic Forum (WEF), the Trans Atlantic Business Dialogue (TABD) and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), as well as the governments which promote such agreements or institutions. The World Economic Forum (WEF is a Geneva -based Non-profit foundation best known for its Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland The Transatlantic Business Dialogue (TABD offers a framework for cooperation between the transatlantic business community and the governments of the European Union (EU and Others argue that, if borders are opened to capital, borders should be similarly opened to allow free and legal circulation and choice of residence for migrants and refugees. According to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, a refugee is a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race These activists tend to target organizations such as the International Organization for Migration and the Schengen Information System. The International Organization for Migration is an intergovernmental organization The Schengen Information System, also called “ SIS ” is a secure Governmental database system used by several European countries for the purpose of maintaining
It is sometimes also argued that the U. S. has a special advantage in the global economy because of dollar hegemony. This article describes the ideas of Henry CK Liu For the topic of Jean Gabriel's book The Dollar Hegemony Dollar Dollarization and Progress (2000 see These claims state that dollar dominance is not just a consequence of U. S. economic superiority. Globalization historians claim that dollar dominance has been achieved also by political agreements such as Bretton Woods System and OPEC dollar-only oil trade after the U. The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the world's major industrial states S. broke with the gold standard for the dollar. The gold standard is a monetary system in which a region's common media of exchange are paper notes that are normally freely convertible into pre-set fixed quantities of Gold
Some see the movement as a critical response to the development of neoliberalism, which is widely seen to have commenced with Margaret Thatcher's and Ronald Reagan's policies toward creating laissez-faire capitalism on a global scale by promoting the liberalization of countries’ economies and the weakening of trade and business regulations. Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” Neoliberal proponents argue the increase of free trade and the reduction of the public sector will bring benefits to poor countries and to disadvantaged people in rich countries. Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions Most anti-globalization advocates strongly disagree, adding that neoliberal policies may bring a loss of sovereignty to democratic institutions. Noam Chomsky states that
|“||The term "globalization" has been appropriated by the powerful to refer to a specific form of international economic integration, one based on investor rights, with the interests of people incidental. Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political That is why the business press, in its more honest moments, refers to the "free trade agreements" as "free investment agreements" (Wall St. Journal). Accordingly, advocates of other forms of globalization are described as "anti-globalization"; and some, unfortunately, even accept this term, though it is a term of propaganda that should be dismissed with ridicule. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people No sane person is opposed to globalization, that is, international integration. Surely not the left and the workers movements, which were founded on the principle of international solidarity - that is, globalization in a form that attends to the rights of people, not private power systems.||”|
|“||"The dominant propaganda systems have appropriated the term "globalization" to refer to the specific version of international economic integration that they favor, which privileges the rights of investors and lenders, those of people being incidental. In accord with this usage, those who favor a different form of international integration, which privileges the rights of human beings, become "anti-globalist. " This is simply vulgar propaganda, like the term "anti-Soviet" used by the most disgusting commissars to refer to dissidents. It is not only vulgar, but idiotic. Take the World Social Forum, called "anti-globalization" in the propaganda system -- which happens to include the media, the educated classes, etc. The World Social Forum (WSF is an annual meeting held by members of the Anti-globalization (using the term Globalization in a Doctrinal sense not , with rare exceptions. The WSF is a paradigm example of globalization. It is a gathering of huge numbers of people from all over the world, from just about every corner of life one can think of, apart from the extremely narrow highly privileged elites who meet at the competing World Economic Forum, and are called "pro-globalization" by the propaganda system. An observer watching this farce from Mars would collapse in hysterical laughter at the antics of the educated classes. "||”|
By 2002, many parts of the movement showed wide opposition to the impending war in Iraq. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia Many participants were among those 11 million or more protesters that on the weekend of February 15, 2003, participated in global protests against the imminent Iraq war and were dubbed the "world's second superpower" by an editorial in the New York Times. Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The February 15, 2003 anti-war protest was a coordinated day of protests across the world against the imminent invasion of Iraq. " Second Superpower " is a term used to conceptualize a global Civil society as a world force comparable to or counterbalancing the United States of America  Other anti-war appointments were organized by the antiglobalization movement as such: see for example the big demonstration against the impending war in Iraq that closed the first European Social Forum on November 2002 in Florence, Italy. Community organizing is a process by which people living in proximity to each other are brought together by an organizationto act in their common self-interest (at least as per the views The European Social Forum (ESF is an annual conference held by members of the Alter-globalization movement (also known as the Global Justice Movement) Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest
