|The walls of Ani showing a defensive tower.|
|Map of Ani. In Political geography and International politics, a country is a Political division of a geographical entity Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Turkey is divided into 81 provinces called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i Kars is a province (il of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating Telephone number ranges to countries regions areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks|
|Location:||40° 30' N, 43° 34'E|
Ani (Armenian: Անի, Latin: Abnicum) is a ruined and uninhabited medieval city-site situated in the Turkish province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia. A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the Earth to be specified in three coordinates using mainly a spherical coordinate system. The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Kars is a province (il of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani It was once the capital of a medieval Armenian kingdom that covered much of present day Armenia and eastern Turkey. The Armenians (Հայեր Hayer) are a Nation and Ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and in the Armenian Highlands A large The city is located on a triangular site, visually dramatic and naturally defensive, protected on its eastern side by the ravine of the Akhurian River (Turkish: Arpaçay) and on its western side by the Bostanlar or Tzaghkotzadzor valley. The Akhurian, Akhuriyan, Akhuryan or Akhouryan (Ախուրյան Arpaçay Ахурян is a river in the South Caucasus. Turkish ( tr Türkçe IPA) is a language spoken by over 63 million people worldwide making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. The Akhurian is a branch of the Aras River and forms part of the current border between Turkey and Armenia. Called the "City of 1001 Churches", it stood on various trade routes and its many religious buildings, palaces, and fortifications were amongst the most technically and artistically advanced structures in the world. Church architecture or ecclesiastical architecture refers to the Architecture of buildings of Christian churches 
At the height of its glory, Ani had a population of 100,000 - 200,000 people and was the rival of Constantinople, Baghdad and Cairo. Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt.  Long ago renowned for its splendor and magnificence, Ani has been abandoned and largely forgotten for centuries. 
Armenian chroniclers such as Yeghishe and Ghazar Parpetsi first mentioned Ani in the 5th century AD. Yeghishé (Եղիշե 400 - 480 was a prominent Armenian historian of the 5th century  They described it as a strong fortress built on a hilltop and a possession of the Armenian Kamsarakan dynasty. Kamsarakan (Կամսարական was an Armenian noble family that was an offshoot of the Karen-Pahlav Clan, one of the seven great houses of Parthia of The city took its name from the Armenian fortress-city and pagan center of Ani-Kamakh located in the region of Daranaghi in Upper Armenia. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning "country dweller rustic" is a word used to refer to various religions and religious beliefs from across the world Upper Armenia (Բարձր Հայք - Bardzr Hayq) is a historic region of Armenia located in present-day Turkey roughly corresponding to the modern province  Ani was also previously known as Khnamk (Խնամք), although historians are uncertain as to why it was called so and are even less certain of its precise meaning.  Johann Heinrich Hübschmann, a German philologist and linguist who studied the Armenian language, suggested that the word may have came from the Armenian word "khnamel" (խնամել), an infinitive which means "to take care of", although historians have definitively rejected this theory. Johann Heinrich Hübschmann (1848 was a German philologist, born at Erfurt. See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" In Grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages 
