The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestral region of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. Modern Angeln, also known as Anglia ( German: Angeln, Danish: Angel, Latin: Anglia, English: may follow is the northernmost of the 16 ''Bundesländer'' in Germany. The former English name was Sleswick-Holsatia the Danish name is Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Ancient Angeln preceded all modern national distinctions and was, therefore, probably not coterminous with the modern culture of the same region.
The ethnic name "Angle" has had various forms and spellings, the earliest attested being Anglii, the Latinized name of a Germanic tribe mentioned in the Germania of Tacitus. Germania was the Latin Exonym for Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. It is adjectival in form. An individual of this tribe would have been called Anglius if male and Anglia if female, (the plural forms being Anglii and Angliae, respectively). The masculine is used for the generic form.
The original noun from which this adjective was produced has not been determined with confidence. The stem is theorized to have had the form *Ang?l/r-. The more prominent etymological theories concerning the name's origin have included:
Pope Gregory the Great is the first known to have simplified Anglii to Angli, which he did in an epistle, the latter form developing into the preferred form of the word in Britain and throughout the continent, (the generic form becoming Anglus in answer). The country remained Anglia in Latin. Meanwhile, there are several likenesses of form and meaning attested in Old English literature: King Alfred's (Alfred the Great) translation of Orosius uses Angelcynn (-kin) to describe England and the English people; Bede, Angelfolc (-folk); there are also such forms as Engel, Englan (the people), Englaland and Englisc, all showing signs of vocalic mutation and later developing into the dominant forms. Alfred the Great (also Ælfred from the Old English Ælfrēd ˈælfreːd (c Alfred the Great (also Ælfred from the Old English Ælfrēd ˈælfreːd (c Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c
Angle is used as the root of the French and Anglo-Norman words Angleterre (Angleland, i. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The Anglo-Norman language is a term traditionally used to refer to the variety of French used in England and to some extent elsewhere in the British Isles following the e. England) and Anglais (English).
Two important geographers, Strabo and Pliny, are silent concerning the Angles. Strabo ( Greek: Στράβων 63/64 BC – ca AD 24 was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author Their reasons for this exclusion was their consideration of the south shore of the Baltic to be terra incognita, "unknown land. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. " They both go on to describe that shore, however. Since the Angles took a geographic name, they likely had other names not based on geography.
Strabo's mention of the Battle of Teutoburg Forest places his knowledge in the final years of Augustus' reign and after, which is the early first century. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest took place in the year 9 A Augustus ( Latin: IMPERATOR·CAESAR·DIVI·FILIVS·AVGVSTVS September 23 63 BC – August 19 AD 14) born Gaius Octavius Thurinus, was Strabo (7. 2. 1, 4 and 7. 3. 1) states that the Cimbri still live on the peninsula (Jutland) where they always did, even though some of them liked to wander. The Cimbri were a Celtic or Germanic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late This article is about the region of Denmark. For the World War I naval battle see Battle of Jutland. Beyond the Elbe the coastal people are unknown, but south of them are the Suebi from the Elbe to the Getae (Goths). The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. The Suebi or Suevi (from Proto-Germanic * swēbaz based on the Proto-Germanic root * swē- meaning "one's own" The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s Strabo worked eastward from the Rhine. The Rhine (Rhein Rijn Rhin Reno Rain Rhenus is one of the longest and most important Rivers in Europe at 1320 kilometres (820 mi with an average discharge
Pliny on the other hand worked from east to west (4. 13. 94). His description leaves the Black Sea, crosses the Ripaei mountains to the shore of the northern ocean, and follows it westward to Cadiz. The Black Sea is an inland Sea bounded by southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and the Anatolian peninsula ( Turkey Cádiz ( Spanish:) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the province of the same name, a province which is one of eight In the first direction is direction in Scythia, where the Sarmati, Venedi, Sciri and Hirri are located, as far as the Vistula. In Classical Antiquity, Scythia ( Greek Skuthia) was the area in Eurasia inhabited by the Scythians, from the 8th The Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae ( Old Iranian Sarumatah 'archer' Σαρμάτες The Vistula Veneti (alternatively also called the Baltic Veneti) were an ancient Indo-European people living in contemporary Poland, along the rivers of Then the Inguaeones begin. The Ingaevones or Ingvaeones ("people of Yngvi " as described in Baunonia (Bornholm) is an island opposite Scythia. Bornholm (b̥ʌnˈhʌlˀm or [bɔʀnˈhɔlˀm]) ( Old Norse: Burgundarholm ' is a Danish Island in the Baltic Sea located Cylipenus, probably the Bay of Kiel, is described, and from there a gulf called Lagnus, which is on the frontier of the Cimbri. For the city in the United States, see Kiel Wisconsin. For the name see Kiel (name. Its location is not known, but it was likely in the Angeln region.