Anti-globalization militants worried for the proper functioning of democratic institutions as the leaders of many democratic countries (Spain, Italy, Poland and The United Kingdom) were acting against the wishes of the majorities of their populations in supporting the war. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Noam Chomsky asserted that these leaders "showed their contempt for democracy". Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political Critics of this type of argument have tended to point out that this is just a standard criticism of representative democracy — a democratically elected government will not always act in the direction of greatest current public support — and that, therefore, there is no inconsistency in the leaders' positions given that these countries are parliamentary democracies. Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of the people's representatives A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in American English) is a System of government in which
The economic and military issues are closely linked in the eyes of many within the movement. Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. War is an international relations Dispute, characterized by organized Violence between National Military units
Some participants consider the term "anti-globalization" to be a misnomer, and one which has been used to make inaccurate criticisms of the movement. A misnomer is a term which suggests an interpretation that is known to be untrue They say the term implies protectionism or even nationalism, although the movement is self-consciously internationalist, organising globally and advocating for the cause of oppressed people around the world. For the protectionist Australian political party from the 1880s to 1909 see Protectionist Party The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation Oppression is the act of using power to empower and/or privilege a group at the expense of disempowering marginalizing silencing and subordinating another group One element that makes up the movement is the No Border network, which argues for unrestricted migration and the abolition of all national border controls. The No Border Network refers to loose associations of autonomous organisations groups and individuals in Western Europe, Eastern Europe and beyond
Some activists, notably David Graeber, see the movement as opposed instead to neoliberalism or "corporate globalization". David Rolfe Graeber (born 12 February 1961 is an American Anthropologist and Anarchist. He argues that the term "anti-globalization" is a term coined by the media, and that radical activists are actually more in favor of globalization, in the sense of "effacement of borders and the free movement of people, possessions and ideas" than are the IMF or WTO. He also notes that activists use the terms "globalization movement" and "anti-globalization movement" interchangeably, indicating the confusion of the terminology.  The term "alter-globalization" has been used to make this distinction clear.
While the term "anti-globalization" arose from the movement's opposition to free-trade agreements (which have often been considered part of something called "globalization"), various participants contend they are opposed to only certain aspects of globalization and instead describe themselves, at least in French-speaking organisations, as "anti-capitalist," "anti-plutocracy," or "anti-corporate. Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones Anti-capitalism describes a wide variety of movements ideas and attitudes which oppose Capitalism. Plutocracy is rule by the wealthy or power provided by wealth A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business " Le Monde Diplomatique 's editor, Ignacio Ramonet's, expression of "the one-way thought" (la pensée unique) became slang against neoliberal policies and the Washington consensus. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed "Le Diplo" by its French readers is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics culture and current affairs Ignacio Ramonet (born May 5, 1943, Redondela, Spain) is a journalist and writer Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism The term Washington Consensus was initially coined in 1989 by John Williamson to describe a set of ten specific economic policy prescriptions that he considered to constitute 
Two main approaches to finding a common term for the movement can be distinguished: one that might be described as "anti-globalist" or "regionalist", and another that embraces some aspects of globalization (like cross-cultural exchange of information or the diminishing role of the nation state) while rejecting others (like neo-liberal economics). For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy Originally coined by its critics and opponents " neoliberalism " is a label referring to the recent reemergence of Economic liberalism or Classical liberalism While proponents of both approaches often cooperate and are a reaction to the same phenomena, their differences might be actually greater than the common ground. The former approach can be described as outright anti-globalist (usually including what is perceived as "Americanization" of culture), while the latter would be more appropriately called "globalization critics". In practice, however, there is no set boundary between these approaches, and the term "anti-globalization" is often indiscriminately applied.