By the early 9th century the former territories of the Kamsarakans in Arsharunik and Shirak (including Ani) had been incorporated into the territories of the Armenian Bagratuni dynasty. Arsharunik was a historical district in Armenia, part of the province of Ayrarat, north of the river Araxes. Shirak may refer to Shirak Province, Armenia Shirak (town, Armenia Shirak Airport, Armenia Shirak historic region The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Բագրատունյաց Արքայական Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family  Their leader, Ashot Msaker (Ashot the Meateater) (806-827) was given the title of ishkhan (prince) of Armenia by the Caliphate in 804. Ashot I Bagratuni (Աշոտ Մեծ was an Armenian prince with Ashot II, oversaw Armenia's second Golden age (862&ndash977 A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history  The Bagratids had their first capital at Bagaran, some 40km south of Ani, before moving it to Shirakavan, some 25km northeast of Ani, and then transferring it to Kars in the year 929. Bagaran (Բագարան formerly Haji-Bayramli) is a town and former fortress in the Armavir Province of Armenia, located 5 kilometers west of the right For the modern village called Shirakavan see Shirakavan Armenia. Kars may refer to Kars Turkey Kars Province, Turkey Kars Oblast, Russian Empire Kars Province In 961 king Ashot III (953-977) transferred the capital from Kars to Ani. Ashot III the Merciful (Աշոտ Գ Ողորմած also known as Ashot the Gracious (952/953-977 was the king of Ani. Ani expanded rapidly during the reign of King Smbat II (977-989). Smbat II King of Armenia (977–990 son of Ashot III and ruled in Ani. In 992 the Armenian Catholicosate moved its seat to Ani. This is a list of The Catholicoi of all Armenians, head Bishops of the Armenian Apostolic Church. By the start of the 11th century the population of Ani was well over 100,000, and its renown was such that it was known as "The city of forty gates" and "The city of a thousand and one churches. "
Ani attained the peak of its power during the long reign of King Gagik I (989-1020). The Cathedral of Ani, built in AD by the architect Trdat offers an example of a cruciform domed church within a rectangular plan The Catholicosate was relocated Trdat the Architect (c 950-1020 (Տրդատ ճարտարապետ known in Latin as Tiridates, was chief Architect of the Bagratuni Dynasty Gagik I (reigned 989 - 1020) was a Bagratid King of Armenia. His brother Smbat II the Conqueror (reigned 977 After his death his two sons quarrelled over the succession. The eldest son, Hovhannes (John) Smbat (1020-1041), gained control of Ani and his younger brother, Ashot (1020-1040), controlled other parts of the Bagratid kingdom. Hovhannes I was King of Ani ( 1020 - 1040) He was preceded by his father Gagik I of Ani ( 989 - 1020) but was eventually dethroned Hovhannes-Smbat, fearing that the Byzantine Empire would attack his now weakened kingdom, made the Byzantine Emperor Basil his heir. In January 1022, the Catholicos Peter, handed over to Basil II who was wintering with his army in Trebizond a document from Hovhannes-Smbat pledging his kingdom to the emperor in the event of his death. Catholicos (plural Catholicoi) is a title used by the Patriarch (head/regional head Bishop) of any of certain Eastern churches Basil II, surnamed the Bulgar-slayer (Βασίλειος Β΄ Βουλγαροκτόνος Basileios II Boulgaroktonos, 958 &ndash December 15 1025 Trabzon ( Greek: Τραπεζούντα, Trapezounta) is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of  When Hovhannes-Smbat died in 1041, the successor to Basil, Emperor Michael IV claimed sovereignty over Ani. The new king of Ani, Gagik II (1042-1045), opposed this and several Byzantine armies sent to capture Ani were repulsed. Gagik II of Ani (Գագիկ Բ was the last Bagratuni King of Ani from 1042 to 1045 However, in 1045, after the capture of Ashot and at the instigation of pro-Byzantine elements amongst its population, Ani surrendered to Byzantine control.  A Greek governor was installed in the city.
In 1064 a large Seljuk Turkish army, headed by Sultan Alp Arslan, attacked Ani and after a siege of 25 days they captured the city and slaughtered its populace. Tamar (თამარი also transliterated as T'amar Thamar or Tamara ( c Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in Alp Arslan (1029 &ndash December 15, 1072) was the second sultan of the Seljuk dynasty and great-grandson of Seljuk, the Eponym of In 1072 the Seljuks sold Ani to the Shaddadids, a Muslim Kurdish dynasty that had originated in Ganja. The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty who ruled in various parts of Armenia and Arran from 951 - 1199 A The Shaddadids generally pursued a conciliatory policy towards the city’s overwhelmingly Armenian and Christian population, and actually married several members of the Bagratid nobility. Whenever the Shaddadid governance became too intolerant, the population would appeal to the Christian kingdom of Georgia for help. Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between The Georgians captured Ani in 1124,1161 and 1174, each time eventually returning it to the Shaddadids.
