The  (pronounced [ˈanʃlʊs] German: "connection"), also known as the , was the 1938 annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi regime. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Annexation ( Latin ad, to and nexus, joining is the legal incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity (either adjacent or non-contiguous Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Großdeutschland ( German for "Greater Germany" or "Large Germany" is a term referring to the concept of one German Nation-state Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers
The events of March 12, 1938, marked the culmination of historical cross-national pressures to unify the German populations of Austria and Germany under one nation. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. However, the 1938 Anschluss, regardless of its popularity, was enacted by Germany. Earlier, Nazi Germany had provided support for the Austrian National Socialist Party (Austrian Nazi Party) in its bid to seize power from Austria's Austrofascist leadership. Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-Germanic movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century Austrofascism (Austrofaschismus is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938 Fully devoted to remaining independent but amidst growing pressures, the chancellor of Austria, Kurt Schuschnigg, tried to hold a plebiscite. Kurt Alois Josef Johann Schuschnigg ( December 14, 1897 - November 18, 1977) was an Austrian Politician who in 1934 succeeded the assassinated A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita
Although he expected Austria to vote in favour of maintaining autonomy, a well-planned internal overthrow by the Austrian Nazi Party of Austria's state institutions in Vienna took place on March 11, prior to the vote. Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-Germanic movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty With power quickly transferred over to Germany, Wehrmacht troops entered Austria to enforce the Anschluss. Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 The Nazis held a plebiscite within the following month, where they received 99. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita 73% of the vote. No fighting ever took place and the strongest voices against the annexation, particularly Fascist Italy, France and the United Kingdom (the "Stresa Front"), were powerless or, in the case of Italy, appeased. The Kingdom of Italy ( Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state forged in 1861 by the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Stresa Front was an agreement made in Stresa, a town on the banks of Lake Maggiore in Italy between French foreign minister Pierre Laval, British The Allies were, on paper, committed to upholding the terms of the treaties of Versailles and St. Germain, which specifically prohibited the union of Austria and Germany. The Entente Powers (from Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new
Nevertheless, the Anschluss was among the first major steps in Adolf Hitler's long-desired creation of an empire including German-speaking lands and territories Germany had lost after World War I. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Already prior to the 1938 annexation, the Rhineland was retaken and the Saar region was returned to Germany after fifteen years of occupation. The Rhineland ( Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. Saarland (ˈzaːɐ̯lant in German; French: Sarre) is one of the 16 federal states (German Bundesländer) of Germany. After the Anschluss, the predominantly German Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia was taken, with the rest of the country becoming a protectorate to Germany in 1939. Sudetenland ( Czech and Polish: Sudety) is the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the western regions of In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect That same year, Memelland was returned from Lithuania, the final peaceful territorial aggrandizement before the start of World War II. The Klaipėda Region (Klaipėdos kraštas or Memel Territory (Memelland or Memelgebiet Territoire de Memel was defined by the Treaty of Versailles World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Austria ceased to exist as a fully independent nation until late 1945. A Provisional Austrian Government was set up on April 27, 1945 and was legally recognized by the Allies in the following months, but it was not until 1955 that Austria regained full sovereignty. Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War.
The idea of grouping all Germans into one state had been the subject of inconclusive debate since the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. For the history of these states before 1804 see Holy Roman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, and articles on each of the component countries. The Kingdom of Hungary (short form Hungary) was a considerable state in Central Europe that existed from 1001 to 1918 then from 1919 to 1946 Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification Austrofascism (Austrofaschismus is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938 The Holy Roman Empire ( HRE; German Heiliges Römisches Reich (HRR, Latin Sacrum Romanum Imperium (SRI was a union of territories in Before 1866, it was generally thought that the unification of the Germans could only succeed under Austrian leadership, but the rise of Prussia was largely unpredicted. Prussia ( Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Prūsija Prūsija Prusy Old Prussian: Prūsa) was most recently a historic state This created a rivalry between the two that made unification through a Großdeutschland solution impossible. Großdeutschland ( German for "Greater Germany" or "Large Germany" is a term referring to the concept of one German Nation-state Also, due to the multi-ethnic composition of the Austro-Hungarian Empire centralized in Vienna, many rejected this notion and it was unthinkable that Austria would give up her "non-German" territories, let alone submit to Prussia. Nevertheless, a series of wars, including the Austro-Prussian War, led to the expulsion of Austria from German affairs, allowed for the creation of the North German Confederation and consolidated the German states through Prussia, enabling the creation of a German Empire in 1871. The Austro-Prussian The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund came into existence in August 1866 as a military alliance of 22 states of northern Germany with the Kingdom of The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification Otto von Bismarck played a fundamental role in this process, with the end result representing a Kleindeutsche solution that did not include the German-speaking parts of Austria-Hungary. Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen Duke of Lauenburg Prince of Bismarck ( April 1, 1815 July 30, 1898) The Kleindeutsche Lösung ("Lesser German Solution" was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany consisting of the members The Emperor in Vienna did not want to become a member of Bismarck's Second Reich, because he would have been forced to be an Emperor of "second class" compared with the Emperor in Berlin. An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. The German Empire is the name commonly used in English to describe Germany from 1871 to 1918 when it was a semi- Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the Unification When Austria-Hungary broke up in 1918, many German-speaking Austrians hoped to join with Germany in the realignment of Europe, but the Treaty of Versailles (1919) and the Treaty of Saint-Germain of 1919 explicitly vetoed the inclusion of Austria within a German state, because France and the UK feared the power of a larger Germany, and had already begun to disempower the current one. The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Also Austrian particularism, especially among the nobility, played a huge role, as Austria was Roman Catholic, while Germany was dominated, especially in government, more by Protestants. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Both constitutions, that of Weimar Republic and that of the First Austrian Republic, included the political aim of unification and this aim was widely supported also by democratic parties. The term Weimar Republic ( ˈvaɪmarɐ repuˈbliːk is used by historians to signify the democratic and Republican period of Germany from 1919 to 1933 In Austrian history the First Republic encompasses the period following the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy at the end of World War I, up In the early 1930s, popular support for union with Germany remained overwhelming, and the Austrian government looked to a possible customs union with Germany in 1931. A customs union is a Free trade area with a Common external tariff.
In early 1938, Hitler had consolidated his power in Germany and was ready to reach out to fulfill his long-planned expansion. After a lengthy period of pressure by Germany, Hitler met Kurt Schuschnigg, the Chancellor of Austria on 12 February 1938 in Berchtesgaden (Bavaria) and instructed him to lift the ban on political parties, reinstate full party freedoms, release all imprisoned members of the Nazi party and let them participate in the government. Kurt Alois Josef Johann Schuschnigg ( December 14, 1897 - November 18, 1977) was an Austrian Politician who in 1934 succeeded the assassinated The Chancellor of Austria (in German: Bundeskanzler) is the Head of government in Austria. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Berchtesgaden (bɛʁçtəsˈgaːdən is a municipality in the German Bavarian Alps. Bavaria ( German:, with an area of 70553 Km² (27241 square miles and almost 12 Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Otherwise, he would take military action. Schuschnigg complied with Hitler's demands and appointed Arthur Seyss-Inquart, a pro-Nazi lawyer, as Interior Minister and another Nazi, Edmund Glaise-Horstenau, as a Minister without Portfolio. Arthur Seyss-Inquart (in German Seyß-Inquart, born Arthur Zajtich (22 July 1892 - 16 October 1946 was a prominent lawyer and later Nazi official in pre- Edmund Glaise-Horstenau (also known as Edmund Glaise von Horstenau February 27 1882, Braunau am Inn, Austria – July 20 1946 A Minister without Portfolio is either a Government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister that does not head a particular ministry. 
Before the February meeting, Schuschnigg was already under considerable pressure from Germany. This may be seen in the demand to remove the chief of staff of the Austrian Army, Alfred Jansa, from his position in January 1938. The current name of the Military of Austria is Österreichs Bundesheer ("Federal Army of Austria " official English name Austrian Armed Forces Feldmarschalleutnant Alfred Johann Theophil Jansa von Tannenau, (born July 16, 1884, Stanislawow - December 20, 1963, Jansa and his staff had developed a scenario for Austria's defense against a German attack, a situation Hitler wanted to avoid at all costs. Schuschnigg subsequently complied with the demand. 
During the following weeks, Schuschnigg realized that his newly appointed ministers were working to take over his authority. Schuschnigg tried to gather support throughout Austria and inflame patriotism among the people. Patriotism is commonly defined as love of and/or devotion to one's country For the first time since 12 February 1934 (the time of the Austrian Civil War), socialists and communists could legally appear in public again. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Origins of the conflict After the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (following World War I) the state of Austria - comprising by The communists announced their unconditional support for the Austrian government, understandable in light of Nazi pressure on Austria. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The socialists demanded further concessions from Schuschnigg before they were willing to side with him. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution
On 9 March, as a last resort to preserve Austria's independence, Schuschnigg scheduled a plebiscite on the independence of Austria for 13 March. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. To secure a large majority in the referendum, Schuschnigg set the minimum voting age at 24 in order to exclude younger voters who largely sympathized with Nazi ideology. Holding a referendum was a highly risky gamble for Schuschnigg, and, on the next day, it became apparent that Hitler would not simply stand by while Austria declared its independence by public vote. Hitler declared that the plebiscite would be subject to major fraud and that Germany would not accept it. In addition, the German Ministry of Propaganda issued press reports that riots had broken out in Austria and that large parts of the Austrian population were calling for German troops to restore order. Schuschnigg immediately responded publicly that reports of riots were false.