Another concern some activists have about the term "anti-globalization" is that it does not distinguish their position from a strictly nationalist opposition to globalization. Many nationalist movements, such as the French National Front, are also opposed to globalization, but argue that the alternative to globalization is a protection of the nation-state, sometimes, according to critics, in explicitly racist or fascist terms. The term nationalism can refer to an Ideology, a sentiment, a form of Culture, or a Social movement that focuses on the Nation This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The National Front ( FN, Front national is a French Far right, Nationalist Political party, founded in 1972 by Jean-Marie List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology Some fascist groups influenced by the Third Position have attempted to tailor their message to appeal to the anti-globalization movement. Third Position is the name applied to a nationalist political strand that seeks to emphasise its opposition to both Communism and Capitalism. However, the far-right is overwhelmingly rejected by the anti-globalization movement, with groups such as Peoples Global Action explicitly rejecting racism, and many within the movement also active in anti-fascist groups such as ANTIFA. Peoples' Global Action ( PGA) is the name of a worldwide co-ordination of radical social movements grassroots campaigns and direct actions in resistance to Capitalism
Several influential critical works have inspired the anti-globalization movement. No Logo, the book by the Canadian journalist Naomi Klein who criticized the production practices of multinational corporations and the omnipresence of brand-driven marketing in popular culture, has become a "manifesto" of the movement, presenting in a simple way themes more accurately developed in other works. No Logo Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies is a book by Canadian journalist Naomi Klein. Naomi Klein (b 8 May 1970, Montreal Quebec) is a Canadian Journalist, Author and activist well known for her Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance — In India some intellectual references of the movement can be found in the works of Vandana Shiva, an ecologist and feminist, who in her book Biopiracy documents the way that the natural capital of indigenous peoples and ecoregions is converted into forms of intellectual capital, which are then recognized as exclusive commercial property without sharing the private utility thus derived. Vandana Shiva ( Hindi: वन्दना शिवा b November 5, 1952, Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, India) is a Physicist Biopiracy is a negative term for the appropriation generally by means of Patents, of legal rights over indigenous knowledge - particularly indigenous biomedical knowledge Natural capital is the extension of the economic notion of capital (manufactured means of production to environmental goods and services The term Indigenous Peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any Ethnic group who inhabit a geographic region with which they have the earliest historical An ecoregion ( ecological region) sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area smaller than a "realm" or " Intellectual Capital was a pioneer Webzine opinion and discussion forum begun in 1996 by Pete duPont In Anglo-Saxon law, an exclusive right is a de facto non-tangible Prerogative existing in law (that is the power or in a wider sense Right The writer Arundhati Roy is famous for her anti-nuclear position and her activism against India's massive hydroelectric dam project, sponsored by the World Bank. Suzanna Arundhati Roy (born November 24, 1961) is an Indian Writer and Activist who won the Booker Prize in 1997 for her novel The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e In France the well-known monthly paper Le Monde Diplomatique has advocated the antiglobalization cause and an editorial of its director Ignacio Ramonet brought about the foundation of the association ATTAC. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed "Le Diplo" by its French readers is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics culture and current affairs Ignacio Ramonet (born May 5, 1943, Redondela, Spain) is a journalist and writer Attac1jpg|thumb|200px|An ATTAC Banner in front of the Kölner Dom, Germany, 2004]]%attac aus stand The works of Jean Ziegler and Immanuel Wallerstein have detailed underdevelopment and dependence in a world ruled by capitalist system. Jean Ziegler (born April 19, 1934) is a senior professor of Sociology at the University of Geneva and the Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein (born 28 September 1930, New York City) is a U Pacifist and anti-imperialist traditions have strongly influenced the movement. Critics of American foreign policy such as Noam Chomsky, Susan Sontag, and anti-globalist pranksters The Yes Men are widely accepted inside the movement. Anti-Americanism, often anti-American sentiment, is opposition or hostility to the people culture or policies of the United States. Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political Susan Sontag ( January 16, 1933 – December 28, 2004) was an American Literary theorist, Philosopher, The Yes Men are a group of Culture jamming activists who practice what they call "identity correction" by pretending to be powerful people and spokespersons for prominent
Although they may not recognize themselves as antiglobalists and are pro-capitalism, some economists who don't share the neoliberal approach of international economic institutions have strongly influenced the movement. Amartya Sen's Development as Freedom (Nobel Prize in Economics, 1999), argues that third world development must be understood as the expansion of human capability, not simply the increase in national income per capita, and thus requires policies attuned to health and education, not simply GDP. Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon (অমর্ত্য কুমার সেন Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially named The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk James Tobin's (winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics) proposal for a tax on financial transactions (called, after him, the Tobin Tax) has become part of the agenda of the movement. James Tobin ( March 5, 1918 March 11, 2002) was an American Economist. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially named The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk A Tobin tax is the suggested Tax on all Trade of Currency across borders
George Soros, Joseph E. Stiglitz (another Economic Sciences Nobel prize winner, formerly of the World Bank, author of Globalization and Its Discontents) and David Korten have made arguments for drastically improving transparency, for debt relief, land reform, and restructuring corporate accountability systems. George Soros (ˈsɔroʊs or /ˈsɔrəs/ Hungarian ˈʃoroʃ (born August 12, 1930, in Budapest, Hungary, as György Schwartz) is Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American Economist and a professor at Columbia University. Globalization and Its Discontents is a book published in 2002 by the 2001 Nobel laureate Joseph E Dr David C Korten is an author and a leader in the global resistance against corporate Globalization. Debt relief is the partial or total forgiveness of Debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth owed by individuals corporations or nations Land reforms (also Agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning is an often- controversial alteration in the societal arrangements whereby government In Criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a Corporation (i Korten and Stiglitz's contribution to the movement include involvement in direct actions and street protest. Direct action is political action which happens outside normal political channels via indirect actions such as electing representatives.