In the year 1199 (some sources say 1200) the forces of the Georgian queen Tamara captured Ani. The governorship of the city was given to Zakare and Ivane Mkhargrdzeli, two generals in her army. At Ani, this new dynasty is generally known as the Zakarids, after its founder Zakare, and they considered themselves to be the successors to the Bagratids. The term Zakarid Armenia (Զաքարյան Հայաստան is used to describe territories of Armenia given to the Zakarid-Mxargrzeli princes as a Fief Prosperity quickly returned to Ani: its defences were strengthened and many new churches were constructed. Zakare was succeeded by his son Shahanshah.
The Mongols unsuccessfully besieged Ani in 1226, but in 1236 they captured and sacked the city, massacring large numbers of its population. The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn Их Mонгол улс Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire Ani had fallen when Shahanshah was absent. On his return the Zakarids continued to rule Ani, only now as vassals of the Mongols rather than the Georgians. Ani started its gradual but terminal decline during the Mongol period. By the 14th century the city was ruled by a succession of local Turkish dynasties, including the Jalayrids and the Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep clan) who made Ani their capital. The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans ( Turkmen: Garagoýunly; Azeri: Qaraqoyunlu Tamerlane captured Ani in the 1380s. Timur also written Emir Timur or Amir Temur ( Chagatai: تیمور - Tēmōr " Iron " (1336 – 19 February 1405 among On his death the Kara Koyunlu regained control but transferred their capital to Yerevan. In 1441 the Armenian Catholicosate did the same. The Persian Safavids then ruled Ani until it became part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1579. The Safavids ( صفوی) were an Iranian ref>Helen Chapin Metz The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish A small town remained within its walls at least until the middle 17th century, but the site was entirely abandoned by the middle of the 18th century. The depopulation of Ani was paralleled by the depopulation of its rural hinterland as a result of the yearly migrations of nomadic Kurdish tribes who would rob and murder the settled population at will.
Ani did not lie along any previously important trade routes, but because of its size, power, and wealth it became an important trading hub. Its primary trading partners were the Byzantine Empire, the Persian Empire, the Arabs, as well as smaller nations in southern Russia and Central Asia. The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south 
In the first half of the 19th century, European travelers discovered Ani for the outside world, publishing their descriptions in academic journals and travel accounts. Image:Aniturkiye.jpg
In 1878 the Kars region, including Ani, was incorporated into the territory of the Russian Empire. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya In 1892 the first archaeological excavations were conducted at Ani, sponsored by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and supervised by the Russian archaeologist and orientalist Nikolai Marr (1864-1934). The Russian Academy of Sciences (Российская Академия Наук Rossi'iskaya Akade'miya Nau'k, shortened to PAH RAN) consists of the National Nicholas Marr (Николай Яковлевич Марр Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr; ნიკოლოზ იაკობის ძე მარი Nikolos Iakobis dse Marr's excavations at Ani resumed in 1904 and continued yearly until 1917. Large sectors of the city were professionally excavated, numerous buildings were uncovered and measured, the finds were studied and published in academic journals, guidebooks for the monuments and the museum were written, and the whole site was surveyed for the first time.  Emergency repairs were also undertaken on those buildings that were most at risk of collapse. A museum was established to house the tens of thousands of items found during the excavations. This museum was housed in two buildings: the Minuchihr mosque, and a purpose-built stone building. 
In 1918, during the latter stages of the First World War, the armies of the Ottoman Empire were fighting their way across the territory of the newly declared Republic of Armenia, capturing Kars in April 1918. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Kars may refer to Kars Turkey Kars Province, Turkey Kars Oblast, Russian Empire Kars Province At Ani, attempts were made to evacuate the artefacts contained in the museum as Turkish soldiers were approaching the site. About 6000 of the most portable items were removed by archaeologist Ashkharbek Kalantar, a participant of Marr's excavation campaigns. Ashkharbek Kalantar ( 11 February 1884, Ardvi, Armenia – June 1942 was an Armenian archaeologist historian At the behest of Joseph Orbeli, the saved items were consolidated into a museum collection; they are currently part of the collection of Yerevan's State Museum of Armenian History. Joseph Orbeli (Հովսեփ Աբգարի Օրբելի Hovsep Abgari Orbeli იოსებ აბგარის ძე ორბელი Ioseb Abgaris dze Orbeli Иосиф Абгарович  Everything that was left behind was later looted or destroyed.  Turkey's surrender at the end of World War 1 led to the restoration of Ani to Armenian control, but a resumed offensive against the Armenian Republic in 1920 resulted in Turkey's recapture of Ani. In 1921 the signing of the Treaty of Kars formalised the incorporation of the territory containing Ani into the Republic of Turkey. The Treaty of Kars (Kars Antlaşması Карсский договор / Karskiy dogovor) was a friendship treaty between the Grand National Assembly of Turkey Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
In May 1921 the Turkish National Assembly issued a command to the commander of the Eastern Front, Kazım Karabekir, ordering that the "monuments of Ani be wiped off the face of the earth". The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi - TBMM, usually referred to simply as Meclis - "the Parliament" is the Unicameral Musa Kâzım Karabekir (1882 İstanbul – January 26, 1948, Ankara) was a Turkish general and politician  Karabekir records in his memoirs that he replied dismissively to this command, but the wiping-out of all traces of Marr's excavations and building repairs suggests that the command was partially carried out. 