Hitler sent an ultimatum to Schuschnigg on 11 March, demanding that he hand over all power to the Austrian National Socialists or face an invasion. An ultimatum (the last one is a Demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case Kurt Alois Josef Johann Schuschnigg ( December 14, 1897 - November 18, 1977) was an Austrian Politician who in 1934 succeeded the assassinated Events 1425 BC - Thutmose III, Pharaoh of Egypt, dies (according to the Low Chronology of the 18th Dynasty Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-Germanic movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century The ultimatum was set to expire at noon, but was extended by two hours. However, without waiting for an answer, Hitler had already signed the order to send troops into Austria at one o'clock, issuing it to Hermann Göring only hours later. Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Goering) (12 January 1893 15 October 1946 was a German Politician, Military leader and a leading member
Schuschnigg desperately sought support for Austrian independence in the hours following the ultimatum, but, realizing that neither France nor the United Kingdom was willing to take steps, he resigned as Chancellor that evening. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located In the radio broadcast in which he announced his resignation, he argued that he accepted the changes and allowed the Nazis to take over the government in order to avoid bloodshed. Meanwhile, Austrian President Wilhelm Miklas refused to appoint Seyss-Inquart Chancellor and asked other Austrian politicians such as Michael Skubl and Sigismund Schilhawsky to assume the office. Wilhelm Miklas (born October 15, 1872 March 20, 1956) was an Austrian politician who served as the third President of Austria Arthur Seyss-Inquart (in German Seyß-Inquart, born Arthur Zajtich (22 July 1892 - 16 October 1946 was a prominent lawyer and later Nazi official in pre- However, the Nazis were well organised. Within hours they managed to take control of many parts of Vienna, including the Ministry of Internal Affairs (controlling the Police). As Miklas continued to refuse to appoint a Nazi government and Seyss-Inquart still could not send a telegram in the name of the Austrian government demanding German troops to restore order, Hitler became furious. At about 10 PM, well after Hitler had signed and issued the order for the invasion, Göring and Hitler gave up on waiting and published a forged telegram containing a request by the Austrian Government for German troops to enter Austria. Around midnight, after nearly all critical offices and buildings had fallen into Nazi hands in Vienna and the main political party members of the old government had been arrested, Miklas finally conceded to appoint Seyss-Inquart Chancellor. 
On the morning of 12 March, the 8th Army of the German Wehrmacht crossed the German-Austrian border. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 They did not face resistance by the Austrian Army—on the contrary, the German troops were greeted by cheering Austrians with Hitler salutes, Nazi flags and flowers. The current name of the Military of Austria is Österreichs Bundesheer ("Federal Army of Austria " official English name Austrian Armed Forces By this the NS invasion into Austria without one single shooting is also called "Blumenkrieg" (war of flowers). For the Wehrmacht this invasion was the first big test of its machinery. Although the invading forces were badly organized and coordination between the units was poor, it mattered little because no fighting took place. It did, however, serve as a warning to German commanders in future military operations, such as that against Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
Hitler's car crossed the border in the afternoon at Braunau, his birthplace. Braunau am Inn is a City in the Innviertel region of Upper Austria ( Oberösterreich) the north-western state of Austria In the evening, he arrived at Linz and was given an enthusiastic welcome in the city hall. Linz is the third largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria (Oberösterreich The atmosphere was so intense that Göring, in a telephone call that evening, stated: "There is unbelievable jubilation in Austria. We ourselves did not think that sympathies would be so intense. "
Hitler's further travel through Austria changed into a triumphal tour that climaxed in Vienna, on 2 April 1938, when around 200,000 Austrians gathered on the Heldenplatz (Square of Heroes) to hear Hitler proclaim the Austrian Anschluss. Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Events 68 - Galba, Governor of Hispania, names himself legatus senatus populique Romani, breaking the line of Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Heldenplatz ("Heroes' Square" is a historical plaza in Vienna.  Hitler later commented: "Certain foreign newspapers have said that we fell on Austria with brutal methods. I can only say: even in death they cannot stop lying. I have in the course of my political struggle won much love from my people, but when I crossed the former frontier (into Austria) there met me such a stream of love as I have never experienced. Not as tyrants have we come, but as liberators. "
The Anschluss was given immediate effect by legislative act on 13 March, subject to ratification by a plebiscite. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Austria became the province of Ostmark, and Seyss-Inquart was appointed Governor. A province is a territorial unit almost always an Administrative division. Ostmark is a German term meaning either Eastern march when applied to territories or Eastern Mark when applied to currencies The plebiscite was held on 10 April and officially recorded a support of 99. Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama 73% of the voters. 