High profile events such as the "McLibel" case have highlighted concern over the effects of multinational corporations on society, labour relations and the environment (in that case the McDonalds fast food chain). The McDonald's Restaurants v Morris & Steel, colloquially the McLibel case, was a long-running English court action for Libel
In some Roman Catholic countries such as Italy there have been religious influences, especially from missionaries who have spent a long time in the Third World (the most famous being Alex Zanotelli). Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically Father Alex Zanotelli born August 26, 1938, Livo, Trento Italy) is a member of the Combonian missionaries in Verona Italy. The confluence between this tradition and post-communist tradition is often perceived as odd, but not completely at odds.
Internet sources and free-information websites, such as Indymedia, are a means of diffusion of the movement's ideas. The Independent Media Center (aka Indymedia or IMC) is a global participatory network of journalists that reports on political and social issues The vast array of material on spiritual movements, anarchism, libertarian socialism and the Green Movement that is now available on the Internet has been perhaps more influential than any printed book. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political economic or social hierarchies – a society in which all violent Green politics is a Political ideology which places a high importance on ecological and environmental goals and on achieving these goals through broad-based The previously obscure works of Arundhati Roy, Starhawk, and John Zerzan, in particular, inspired a critique favoring feminism, consensus process and political secession. Suzanna Arundhati Roy (born November 24, 1961) is an Indian Writer and Activist who won the Booker Prize in 1997 for her novel Starhawk (born Miriam Simos) ( June 17, 1951) is an American Writer, Anarchist activist, and self-described John Zerzan (born 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist Philosopher and author Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements theories, and Philosophies which are concerned with the issue of Gender difference, advocate WikipediaConsensus here as this is the article namespace and that information is irrelevant to the reader Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio is the act of withdrawing from an organization union or especially a political entity
The far-right British National Party is also opposed to globalization according to its manifesto. Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitative position a group The British National Party (BNP is a Far-right and whites only political party in the United Kingdom. 
|“||The British National Party believes in genuine ethnic and cultural diversity and the right of ALL peoples to self-determination and that must include the indigenous peoples of these islands. The British peoples are embroiled in a long term cultural war being waged by a ruling regime which has abandoned the concept of " Britain " in pursuit of globalisation. We are determined to win that cultural war, and to that end, we must take control of our national borders.||”|
Although over the past years more emphasis has been given to the construction of grassroots alternatives to (capitalist) globalization, the movement's largest and most visible mode of organizing remains mass decentralized campaigns of direct action and civil disobedience. This mode of organizing, sometimes under the banner of the Peoples' Global Action network, tries to tie the many disparate causes together into one global struggle. Peoples' Global Action ( PGA) is the name of a worldwide co-ordination of radical social movements grassroots campaigns and direct actions in resistance to Capitalism
In many ways the process of organizing matters overall can be more important to activists than the avowed goals or achievements of any component of the movement.
At corporate summits, the stated goal of most demonstrations is to stop the proceedings. Although the demonstrations rarely succeed in more than delaying or inconveniencing the actual summits, this motivates the mobilizations and gives them a visible, short-term purpose. Critics claim that this form of publicity is expensive in police time and the public purse. Although not supported by many in the movement, rioting has occurred in Genoa, Seattle and London and extensive damage can be done to the area, especially corporate targets, including McDonald's restaurants and Starbucks. Starbucks Corporation ( is an international Coffee and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle Washington.