According to The Economist:
Even as a ruin, Ani has been a disputed city. The Economist is an English-language weekly news and International affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London In 1921 when most of the site was ceded to Turkey, the Armenians were dismayed. They have since accused the Turks of neglecting the place in a spirit of chauvinism. The Turks retort that Ani's remains have been shaken by blasts from a quarry on the Armenian side of the border. A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or Minerals are extracted 
Another commentator describes:
Ani is now a ghost city, uninhabited for over three centuries and marooned inside a Turkish military zone on Turkey's border with modern Armenia. A ghost town is a Town or City that has been abandoned usually because the economic activity that supported it has failed or due to natural or human-caused Ani's recent history has been one of continuous and always increasing destruction. Neglect, earthquakes, cultural cleansing, vandalism, quarrying, amateurish restorations and excavations - all these and more have taken a heavy toll on Ani's monuments. Vandalism is the behaviour attributed to the Vandals in respect of Culture: ruthless Destruction or spoiling of anything beautiful or Venerable Building restoration describes the process of the renewal and refurbishment of the fabric of a Building. 
needs to be protected regardless of whose jurisdiction it falls under. Landmarks Foundation, founded in 1997 and based in New York City, is a Non-profit organization created to conserve Sacred sites and Landscapes A non-profit organization ( abbreviated "NPO" also "not-for-profit" is a legally constituted Organization whose objective is to support or engage In Law, jurisdiction (from the Latin ius iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak" is the practical Authority Earthquakes in 1319, 1832, and 1988, Army Target practice and general neglect all have had devastating effects on the architecture of the city. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation The city of Ani is a sacred place which needs ongoing protection. SACRED was a Cubesat built by the Student Satellite Program of the University of Arizona. 
As a tourist site, Ani has been less than unwelcoming until recently. Tourism is Travel for Recreational or Leisure purposes The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel A traveler gives the following account from a few years ago:
Due to the proximity of the border, just as in Soviet days, visitors to Ani must first obtain permission from the tourist office in Kars. The lengthy procedure which is mentioned in many guidebooks has been shortcut and there is no need anymore to pay a visit to the police and the museum in Kars. Permit and entrance ticket are now issued at the Kars tourist office. The employees request the plate number of your car or taxi and try to sell you a packaged tour that they organize. This being the good news. The bad news is that, due to tensions with Armenia, photography is again strictly forbidden. Photography (fә'tɒgrәfi or fә'tɑːgrәfi (from Greek φωτο and γραφία is the process and Art of recording pictures by means of capturing When we arrived at Ani, all cameras had to remain in the car. During the visit, after a friendly body search, we were constantly escorted by border guards to ensure that no one went too close to the border. Border Guard, Border Patrol, Border police, or Frontier police is a National security agency that performs Border control, i 
Around 2004 these restrictions were relaxed and photography is now allowed. 
Official permission to visit Ani is no longer needed. Lonely Planet Publications (usually known as Lonely Planet or LP) is one of the largest travel Guidebook publishers in the world Frommer's is a Travel guidebook series and one of the bestselling travel guides in America Just go to Ani and buy a ticket. If you don't have your own car, haggle with a taxi or minibus driver in Kars for the round-trip to Ani, perhaps sharing the cost with other travelers. If you have trouble, the Tourist Office may help. Plan to spend at least a half-day at Ani. It's not a bad idea to bring a picnic lunch and a water bottle. 