Hitler's brutal methods to emasculate any opposition were immediately implemented in the weeks preceding the referendum. Even before the first German soldier crossed the border, Heinrich Himmler and a few SS officers landed in Vienna to arrest prominent representatives of the First Republic such as Richard Schmitz, Leopold Figl, Friedrich Hillegeist and Franz Olah. Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945 was a Nazi German politician and head of the Schutzstaffel (SS. The ( German for "Protective Squadron" abbreviated SS - or ( Runic)- was a major Nazi organization under Adolf Hitler and the Richard Schmitz ( December 14, 1885 - April 27 1954) was the last Social- Christian mayor of Vienna, Austria. Leopold Figl ( October 2 1902 in Rust, Archduchy of Austria, - May 9 1965 in Vienna) was an Austrian During the few short weeks between the Anschluss and the plebiscite, Social Democrats, Communists, and other potential political dissenters, as well as Jews, were rounded up and either imprisoned or sent to concentration camps. Within only a few days of 12 March, 70,000 people had been arrested. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving The referendum itself was subject to large-scale propaganda and to the abrogation of the voting rights of around 400,000 people (nearly 10% of the eligible voting population), mainly former members of left-wing parties and Jews. 
While historians concur that the result itself was not manipulated, the voting process was neither free nor secret. Officials were present directly beside the voting booths and received the voting ballot by hand (in contrast to a secret vote where the voting ballot is inserted into a closed box). In some remote areas of Austria the referendum on the independence of Austria on 13 March was held despite the Wehrmacht's presence in Austria (it took up to 3 days to occupy every part of Austria). Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Wehrmacht (literally "defense force" was the name of the unified Armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945 For instance, in the village of Innervillgraten a majority of 95% voted for Austria's independence. Innervillgraten is a municipality in the district of Lienz in Tyrol in Austria. 
Austria remained part of the Third Reich until the end of World War II when a preliminary Austrian Government declared the Anschluss "null und nichtig" (null and void) on April 27, 1945. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including In Law, void means of no legal effect The Latin phrase void ab initio means "to be treated as invalid from the outset" Events 1124 - David I becomes King of Scotland. 1296 - Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar After the war, then allied-occupied Austria was recognized and treated as a separate country, but was not restored to sovereignty until the Austrian State Treaty and Austrian Declaration of Neutrality, both of 1955, largely due to the rapid development of the Cold War and disputes between the Soviet Union and its former allies over its foreign policy. Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself The Austrian State Treaty (Österreichischer Staatsvertrag or Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state The Declaration of Neutrality was a declaration by the Austrian Parliament declaring the country permanently neutral. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991
The picture of Austria in the first days of its existence in the Third Reich is one of contradictions: at one and the same time, Hitler's terror regime began to tighten its grip in every area of society, beginning with mass arrests and thousands of Austrians attempting to flee in every direction; yet Austrians could be seen cheering and welcoming German troops entering Austrian territory. Many Austrian political figures did not hesitate to announce their support of the Anschluss and their relief that it happened without violence.
Cardinal Theodor Innitzer (a political figure of the CS) declared as early as 12 March: "The Viennese Catholics should thank the Lord for the bloodless way this great political change has occurred, and they should pray for a great future for Austria. Theodor Cardinal Innitzer ( December 25, 1875 &ndash October 9, 1955) was Archbishop of Vienna and a cardinal of the Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving Needless to say, everyone should obey the orders of the new institutions. " The other Austrian bishops followed suit some days later. Vatican Radio, however, immediately broadcast a vehement denunciation of the German action, and Cardinal Pacelli, the Vatican Secretary of State, ordered Innitzer to report to Rome. Vatican Radio ( Radio Vaticana) is the official Broadcasting service of the Vatican. Pope The Cardinal Secretary of State &mdashofficially Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope &mdashpresides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which Before meeting with the pope, Innitzer met with Pacelli, who had been outraged by Innitzer's statement. He made it clear that Innitzer needed to retract; he was made to sign a new statement, issued on behalf of all the Austrian bishops, which provided: “The solemn declaration of the Austrian bishops . . . was clearly not intended to be an approval of something that was not and is not compatible with God's law”. The Vatican newspaper also reported that the bishops' earlier statement had been issued without the approval from Rome.