Despite (or perhaps because of) the lack of formal coordinating bodies, the movement manages to successfully organize large protests on a global basis, using information technology to spread information and organize. Information technology ( IT) as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA is "the study design development implementation support Protesters organize themselves into "affinity groups," typically non-hierarchical groups of people who live close together and share a common political goal. An affinity group is usually a small group of left-wing political Activists (usually from 3-20 who work together on Direct action. Affinity groups will then send representatives to planning meetings. However, because these groups can be infiltrated by law enforcement intelligence, important plans of the protests are often not made until the last minute. One common tactic of the protests is to split up based on willingness to break the law. This is designed, with varying success, to protect the risk-averse from the physical and legal dangers posed by confrontations with law enforcement. For example, in Prague during the anti-IMF and World Bank protests in September 2000 demonstrators split into three distinct groups, approaching the conference center from three directions: one engaging in various forms of civil disobedience (the Yellow march), one (the Pink/Silver march) advancing through "tactical frivolity" (costume, dance, theatre, music, and artwork), and one (the Blue march) engaging in violent conflicts with the baton-armed police, with the protesters throwing cobblestones lifted from the street. Prague (ˈprɑːg Praha (ˈpraɦa see also other names) is the Capital and Largest city of the Czech Republic. Anti-capitalist Protests in Prague during the IMF and World Bank summit in September 2000 in Prague capital of the Czech Tactical Frivolity is a form of public Protest employing whimsy Tactical Frivolity is a form of public Protest employing whimsy (See Guardian report)
These demonstrations come to resemble small societies in themselves. Many protesters take training in first aid and act as medics to other injured protesters. In the USA, some organizations like the National Lawyer's Guild and, to a lesser extent, the ACLU, provide legal witnesses in case of law enforcement confrontation. The National Lawyers Guild is a progressive/left-wing Bar Association in the United States "dedicated to the need for basic and progressive change The American Civil Liberties Union ( ACLU) consists of two separate Non-profit organizations the ACLU Foundation a 501(c(3 organization which focuses Protesters often claim that major media outlets do not properly report on them; therefore, some of them created the Independent Media Center, a collective of protesters reporting on the actions as they happen. The Independent Media Center (aka Indymedia or IMC) is a global participatory network of journalists that reports on political and social issues
The 50th anniversary of the IMF and the World Bank, which was celebrated in Madrid in October 1994, was the scene of a protest by an ad-hoc coalition of what would later be called anti-globalization movements. The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic The World Bank is an internationally supported Bank that provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries for development programs (e Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain. They tried to drown the bankers' parties in noise from outside and held other public forms of protest under the motto "50 Years is Enough". While Spanish King Juan Carlos was addressing the participants in a huge exhibition hall, two Greenpeace activists climbed to the top and showered the bankers with fake dollar bills carrying the slogan "No $s for Ozone Layer Destruction". Early life Juan Carlos was born in Rome, where his grandfather Alfonso XIII of Spain lived in exile after the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic Greenpeace, originally known as the Greenpeace Foundation, was founded in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1972 The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were worked out by the British physicist Sidney Chapman in 1930 A number of the demonstrators were sent to the notorious Carabanchel prison.
One of the first international anti-globalization protests was organized in dozens of cities around the world on June 18, 1999, with those in London and Eugene, Oregon most often noted. Events 618 - Coronation of the Chinese governor Li Yuan as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiating three centuries Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. The city of Eugene ( "yoo-JEEN") is the County seat of Lane County, Oregon, Oregon ( is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The drive was called the Carnival Against Capitalism, or J18 for short. The Global Carnival Against Capital took place on Friday June 18, 1999. The Global Carnival Against Capital took place on Friday June 18, 1999. The protest in Eugene turned into a riot where local anarchists drove police out of a small park. One anarchist, Robert Thaxton, was arrested and convicted of throwing a rock at a police officer.