Turkey's authorities now say they will do their best to conserve and develop the site and the culture ministry has listed Ani among the sites it is keenest to conserve. In the words of Mehmet Ufuk Erden, the local governor:
By restoring Ani, we'll make a contribution to humanity. . . We will start with one church and one mosque, and over time we will include every single monument. A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger 
A spokesperson for Global Heritage Fund (a Californian conservation group that helps to manage endangered historic sites) remarked that "Piecemeal restoration is no substitute for a master plan for Ani as a whole". A spokesman ( spokeswoman or spokesperson) is someone engaged to speak on behalf of others Global Heritage Fund (GHF is a Non-profit organization founded in 2002 that operates internationally to protect and preserve important cultural heritage sites in developing California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. 
All the structures at Ani are constructed using the local volcanic basalt, a sort of tufa stone. It is easily carved and comes in a variety of vibrant colors, from creamy yellow, to rose-red, to jet black. The most important surviving monuments are as follows:
Also known as Surp Asdvadzadzin (church of the Holy Mother of God), its construction was started in the year 989, under King Smbat II. The Cathedral of Ani, built in AD by the architect Trdat offers an example of a cruciform domed church within a rectangular plan The Catholicosate was relocated Smbat II King of Armenia (977–990 son of Ashot III and ruled in Ani. Work was halted after his death, and was only finished in 1001 (or in 1010 under another reading of its building inscription). The design of the cathedral was the work of Trdat, the most celebrated architect of medieval Armenia. Trdat the Architect (c 950-1020 (Տրդատ ճարտարապետ known in Latin as Tiridates, was chief Architect of the Bagratuni Dynasty The cathedral is a domed basilica (the dome collapsed in 1319). The interior contains several progressive features (such as the use of pointed arches and clustered piers) that give to it the appearance of Gothic architecture (a style which the Ani cathedral predates by several centuries). See also Gothic art Gothic architecture is a style of Architecture which flourished during the high and late medieval period. 
This church, finished in 1215, is the best-preserved monument at Ani. It was built during the rule of the Zakarids and was commissioned by the wealthy Armenian merchant Tigran Honents. The term Zakarid Armenia (Զաքարյան Հայաստան is used to describe territories of Armenia given to the Zakarid-Mxargrzeli princes as a Fief Its plan is of a type called a domed hall. In front of its entrance are the ruins of a narthex and a small chapel that are from a slightly later period. The exterior of the church is spectacularly decorated. Ornate carvings of real and imaginary animals fill the spandrels between blind arcade that runs around all four sides of the church. The interior contains an important and unique series of frescoes cycles that depict two main themes. In the eastern third of the church is depicted the Life of Saint Gregory the Illuminator, in the middle third of the church is depicted the Life of Christ. Saint Gregory the Illuminator or Saint Gregory the Enlightener (Գրիգոր Լուսաւորիչ translit In the narthex and its chapel survive fragmentary frescoes that are more Byzantine in style. 
This church was completed shortly after the year 1035. It had a unique design: 19-sided externally, 8-apsed internally, with a huge central dome set upon a tall drum. It was built by Prince Ablgharib Pahlavid to house a fragment of the True Cross. The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which by a Christian tradition are believed to be from the actual cross upon which Jesus was crucified The church was largely intact until 1955, when the entire eastern half collapsed during a storm. 
This small building probably dates from the late tenth century. It was built as a private chapel for the Pahlavuni family. Their mausoleum, built in 1040 and now reduced to its foundations, was constructed against the northern side of the church. The church has a centralised plan, with a dome over a drum, and the interior has six exedera. 