Robert Kauer, president of the minority Lutheran Church in Austria, greeted Hitler on 13 March as "saviour of the 350,000 German Protestants in Austria and liberator from a five-year hardship. Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. " Even Karl Renner, the most famous Social Democrat of the First Republic, announced his support for the Anschluss and appealed to all Austrians to vote in favour of it on 10 April. Karl Renner ( December 14, 1870 – December 31, 1950) was an Austrian Politician. Events 879 - Louis III becomes King of the Western Franks. 1407 - the lama 
The international response to the expansion of Germany may be described as moderate. The Times commented that 200 years ago Scotland had joined England as well and that this event would not really differ much. The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. On 14 March, the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain noted in the House of Commons:
His Majesty's Government have throughout been in the closest touch with the situation. Events 1489 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the political leader of the United Kingdom Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 &ndash 9 November 1940 was a British Conservative Politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords The Foreign Secretary saw the German Foreign Minister on the 10th of March and addressed to him a grave warning on the Austrian situation and upon what appeared to be the policy of the German Government in regard to it. . . . Late on the 11th of March our Ambassador in Berlin registered a protest in strong terms with the German Government against such use of coercion, backed by force, against an independent State in order to create a situation incompatible with its national independence.
However the speech concluded:
I imagine that according to the temperament of the individual the events which are in our minds to-day will be the cause of regret, of sorrow, perhaps of indignation. They cannot be regarded by His Majesty's Government with indifference or equanimity. They are bound to have effects which cannot yet be measured. The immediate result must be to intensify the sense of uncertainty and insecurity in Europe. Unfortunately, while the policy of appeasement would lead to a relaxation of the economic pressure under which many countries are suffering to-day, what has just occurred must inevitably retard economic recovery and, indeed, increased care will be required to ensure that marked deterioration does not set in. This is not a moment for hasty decisions or for careless words. We must consider the new situation quickly, but with cool judgement. . . As regards our defence programmes, we have always made it clear that they were flexible and that they would have to be reviewed from time to time in the light of any development in the international situation. It would be idle to pretend that recent events do not constitute a change of the kind that we had in mind. Accordingly we have decided to make a fresh review, and in due course we shall announce what further steps we may think it necessary to take. 
The moderate reaction to the Anschluss was the first major consequence of the strictly followed appeasement British foreign policy strategy. The international reaction to the events of March 12, 1938 led Hitler to conclude that he could use even more aggressive tactics in his roadmap to expand the Third Reich, as he would later in annexing the Sudetenland. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Sudetenland ( Czech and Polish: Sudety) is the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the western regions of The relatively bloodless Anschluss helped pave the way for the Treaty of Munich in September 1938 and the annexation of Czechoslovakia in 1939, because it reinforced appeasement as the right way for Britain to deal with Hitler's Germany. The Munich Agreement (Mnichovská dohoda Mníchovská dohoda Münchner Abkommen Accords de Munich was an agreement regarding the Sudetenland, which were areas along borders Czechoslovakia may also refer to what is now the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe.
The word "Anschluss" outside the context of March 1938 is properly translated as "joinder", "connection", "unification" or "political union". In contrast the German word "Annektierung" that would mean military annexation unambiguously was and is not commonly used in this context. Annexation ( Latin ad, to and nexus, joining is the legal incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity (either adjacent or non-contiguous The usage of the term "Anschluss" has been widespread before and in 1938 describing an incorporation of Austria into Germany. Calling the incorporation of Austria into Nazi Germany an "Anschluss", that is a unification or joinder, was however also part of the propaganda used in 1938 by Hitler and the Nazis to create the impression the events of March 1938 were not backed and enforced by military pressure. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Hitler himself stressed the meaning of the events numerous times following the "Anschluss" and described the incorporation of Austria as the return of it to its original home (Heimkehr). The word Anschluss endured the years of the Second World War and the years thereafter, letting the term, despite its non-correlating to the actual events and propaganda usage in 1938 stand for the events that took place. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
Some historical sources, for instance, Encyclopædia Britannica, describe the Anschluss as an "annexation" rather than a union. The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc From a factual view of the events that were mainly driven by the German military power and political pressure within Austria and from the outside the term annexation is the closer description than the term "Anschluss". It however omits to present the differences between the "Anschluss" and other annexations of Nazi Germany backed by force, i. e. large parts of the Austrian population either supported or were indifferent to the incorporation of Austria into the Third Reich. Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany under the regime of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers
The Anschluss can be misunderstood as merely a military annexation. This invites confusion with other German military occupations of European countries. Adolf Hitler himself was an Austrian. Despite the subversion by Hitler's sympathisers, Austrian acceptance of direct government by Hitler's Germany was a different phenomenon from the administration of other collaborationist countries.