Main article: WTO meeting of 1999
The second major mobilization of the movement, known as N30, occurred on November 30, 1999, when protesters blocked delegates' entrance to WTO meetings in Seattle, USA. Protest activity surrounding the WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999, which was to be the launch of a new millennial round of Trade negotiations occurred Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The protests forced the cancellation of the opening ceremonies and lasted the length of the meeting until December 3. There was a large, permitted march by members of the AFL-CIO, and other unauthorized marches by assorted affinity groups who converged around the Convention Center. American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly AFL-CIO, is a National trade union center, the largest federation of  The protesters and Seattle riot police clashed in the streets after police fired tear gas at demonstrators who blocked the streets and refused to disperse. A lachrymatory agent or lachrymator (from lacrima meaning "a tear " in Latin) (commonly referred to as tear gas) is a Over 600 protesters were arrested and thousands were injured.  Three policemen were injured by friendly fire, and one by a thrown rock. Friendly fire or non-hostile fire, a term originally adopted by the United States military, refers to fire from one's own side or allied forces as Some protesters destroyed the windows of storefronts of businesses owned or franchised by targeted corporations such as a large Nike shop and many Starbucks windows but also many small independant stores were vandalized as well. Nike Inc ('naɪki ( is a major publicly traded sportswear and equipment supplier based in the United States. Starbucks Corporation ( is an international Coffee and coffeehouse chain based in Seattle Washington. The mayor put the city under the municipal equivalent of martial law and declared a curfew. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice A curfew can be one of the following An order by a Government for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time As of 2002, the city of Seattle had paid over $200,000 in settlements of lawsuits filed against the Seattle Police Department for assault and wrongful arrest, with a class action lawsuit still pending. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Seattle Police Department ( SPD) is the principal law enforcement agency of the city of Seattle Washington, except for the campus of the University
Although local police were surprised by the size of N30, law enforcement agencies have since reacted worldwide to prevent the disruption of future events by a variety of tactics, including sheer weight of numbers, infiltrating the groups to determine their plans, and preparations for the use of force to remove protesters.
At the site of some of the protests, police have used tear gas, pepper spray, concussion grenades, rubber and wooden bullets, night sticks, water cannons, dogs, horses, and occasionally live ammunition to repel the protesters. After the November 2000 G-8 protest in Montreal, at which many protesters were beaten, trampled, and arrested in what was intended to be a festive protest, the tactic of dividing protests into "green" (permitted), "yellow" (not officially permitted but with little confrontation and low risk of arrest), and "red" (involving direct confrontation) zones was introduced. Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec
In Quebec City, municipal officials built a 3 metre (10 ft) high wall around the portion of the city where the Summit of the Americas was being held, which only residents, delegates to the summit, and certain accredited journalists were allowed to pass through. Quebec City ( French: Ville de Québec, or simply Québec) (kwɨˈbɛk or /keˈbɛk/ is the Capital of the Canadian province The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International The Summit of the Americas held in Quebec City Quebec, Canada, on the weekend of April 20, 2001, was a round of negotiations regarding
The Genoa Group of Eight Summit protest from July 18 to July 22, 2001 was one of the bloodiest protests in Western Europe's recent history, as evidenced by the wounding of hundreds of policemen and civilians forced to lock themselves inside of their homes and the death of a young Genoese anarchist named Carlo Giuliani -who got shot in the face while trying to throw a fire extinguisher on a police car- during two days of violence and rioting by fringe groups supported by the nonchalance of more consistent and peaceful masses of protesters, and the hospitalisation of several of those peaceful demonstrators just mentioned. The 27th G8 summit took place in Genoa, Italy, in July 2001. The summit was overshadowed by riots in the city after a crackdown by police targeting The 27th G8 summit took place in Genoa, Italy, in July 2001. The summit was overshadowed by riots in the city after a crackdown by police targeting Events 390 BC - Roman - Gaulish Wars Battle of the Allia - a Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, Events 1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Carlo Giuliani ( March 14, 1978 -- July 20, 2001) was an Italian Anti-globalist who was shot and killed by police during Police have subsequently been accused of brutality, torture and interference with the non-violent protests as a collateral damage provoked by the clash between the law enforcement ranks themselves and the more violent and brutal fringes of protesters, who repeatedly hid themselves amongst peaceful protesters of all ages and backgrounds. Several hundred peaceful demonstrators, rioters, and police were injured and hundreds were arrested during the days surrounding the G8 meeting; most of those arrested have been charged with some form of "criminal association" under Italy's anti-mafia and anti-terrorist laws. The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) is a Sicilian Criminal Secret society which is believed to have first developed in the mid-19th century Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion No consistent investigation has been put forth against the violent protesters, mainly due to the difficulties enountered in identification of the many masked protesters and the fierce opposition at Congress held by most of the left-wing parties, such as the Communist Party and current PM Romano Prodi's Union coalition. Six years have passed, and the city of Genoa is still trying to recover from the many damages provoked by the rioters, mainly devoted to crash cars, setting stores on fire, robbing banks and using any heavy or pointed object as a means to provoke damage to people and objects. As part of the continuing investigations, police raids of social centers, media centers, union buildings, and law offices have continued across Italy since the G8 summit in Genoa. Many police officers or responsible authorities present in Genoa during the G8 summit, are currently under investigation by the Italian judges, and some of them resigned.
