Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or alleged, in all aspects of in public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos It suggests a more active and partisan role than mere laïcité, and has at times been violent, leading to attacks and seizure of church property. Laïcité (laisiˈte is the French concept of a Secular society, connoting the absence of religious involvement in government affairs
Anti-clericalism in one form or another has existed through most of Christian history, and is considered to be one of the major popular forces underlying the 16th Century Reformation. The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517 though its roots lie further back in time Some philosophers of the Enlightenment, including Voltaire, attacked the Catholic Church, its leadership and priests claiming moral corruption of many of its clergy. The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century François-Marie Arouet ( 21 November 1694 30 May 1778) better known by the Pen name Voltaire, was a French These assaults led, in part, to the suppression of the Jesuits, and played a major part in the wholesale attacks on the very existence of the Church during the French Revolution. The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a result The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an With the reaction against the excesses of the Revolution, especially after 1815, the Catholic church began to play a more welcome role in official European life once more, and nation by nation the Jesuits made their way back.
The French Revolution, particularly in its Jacobin period, initiated one of the most violent episodes of anti-clericalism in pre-modern Europe. The Red Terror in Spain is the name given to various acts committed by Spanish Republicans during the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s including The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The church was outlawed, all monasteries destroyed, 30,000 priests were exiled and hundreds more were killed. Robespierre sought to destroy Christianity entirely and replace it with a national Cult of Reason When Pope Pius VI took sides against the revolution in the First Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Italy. Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (maksimiljɛ̃ fʁɑ̃swa maʁi izidɔʁ də ʁɔbɛspjɛʁ ( 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) The Cult of Reason (Culte de la Raison was a creed based on Secularism and Atheism devised during the French Revolution by Jacques Hébert Pope Pius VI (December 27 1717 &ndash August 29 1799 born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, Pope from 1775 to 1799 was born at Cesena. The First Coalition ( 1792 – 1797) was the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The Pope was imprisoned by French troops the following year and died after six weeks of captivity. After a change of heart, Napoleon then re-established the Catholic Church in France with the signing of the Concordat of 1801. The Concordat of 1801 is a reflection of an agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII that reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the majority  However many anti-clerical policies continued. Wherever Napoleonic armies entered a territory, monasteries were sacked and church schools and charitable institutions were secularized.
A further bout of anti-clericalism occurred in the context of the French Third Republic and its dissensions with the Roman Catholic Church. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe Prior to the 1905 French law on the separation of Church and State, the Catholic Church enjoyed preferential treatment from the French State (along with the Jewish, Lutheran and Calvinist minority religions). The 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and State ( French: Loi du 9 décembre 1905 concernant la séparation des Églises et de l'État) was passed by PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the During the 19th century, priests were employed as teachers in public schools, and religion was taught in schools (teachers were also obliged to lead the class to Mass). But during the 1880s, Jules Ferry, Minister of Education, then President of the Council, began to expel religious figures from public schools (expelling 5000 on November 29, 1880). Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 1832 17 March 1893 was a French statesman and ardent imperialist Early life Born in Saint-Dié, The official Title President of the Council of Ministers is used to describe the Head of government of the states of Italy and Poland, and formerly Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe Year 1880 ( MDCCCLXXX) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Then, in 1881-1882, his government passed the Jules Ferry laws, establishing free education (1881) and mandatory and lay education (1882), giving the basis of French public education. The Jules Ferry laws are a set of French laws which established first Free education ( 1881) then mandatory and laic education ( 1882 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the Government, whether national regional or local provided by an institution These laws were a crucial step in the grounding of the Third Republic (1871-1940), dominated until the 16 May 1877 crisis by the Catholic Legitimists whom dreamed of a return to the Ancien Régime. The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe Legitimists are Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Ancien Régime ( pronounced: /ɑ̃sjɛ̃ ʁeʒim/ refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in