The governments of the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States of America are agreed that Austria, the first free country to fall a victim to Hitlerite aggression, shall be liberated from German domination. The Moscow Declaration was signed during the Moscow Conference on October 30 1943. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located They regard the annexation imposed on Austria by Germany on 15 March 1938, as null and void. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. They consider themselves as in no way bound by any charges effected in Austria since that date. They declare that they wish to see re-established a free and independent Austria and thereby to open the way for the Austrian people themselves, as well as those neighbouring States which will be faced with similar problems, to find that political and economic security which is the only basis for lasting peace. Austria is reminded, however, that she has a responsibility, which she cannot evade, for participation in the war at the side of Hitlerite Germany, and that in the final settlement account will inevitably be taken of her own contribution to her liberation. 
To judge from the last paragraph and subsequent determinations at the Nuremberg Trial, the Declaration was intended to serve as propaganda aimed at stirring Austrian resistance (although there are Austrians counted as Righteous Among the Nations, there never was an effective Austrian armed resistance of the sort found in other countries under German occupation) more than anything else, although the exact text of the declaration is said to have a somewhat complex drafting history. The Nuremberg Trials were a series of trials most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany after Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people Righteous among the Nations (חסידי אומות העולם Chassidey Umot HaOlam) which may at times refer to the B'nei Noah or Noahides as well is a term used  At Nuremberg Arthur Seyss-Inquart and Franz von Papen, in particular, were both indicted under count one (conspiracy to commit crimes against peace) specifically for their activities in support of the Austrian Nazi Party and the Anschluss, but neither was convicted of this count. Arthur Seyss-Inquart (in German Seyß-Inquart, born Arthur Zajtich (22 July 1892 - 16 October 1946 was a prominent lawyer and later Nazi official in pre- (29 October 1879 2 May 1969 was a German nobleman Catholic monarchist Politician, General Staff officer and Diplomat In acquitting von Papen, the court noted that his actions were in its view political immoralities but not crimes under its charter. Seyss-Inquart was convicted of other serious war crimes, most of which took place in Poland and the Netherlands, was sentenced to death and executed. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands
After World War II, many Austrians sought comfort in the idea of Austria as "the Nazis' first victim". World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Although the Nazi party was promptly banned, Austria did not have the same thorough process of de-Nazification at the top of government which was imposed on Germany for a time. Lacking outside pressure for political reform, factions of Austrian society tried for a long time to advance the view that the Anschluss was only an annexation at the point of a bayonet.
This view of the events of 1938 has deep roots in the ten years of Allied occupation and the struggle to regain Austrian sovereignty: The victim theory played an essential role in the negotiations on the Austrian State Treaty with the Soviets, and by pointing to the Moscow Declaration, Austrian politicians heavily relied on it to achieve a solution for Austria different from the Germany's division into East and West. The Austrian State Treaty (Österreichischer Staatsvertrag or Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state The Moscow Declaration was signed during the Moscow Conference on October 30 1943. The State Treaty, alongside with the subsequent Austrian declaration of permanent neutrality, marked important milestones for the solidification of Austria's independent national identity during the course of following decades. For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties
As Austrian politicians of the Left and Right attempted to reconcile their differences in order to avoid the violent conflict that had dominated the First Republic, discussions of both Austrian-Nazism and Austria's role during the Nazi-era were largely avoided. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Still, the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) had advanced, and still advances, the argument that the establishment of the Dollfuss dictatorship was necessary in order to maintain Austrian independence; while the Austrian Social Democratic Party, (SPÖ), argues that the Dollfuss dictatorship stripped the country of the democratic resources necessary to repel Hitler; yet it ignores that Hitler himself was indigenous to Austria. The Austrian People's Party ( German: Österreichische Volkspartei, or ÖVP) is an Austrian Political party. The Social Democratic Party of Austria ( German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, or SPÖ) is one of the oldest parties in Austria. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately
For decades, the victim theory established in the Austrian mind remained largely undisputed. The Austrian public was only rarely forced to confront the legacy of the Third Reich (most notably during the events of 1965 concerning Taras Borodajkewycz, a professor of economic history notorious for anti-Semitic remarks, when Ernst Kirchweger, a concentration camp survivor, was killed by a right-wing protester during riots). Taras (von Borodajkewycz (born October 1, 1902 in what is today Ukraine, died January 3, 1984 in Vienna) was a former Ernst Kirchweger (1897 or 1898 – April 3 1965 in Vienna) was the first person to die as a result of political conflict in Austria 's Second Republic. It was not until the 1980s that Austrians were finally massively confronted with their past. The main catalyst for the start of a Vergangenheitsbewältigung was the so-called Waldheim affair. Vergangenheitsbewältigung is a composite German word that describes the process of dealing with the past ( Vergangenheit = past Bewältigung = management Kurt Josef Waldheim ( 21 December 1918 – 14 June 2007) was an Austrian Diplomat and Politician. The Austrian reply to allegations during the 1986 Presidential election campaign that successful candidate and former UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim had been a member of the Nazi party and of the infamous SA (he was later absolved of direct involvement in war crimes) was that scrutiny was an unwelcome intervention in the country's internal affairs. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. Kurt Josef Waldheim ( 21 December 1918 – 14 June 2007) was an Austrian Diplomat and Politician. The, abbreviated SA, ( German for "Assault detachment" or "Assault section" usually translated as " stormtroop(ers War crimes are "violations of the laws or customs of war" including but not limited to "murder the ill-treatment or deportation of civilian residents of an occupied Despite the politicians' reactions to international criticism of Waldheim, the Waldheim affair started the first serious major discussion on Austria's past and the Anschluss.
Another main factor for Austria and its coming to terms with the past emerged in the 1980s: Jörg Haider and the rise of the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ). Jörg Haider (January 26 1950 – October 11 2008 was an Austrian politician The Freedom Party of Austria ( Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ is a political party in Austria. The party had combined elements of the pan-German right with free-market liberalism since its foundation in 1955, but after Haider had ascended to the party chairmanship in 1986, the liberal elements became increasingly marginalized while Haider began to openly use nationalist and anti-immigrant rhetoric. Pan-Germanism (Pangermanismus or Alldeutsche Bewegung was a political movement of the 19th century aiming for unity of the German -speaking peoples of Europe He was often criticised for tactics such as the völkisch (ethnic) definition of national interest ("Austria for Austrians") and his apologism for Austria's past, notably calling members of the Waffen-SS "men of honour". The Waffen-SS ( German for "Armed SS" literally "Weapons SS" was the Combat arm of the Schutzstaffel ("Protective Squadron" Following an enormous electoral rise in the 1990s peaking in the 1999 elections, the FPÖ, now purged of its liberal elements, entered a coalition with the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) led by Wolfgang Schüssel that met international condemnation in 2000. In Austria, the legislative election of October 3, 1999 (elections for the National Council of Austria) caused a major upheaval in the political The Austrian People's Party ( German: Österreichische Volkspartei, or ÖVP) is an Austrian Political party. This coalition triggered the regular Donnerstagsdemonstrationen (Thursday demonstrations) in protest against the government, which took place on the Heldenplatz, where Hitler had greeted the masses during the Anschluss. The Heldenplatz ("Heroes' Square" is a historical plaza in Vienna. Haider's tactics and rhetoric, which were often criticised as sympathetic to Nazism, again forced Austrians to reconsider their relationship to the past.
But Haider is not alone in making controversial remarks about Austria's past: Haider's coalition partner, former Chancellor Wolfgang Schüssel, in a 2000 interview with the Jerusalem Post stated that Austria was the first victim of Hitler-Germany. The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English-language Broadsheet Newspaper, founded on December 1, 1932 
Tearing into the simplism of the victim theory and the time of the Austrofascism, Thomas Bernhard's last play, Heldenplatz, was highly controversial even before it appeared on stage in 1988, fifty years after Hitler's visit. Austrofascism (Austrofaschismus is a term which is frequently used by historians to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938 Thomas Bernhard (born Nicolaas Thomas Bernhard, February 9, 1931 - February 12, 1989) was an Austrian Playwright Bernhard's achievement was to make the elimination of references to Hitler's reception in Vienna emblematic of Austrian attempts to claim their history and culture under questionable criteria. Many politicians from all political factions called Bernhard a Nestbeschmutzer (so. damaging the reputation of his country) and openly demanded that the play should not be staged in Vienna's Burgtheater. The Burgtheater ( en: (Imperial Court Theatre originally known as K Kurt Waldheim, who was at that time still Austrian president called the play a crude insult to the Austrian people. Kurt Josef Waldheim ( 21 December 1918 – 14 June 2007) was an Austrian Diplomat and Politician. 