See main articles: European Social Forum, the Asian Social Forum, World Social Forum (WSF). The European Social Forum (ESF is an annual conference held by members of the Alter-globalization movement (also known as the Global Justice Movement) Asian Social Forum was a Left-wing conference held by members of the Alter-globalization movement (also known as the Global Justice Movement The World Social Forum (WSF is an annual meeting held by members of the Anti-globalization (using the term Globalization in a Doctrinal sense not
The first WSF was an initiative of the administration of Porto Alegre in Brazil. Porto Alegre ( is the 10th largest city in Brazil, and the capital city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld
The slogan of the World Social Forum was "Another World Is Possible". It was here that the WSF's Charter of Principles was adopted to provide a framework for the forums.
The WSF became a periodic meeting: in 2002 and 2003 it was held again in Porto Alegre and became a rallying point for worldwide protest against the American invasion of Iraq. In 2004 it was moved to Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay, in India), to make it more accessible to the populations of Asia and Africa. Mumbai ( Marathi:,, IPA: formerly Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the financial India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country This last appointment saw the participation of 75,000 delegates.
In the meantime, regional forums took place following the example of the WSF, adopting its Charter of Principles. The first European Social Forum (ESF) was held in November 2002 in Florence. The European Social Forum (ESF is an annual conference held by members of the Alter-globalization movement (also known as the Global Justice Movement) Florence ( Italian: Firenze Florentia and Fiorenza) is the Capital City of the Italian region of Tuscany The slogan was "Against the war, against racism and against neo-liberalism". It saw the participation of 60,000 delegates and ended with a huge demonstration against the war (1,000,000 people according to the organizers). The other two ESFs took place in Paris and London, in 2003 and 2004 respectively.
Recently there has been some discussion behind the movement about the role of the social forums. Some see them as a "popular university", an occasion to make many people aware of the problems of globalization. Others would prefer that delegates concentrate their efforts on the coordination and organization of the movement and on the planning of new campaigns. However it has often been argued that in the dominated countries (most of the world) the WSF is little more than an 'NGO fair' driven by Northern NGOs and donors most of which are hostile to popular movements of the poor. 
The anti-globalization movement has been criticized on many fronts by politicians, members of conservative think tanks, mainstream economists, other supporters of market-based economic integration and also by anti-systemic currents of the Left. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined A think tank (also called a policy institute) is an organization institute corporation or group that conducts Research and engages in advocacy in areas such An economist is an expert in the Social science of Economics. It has also been strongly criticized by third world intellectuals and movements for being very dominated by Europeans and North Americans and their concerns. In some instances it has been alleged that the relationship to movements and intellectuals in the global South is often highly paternalistic.
Critics assert that the empirical evidence does not support the views of the anti-globalization movement. These critics point to statistical trends which are interpreted to be results of globalization, capitalism, and the economic growth they are purported to encourage. Specifically, the following are common claims made by critics to support their view:
Johan Norberg, author of "In Defense of Global Capitalism" concurs, arguing that the data supplied by the anti-globalization side is severely lacking in evidence. Johan Norberg (born 27 August, 1973) is a Swedish writer devoted to promoting economic Globalization and Libertarian positions In Defense of Global Capitalism (in Swedish: Till världskapitalismens försvar) is a book by Swedish writer Johan Norberg promoting Other studies by Patrick F. Gillham, and Gary T. in their book, Complexity and Irony in Policing and Protest: The World Trade Organization in Seattle published by the Cato Institute have shown similar results. The Cato Institute is a Libertarian Think tank headquartered in Washington D .
Members of the anti-globalization movement respond that the pro-globalization slogan, "growth is good for the poor", is a purposefully misleading. They argue that neoliberal policies consistent with globalization and capitalism may not actually be causing growth that has beneficial effects for the poor, or progressing with the urgency the situation requires. They also take issue with the time period which is often normally associated with proponents' arguments such as those cited for life expectancy, child mortality, and literacy above, because they typically include data from periods such as 1950-1975, which were prior to the advent of the neoliberal reforms associated with globalization, and serve to make statistics for globalization seem better than they really are.