The implementation of the 1905 law on secularism was enacted by strength and vigor by the government of Radical-Socialist Émile Combes, meeting violent protestation by the clergy. The Radical Party ( Parti Radical, Rad also known as Parti radical valoisien) is a liberal and centrist political party in France Émile Combes (1835 - 1921 was a French statesman, charged in 1902 of the constitution of the Bloc des gauches 's cabinet Most Catholic schools and educational foundations were closed, except in Alsace-Lorraine which belonged at that time to Germany — and which continues to retain today a derogatory status because of its specific history — and many religious orders were dissolved. Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen generally Elsass - Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
In the Affaire Des Fiches, in France in 1904-1905, it was discovered that the militantly anticlerical War Minister under Emile Combes, General Louis André, was determining promotions based on the French Masonic Grand Orient's huge card index on public officials, detailing which were Catholic and who attended Mass, with a view to preventing their promotions. L'Affaire des Fiches de délation (“affair of the cards of denunciation” was a political scandal in France in 1904-1905 in which it was discovered that the militantly Anticlerical Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes Religious (generally Catholic institutional power and influence real or alleged in all aspects of public and political Émile Combes (1835 - 1921 was a French statesman, charged in 1902 of the constitution of the Bloc des gauches 's cabinet For the French born Jesuit missionary to Canada see Louis André (priest. The Roman Catholic Church has long been an outspoken critic of Freemasonry, and has continually prohibited members from being Freemasons since In Eminenti Specula Mass is a fundamental concept in Physics, roughly corresponding to the Intuitive idea of how much Matter there is in an object 
Republican's anti-clericalism softened after the First World War, as the Catholic right-wing began to accept secularism. Republicanism is the Ideology of governing a nation as a Republic, with an emphasis on Liberty, Rule of law, Popular sovereignty Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs However, the theme of private schools in France, which are often Catholics, and which professors are paid by the state, remains a sensitive issue in French politics. The French educational system is highly centralized organised and ramified The Politics of France take place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of France
Emperor Joseph II opposed what he called “contemplative” religious institutions — reclusive Catholic institutions that he perceived as doing nothing positive for the community. Heir and co-regent Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession.  His policy towards them are included in what is called Josephinism. Josephinism is the term used to describe the domestic policies of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II of Austria (1765-1790
Joseph decreed that Austrian bishops could not communicate directly with the Curia. The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Roman Catholic Church, together with the Pope More than 500 of 1,188 monasteries in Austro-Slav lands (and a hundred more in Hungary) were dissolved, and 60 million florins taken by the state. This wealth was used to create 1700 new parishes and welfare institutions .
The education of priests was taken from the Church as well. Joseph established six state-run “General Seminaries. ” In 1783, a Marriage Patent treated marriage as a civil contract rather than a religious institution .
Catholic Historians have claimed that there was an alliance between Joseph and anti-clerical Freemasons. 
Anti-clericalism in Italy is connected with reaction against the absolutism of the Papal States, overthrown in 1870. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Papal States, State(s of the Church or Pontifical States (in Italian Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa For a long time, the Pope required Catholics not to participate in the public life of the Kingdom of Italy that had invaded the Papal States to complete the unification of Italy, leaving the pope confined in the Vatican. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Vatican City, officially the State of the Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano is a Landlocked sovereign City-state whose territory Some politicians that had played important roles in this process, such as Camillo Cavour, were known to be hostile to the temporal and political power of the Church. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso Conte di Cavour, Conte di Isolabella e Leri ( August 10 1810 &ndash June
The hostility between the Holy See and the kingdom was finally settled by fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, who sought an agreement with the Church to gain its support: the Lateran treaties were finalised in 1929. The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, commonly known as the Pope, and is the preeminent Episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Fascism is a totalitarian nationalist and corporatist ideology A dictator is an Authoritarian ruler (eg Absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole and absolute power without hereditary ascension such as an Absolute The Lateran Treaty is one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, three agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy
After World War II, anti-clericalism was embodied by the communist and socialist parties, in opposition to the Vatican-endorsed Christian Democracy. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Italian Communist Party (Italian Partito Comunista Italiano, or PCI emerged as the Communist Party of Italy ( Partito Comunista d'Italia) The Italian Socialist Party ( Partito Socialista Italiano, PSI was a democratic socialist / social democratic political party founded in Genoa