In the context of the postwar Federal Republic of Germany, one encounters a Vergangenheitsbewältigung ("struggle to come to terms with the past") that has been partially institutionalised, variably in literary, cultural, political, and educational contexts (its development and difficulties have not been trivial; see, for example, the Historikerstreit). Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Vergangenheitsbewältigung is a composite German word that describes the process of dealing with the past ( Vergangenheit = past Bewältigung = management The Historikerstreit (“historians' quarrel” was an intellectual and political controversy in West Germany about the way the Holocaust should be interpreted in Austria formed a Historikerkommission ("Historian's Commission" or "Historical Commission") in 1998 with a mandate to review Austria's role in the Nazi expropriation of Jewish property from a scholarly rather than legal perspective, partly in response to continuing criticism of its handling of property claims. Its membership was based on recommendations from various quarters, including Simon Wiesenthal and Yad Vashem. Simon Wiesenthal ( Buczacz, December 31, 1908 &ndash Vienna, September 20, 2005) was an Austrian Jewish Yad Vashem (יד ושם also spelled Yad VaShem; "Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority" is Israel 's official memorial to the Jewish The Commission delivered its report in 2003.  Noted Holocaust historian Raul Hilberg refused to participate in the Commission and in an interview stated his strenuous objections in terms both personal and in reference to larger questions about Austrian culpability and liability, comparing what he to be relative inattention to the settlement governing the Swiss bank holdings of those who died or were displaced by the Holocaust:
I personally would like to know why the WJC World Jewish Congress has hardly put any pressure on Austria, even as leading Nazis and SS leaders were Austrians, Hitler included. Raul Hilberg ( June 2, 1926 - August 4, 2007) was an Austrian -born American political scientist and Historian Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation The World Jewish Congress ( WJC) is an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations . . Immediately after the war, the US wanted to make the Russians withdraw from Austria, and the Russians wanted to keep Austria neutral, therefore there was a common interest to grant Austria victim status. And later Austria could cry poor - though its per capita income is as high as Germany's. And, most importantly, the Austrian PR machinery works better. Austria has the opera ball, the imperial castle, Mozartkugeln [a chocolate]. Americans like that. And Austrians invest and export relatively little to the US, therefore they are less vulnerable to blackmail. In the meantime, they set up a commission in Austria to clarify what happened to Jewish property. Victor Klima, the former chancellor, has asked me to join. My father fought for Austria in the First World War and in 1939 he was kicked out of Austria. After the war they offered him ten dollars per month as compensation. For this reason I told Klima, no thank you, this makes me sick. 
The Simon Wiesenthal Center continues to criticise Austria (as recently as June 2005) for its alleged historical and ongoing unwillingness aggressively to pursue investigations and trials against Nazis for war crimes and crimes against humanity from the 1970s onwards. The Simon Wiesenthal Center (often abbreviated SWC) with headquarters in Los Angeles Its 2001 report offered the following characterization:
Given the extensive participation of numerous Austrians, including at the highest levels, in the implementation of the Final Solution and other Nazi crimes, Austria should have been a leader in the prosecution of Holocaust perpetrators over the course of the past four decades, as has been the case in Germany. Unfortunately relatively little has been achieved by the Austrian authorities in this regard and in fact, with the exception of the case of Dr. Heinrich Gross which was suspended this year under highly suspicious circumstances (he claimed to be medically unfit, but outside the court proved to be healthy) not a single Nazi war crimes prosecution has been conducted in Austria since the mid-1970s. Heinrich Gross ( November 14, 1915 &ndash December 15, 2005) was an Austrian Psychiatrist, Medical doctor and 
In 2003, the Center launched a worldwide effort named "Operation: Last Chance" in order to collect further information about those Nazis still alive that are potentially subject to prosecution. Although reports issued shortly thereafter credited Austria for initiating large-scale investigations, there has been one case where criticism of Austrian authorities arose recently: The Center has put 92-year old Croatian Milivoj Asner on its 2005 top ten list. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Milivoj Ašner (born April 21, 1913) is a former police chief in eastern Croatia who enforced Racist laws under Croatia's World War II Asner fled to Austria in 2004 after Croatia announced it would start investigations in the case of war crimes he may have been involved in. In response to objections about Asner's continued freedom, Austria's federal government has deferred to either extradition requests from Croatia or prosecutorial actions from Klagenfurt, neither of which appears forthcoming (as of June 2005). Klagenfurt guildhall 19072006 01jpg|thumb|220px|City hall in Klagenfurt´s center Neuer Platz]] Klagenfurt am Wörthersee ( Slovene: Celovec) is the Capital  Extradition is not an option since Asner also holds Austrian citizenship, having lived in the country from 1946 to 1991.