Similarly, they note that including positive data from countries which largely ignored neoliberal prescriptions, notably China, discredits the evidence that pro-globalists present. For example, concerning the parameter of per capita income growth, development economist Ha-Joon Chang writes that considering the record of the last two decades the argument for continuing neo-liberal policy prescriptions are "simply untenable. Ha-Joon Chang (b South Korea in 1963 is one of the world's foremost heterodox economists specialising in Development economics. " Noting that "It depends on the data we use, but roughly speaking, per capita income in developing countries grew at 3% per year between 1960 and 1980, but has grown only at about 1. 5% between 1980 and 2000. And even this 1. 5% will be reduced to 1%, if we take out India and China, which have not pursued liberal trade and industrial policies recommended by the developed countries. " Jagdish Bhagwati argues that reforms that opened up the economies of China and India contributed to their higher growth in 1980s and 1990s. Jagdish Natwarlal Bhagwati (born July 26, 1934) is a economist known for his advocacy of Free trade. From 1980 to 2000 their GDP grew at average rate of 10 and 6 percent respectively. This was accompanied by reduction of poverty from 28 percent in 1978 to 9 percent in 1998 in China, and from 51 percent in 1978 to 26 percent in 2000 in India.  According to Heritage Foundation, development in China was anticipated by Milton Friedman, who predicted that even a small progress towards economic liberalization would produce dramatic and positive effects. The Heritage Foundation is an American conservative Think tank. Milton Friedman (July 31 1912 November 16 2006 was an American Nobel Laureate Economist and Public intellectual. China's economy had grown together with its economic freedom. Economic freedom is freedom to produce trade and consume any goods and services acquired without the use of force fraud or theft  Critics of corporate-led globalization have expressed concern about the methodology used in arriving at the World Bank's statistics and argue that more detailed variables measuring poverty should be studied.  According to the Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR), the period from 1980-2005 has seen diminished progress in terms of economic growth, life expectancy, infant and child mortality, and to a lesser extent education. The Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR is a progressive Economic policy Think-tank based in Washington D 
One of the most common criticisms of the movement, which does not necessarily come from its opponents, is simply that the anti-globalization movement lacks coherent goals, and that the views of different protesters are often in opposition to each other.  Many members of the movement are also aware of this, and argue that, as long as they have a common opponent, they should march together - even if they don't share exactly the same political vision.
One argument often made by the opponents of the anti-globalization movement (especially by The Economist), is that one of the major causes of poverty amongst third-world farmers are the trade barriers put up by rich nations and poor nations alike. The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London The WTO is an organisation set up to work towards removing those trade barriers. Therefore, it is argued, people really concerned about the plight of the third world should actually be encouraging free trade, rather than attempting to fight it. People in the third world, they argue, will not take any job unless it is better than the next best option they have. Thus if you deprive a person of their best option, you have made their life worse. This argument is based on an assumption that the removal of trade barriers does not alter existing options.
Many supporters of capitalism do think that different policies than today should be pursued, although not necessarily those advocated by the anti-globalization movement. For example, some see the World Bank and the IMF as corrupt bureaucracies which have given repeated loans to dictators who never do any reforms. Some, like Hernando De Soto, argue that much of the poverty in the Third World countries is caused by the lack of Western systems of laws and well-defined and universally recognized property rights. Hernando de Soto (born 1941 - 06-02) is a Peruvian Economist known for his work on the Informal economy and on the importance of Property is any physical or virtual entity that is owned by an individual De Soto argues that because of the legal barriers poor people in those countries can not utilize their assets to produce more wealth. 
Critics have asserted that people from poor countries (the Third World) have been relatively accepting and supportive of globalization while the strongest opposition to globalization has come from wealthy "First World" activists, unions and NGOs. Third World is a name given to nations that are generally considered to be underdeveloped economically The term " first world " refers to countries that are capitalist, which are technologically advanced and whose Alan Shipman, author of "The Globalization Myth" accuses the anti-globalization movement of "defusing the Western class war by shifting alienation and exploitation to developing-country sweatshops. " He later goes on to add that the anti-globalization movement has failed to attract widespread support from poor and working people from the Third World, and that its "strongest and most uncomprehending critics had always been the workers whose liberation from employment they were trying to secure. " 
These critics assert that people from the Third World see the anti-globalization movement as a threat to their jobs, wages, consuming options and livelihoods, and that a cessation or reversal of globalization would result in many people in poor countries being left in greater poverty. Jesús F. Reyes Heroles the former Mexican Ambassador to the US, stated that "In a poor country like ours, the alternative to low-paid jobs isn't well-paid ones, it's no jobs at all. Jesús Federico Reyes-Heroles Martín González Garza is a Mexican economist and politician "
Egypt's Ambassador to the UN has also stated "The question is why all of a sudden, when third world labor has proved to be competitive, why do industrial countries start feeling concerned about our workers? When all of a sudden there is a concern about the welfare of our workers, it is suspicious. "
Conservative Opposition to Globalization