The revision of the Lateran treaties in the eighties by the socialist prime minister of Italy Bettino Craxi, removed the status of "official religion" of the Catholic Church, but still granted a series of provisions in favour of the Church, such as the eight per thousand law, the teaching of religion in schools, and other privileges. In Italy, the Prime Minister of Italy (officially the President of the Council of Ministers, Italian Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri) is the country's Benedetto (Bettino Craxi ( February 24, 1934 – January 19, 2000) was an Italian politician head of the Italian Socialist Party Eight per thousand, or otto per mille, is an Italian law Under this law Italian taxpayers are able to vote who shall receive 0
Recently, the Catholic Church has been taking a more aggressive stance in Italian politics, in particular through Cardinal Camillo Ruini, who often makes his voice heard commenting the political debate and indicating the official line of the Church on various matters. The politics of Italy take place in a framework of a parliamentary, democratic Republic, and of a Multi-party system. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. Camillo Cardinal Ruini (born February 19, 1931) is an Italian Prelate of the Catholic Church. This interventionism has increased with the papacy of Benedict XVI. Pope Benedict XVI ( Latin: Benedictus PP XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Alois Ratzinger Anti-clericalism, however, is not the official stance of most parties (with the exception of the Italian Radicals, who, however identify as laicist), as most party leaders consider it an electoral disadvantage to openly contradict the Church: since the demise of the Christian Democracy as a single party, Catholic votes are often swinging between the right and the left wing, and are considered to be decisive to win an election. Italian Radicals ( Radicali Italiani) is an Italian political party which describes itself as a liberale, liberista e libertario Laïcité (laisiˈte is the French concept of a Secular society, connoting the absence of religious involvement in government affairs
Following the Revolution of 1860, US-backed President Benito Juárez, issued a decree nationalizing church property, separating church and state, and suppressing religious orders. Benito Pablo Juárez García (benit̪o paβ̞lo xwaɾes gaɾsia ( March 21, 1806 – July 18, 1872) was a Zapotec Amerindian
Following the revolution of 1910, the new Mexican Constitution of 1917 contained further anti-clerical provisions. Article 3 called for secular education in the schools and prohibited the Church from engaging in primary education; Article 5 outlawed monastic orders; Article 24 forbade public worship outside the confines of churches; and Article 27 placed restrictions on the right of religious organizations to hold property. Most obnoxious to Catholics was Article 130, which deprived clergy members of basic political rights. Many of these laws were resisted, leading to the Cristero Rebellion of 1927 - 1929. The Cristero War (also known as the Cristiada of 1926 to 1929 was an uprising and Counter-revolution against the Anti-Catholic Mexican government of the time set The suppression of the Church included the closing of many churches the killing and forced marriage of priests. The persecution was most severe in Tabasco under the strident atheist governor Tomás Garrido Canabal. Atheism Tomás Garrido Canabal (born Playas de Catazajá, Chiapas, September 20, 1891 &mdash died Los Angeles, California,
The effects of the war on the Church were profound. Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests were killed.  Where there were 4,500 priests serving the people before the rebellion, in 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government to serve fifteen million people, the rest having been eliminated by emigration, expulsion and assassination.  It appears that ten states were left without any priests. 
In 1940 Graham Greene wrote a fictional best selling book, The Power and the Glory, a story of an alcoholic priest persecuted in Mexico during the 1930s. Henry Graham Greene OM, CH (2 October 1904 &ndash 3 April 1991 was an English writer best known as a novelist but who also produced Short stories The Power and the Glory (1940 is a Novel by British author Graham Greene.
Anti-clericalism has been hard to notice in Poland until it became one of the policies of the communist People's Republic of Poland. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The People's Republic of Poland or Polish People's Republic ( Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL Russian It was nonetheless not a policy that gained any significant public support, as the Catholic Church became one of the publicly recognized and respected centers of the opposition to the government. Ironically, this has been reversed following the fall of communism in Poland, when the role of Catholic Church in political life increased. "Fall of Communism" redirects here For the fall of the Soviet Union itself see History of the Soviet Union (1985–1991.
A first wave of anti-clericalism occurred in 1834 when under the government of Dom Pedro all convents and monasteries in Portugal were abolished, simultaneously closing some of Portugal's primary educational establishments. Dom Pedro ( Lord Peter) is the traditional Portuguese appellation of several kings of Portugal: Peter I of Portugal The fall of the Monarchy in the Republican revolution of 1910 led to another wave of anti-clerical activity. Most church property was put under State control, and the church was not allowed to inherit property. The wearing of religious garb and religious instruction in schools were abolished, as well as religious oaths and church taxes.