Also known as the Gagikashen, this church was constructed between the years 1001 and 1005 and intended to be a recreation of the celebrated cathedral of Zvartnots at Vagharshapat. Zvartnots (Զվարթնոց meaning celestial angels) is a town located in the Armenian province of Armavir, about 10 km west from Yerevan, approximately Nikolai Marr uncovered the foundations of this remarkable building in 1905 and 1906. Nicholas Marr (Николай Яковлевич Марр Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr; ნიკოლოზ იაკობის ძე მარი Nikolos Iakobis dse Before that, all that was visible on the site was a huge earthen mound. The designer of the church was the architect Trdat. Trdat the Architect (c 950-1020 (Տրդատ ճարտարապետ known in Latin as Tiridates, was chief Architect of the Bagratuni Dynasty The church is known to have collapsed a relatively short time after its construction and houses were later constructed on top of its ruins. Trdat's design closely follows that of Zvartnotz in its size and in its plan (a quatrefoil core surrounded by a circular ambulatory). 
The date of its construction is not known, but the earliest dated inscription on its walls is from 1031. It was founded by the Pahlavuni family and was used by the archbishops of Ani (many of whom belonged to that dynasty). It has a plan of a type called an inscribed quatrefoil with corner chambers. Only fragments remain of the church, but a narthex with spectacular stonework, built against the south side of the church, is still partially intact. It dates from the early 13th century. A number of other halls, chapels, and shrines once surrounded this church: Nikolai Marr excavated their foundations in 1909, but they are now mostly destroyed. 
The mosque is named after its presumed founder, Minuchihr, the first member of the Shaddadid dynasty that ruled Ani after 1072. The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty who ruled in various parts of Armenia and Arran from 951 - 1199 A The oldest surviving part of the mosque is its still intact minaret. It has the Arabic word Bismillah ("In the name of God") in Kufic lettering high on its northern face. Kufic is the oldest calligraphic form of the various Arabic scripts and consists of a modified form of the old Nabataean script. The prayer hall, half of which survives, dates from a later period (the 12th or 13th century). In 1906 the mosque was partially repaired in order for it to house a public museum containing objects found during Nikolai Marr's excavations. 
At the southern end of Ani is a flat-topped hill once known as Midjnaberd (the Inner Fortress). It has its own defensive walls that date back to the period when the Kamsarakan dynasty ruled Ani (7th C. Kamsarakan (Կամսարական was an Armenian noble family that was an offshoot of the Karen-Pahlav Clan, one of the seven great houses of Parthia of AD). Nikolai Marr excavated the citadel hill in 1908 and 1909. He uncovered the extensive ruins of the palace of the Bagratid kings of Ani that occupied the highest part of the hill. Also inside the citadel are the visible ruins of three churches and several unidentified buildings. One of the churches, the "church of the palace" is the oldest surviving church in Ani, dating from the 6th or 7th century. Marr undertook emergency repairs to this church, but most of it has now collapsed - probably during an earthquake in 1966. 
A line of walls that encircled the entire city defended Ani. The most powerful defences were along the northern side of the city, the only part of the site not protected by rivers or ravines. Here the city was protected by a double line of walls, the much taller inner wall studded by numerous large and closely-space semicircular towers. Contemporary chroniclers wrote that King Smbat (977-989) built these walls. Later rulers strengthened Smbat's walls by making them substantially higher and thicker, and by adding more towers. Armenian inscriptions from the 12th and 13th century show that private individuals paid for some of these newer towers. The northern walls had three gateways, known as the Lion Gate, the Kars Gate, and the Dvin Gate (also known as the Chequer-Board Gate because of a panel of red and black stone squares over its entrance). 
There are many other minor monuments at Ani. These include a convent known as the Virgins' chapel; a church used by Chalcedonian Armenians; the remains of a single-arched bridge over the Arpa river; the ruins of numerous oil-presses and several bath houses; the remains of a second mosque with a collapsed minaret; a palace that probably dates from the 13th century; the foundations of several other palaces and smaller residences; the recently excavated remains of several streets lined with shops; etc. Chalcedonian refers to churches and theologians which accept the definition given at the Council of Chalcedon (451 AD of how the divine and human relate in the person of
Directly outside of Ani, there was a settlement-zone carved into the cliffs. It may have served as "urban sprawl" when Ani grew too large for its city walls. Today, goats and sheep take advantage of the caves' cool interiors. One highlight of this part of Ani is a cave church with frescos on its surviving walls and ceiling.
|Historic capitals of Armenia|