The first instance of anti-clerical violence due to political conflict in C19th Spain occurred during the First Spanish Civil War (1820-23). The Red Terror in Spain is the name given to various acts committed by Spanish Republicans during the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s including Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War is the name given by the Catholic Church to the people who were killed during the Spanish Civil War because of their connection to the church The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of During riots in Catalunya 20 clergymen were killed by members of the liberal movement in retaliation for the Church's siding with absolutist supporters of Ferdinand VII. Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Early life In his youth he occupied the painful position of an heir apparent who was jealously excluded from all share in government by his parents and the royal favorite
In 1836 following the First Carlist War, the new regime abolished the major Spanish Convents and Monasteries. The Red Terror in Spain is the name given to various acts committed by Spanish Republicans during the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s including See also Carlism The First Carlist War was a Civil war in Spain from 1833 to 1839 The Radical Alejandro Lerroux distinguished himself by his inflammatory pieces of opinion. Alejandro Lerroux García (La Rambla Córdoba, March 4, 1864 - Madrid, June 25, 1949) was a Spanish politician
During the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s, and in the context of atrocities on both sides, many of the Republican forces were violently anti-clerical anarchists and Communists, whose assaults during what has been termed Spain's Red Terror included sacking and burning monasteries and churches and killing 283 nuns and more than 6,000 priests, including 13 bishops, 4184 diocesan priests, 2365 members of male religious orders, among them 259 Claretians, 226 Franciscans, 204 Piarists, 176 Brothers of Mary, 165 Christian Brothers, 155 Augustinians, 132 Dominicans, and 114 Jesuits, and there are accounts of Catholic faithful being forced to swallow rosary beads, thrown down mine shafts and priests being forced to dig their own graves before being buried alive. The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The Red Terror in Spain is the name given to various acts committed by Spanish Republicans during the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s including  The Catholic Church has seen fit to canonize several martyrs of the Spanish Civil War and beatify hundreds more. Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War is the name given by the Catholic Church to the people who were killed during the Spanish Civil War because of their connection to the church Beatification (from Latin beatus, blessed via Greek μακάριος makarios) is a recognition accorded by the Catholic church
Anti-clerical waves have been seen in Quebec since 1960. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The Quiet Revolution is characterised essentially by an opening toward socialism and the objection to the social model advanced by the church and the clergy. The Quiet Revolution ( Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of intense change in Quebec, Canada, characterized by the rapid and effective Secularization
Freemasonry has historically been seen, especially by the Catholic church as a principal source of anti-Clericalism - especially in, but not limited to, historically Catholic countries. The Roman Catholic Church has long been an outspoken critic of Freemasonry, and has continually prohibited members from being Freemasons since In Eminenti Specula Certain branches of Freemasonry are acknowledged by Masonic sources as a major source of anti-clericalism in Mexico, Italy and France. 
Most Communist governments have been officially anti-clerical, abolishing religious holidays, teaching atheism in schools, closing monasteries, church social and educational institutions and many churches. Atheism In the USSR, anti-clericalism was expressed through the state; some have estimated thousands of priests and monks were either executed or sent to forced labour camps to die during the Stalin era. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party
as of the late 1990s and early 2000s anticlericalism was reported to be significant in the Islamic Republic of Iran. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Demonstrators have used slogans such as `The clerics live like kings while we live in poverty!` One report claims "Working-class Iranian lemented clerical wealth in the face of their own poverty," and "stories about Swiss bank accounts of leading clerics circulated on Tehran's rumor mill. Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of "
The sentiment there differs from Western anticlericalism in that it is/was associated not with irreligious beliefs but with dissatisfaction with theocratic rule there, the perceived misrule of Islamic clerics (particularly economic dissatisfaction) who rule under the principle of velayat-e faqih. Irreligion is a lack of religion indifference to religion or hostility to religion The post of Supreme Leader ( Persian: رهبر انقلاب Rahbare Enqelab, lit One of the most dramatic changes in government in Iran's history was seen with the 1979 Iranian Revolution where Shah ( king) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih ( ولاية الفقيه) (also known as Hokumat-e Islami or Islamic Government