In Pliny, the Inguaeones consisted of the Cimbri and the Teutones (the Chauci as well, but they were not in this region). The Teutons or Teutones (from Proto-Germanic * Þeudanōz) were mentioned as a Germanic tribe by Greek and Roman authors The Chauci were a populous Germanic tribe that inhabited the extreme northwestern shore of Germany between Frisia in the west and the Elbe estuary If Lagnus was situated on the Cimbrian frontier and after Kiel, then Angeln must have been in the territory of the Teutones. They were perhaps not named Angles at that time; however, the territory of the Teutones probably included the Vorpommern and the region south to the Elbe (mainly Holstein), accounting for the implied larger range of the people called Angles in later sources. Western Pomerania is a translation of "Vorpommern" (also "Hither Pomerania" both redirect here
Possibly the first instance of the Angles in recorded history is in Tacitus' Germania, chapter 40, in which the Anglii are mentioned in passing in a list of Germanic tribes. Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (ca 56 &ndash ca 117 was a senator and a Historian of the Roman Empire. The Germania ( Latin title De Origine et situ Germanorum, English for the Origin and Situation of the Germans) written by Gaius He gives no precise indication of their geographical position but states that, together with six other tribes, they worshipped a goddess named Nerthus, whose sanctuary was situated on "an island in the Ocean. Nerthus is a Goddess in Germanic paganism associated with fertility. " The other tribes are the Reudigni, Aviones, Varini, Eudoses, Suarini and Nuitones, which are together described as being behind ramparts of rivers and woods; that is, inaccessible to attack. The Reudigni were one of the Nerthus -worshipping Germanic tribes mentioned by Tacitus in Germania. The Aviones or Auiones (* Awioniz meaning "island people" were one of the Nerthus -worshipping Germanic tribes mentioned by Tacitus The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutae were a Germanic people who according to Bede were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of the time The Suarines (or Suardones) were one of the Nerthus -worshipping Germanic tribes mentioned by Tacitus in Germania. The Nuithones were one of the Nerthus -worshipping Germanic tribes mentioned by Tacitus in Germania. As the Eudoses are the Jutes, these names probably refer to localities in Jutland or the Baltic coast; i. The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutae were a Germanic people who according to Bede were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of the time e. , they are all Cimbri or Teutones. The coast contains sufficient estuaries, inlets, rivers, islands, swamps and marshes to have been then inaccessible to those not familiar with the terrain, such as the Romans, who labelled it unknown and inaccessible country.
The majority of scholars believe that the Anglii had lived from the beginning on the coasts of the Baltic Sea, probably in the southern part of the Jutish peninsula. The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. The evidence for this view is derived partly from English and Danish traditions dealing with persons and events of the 4th century, and partly from the fact that striking affinities to the cult of Nerthus as described by Tacitus are to be found in Scandinavian, especially Swedish and Danish, religion. Nerthus is a Goddess in Germanic paganism associated with fertility.
Investigations in this subject have rendered it very probable that the island of Nerthus was Sjælland (Zealand), and the kings of Wessex traced their ancestry ultimately to a certain Scyld, who is clearly to be identified with Skiöldr, the mythical founder of the Danish royal family (Skiöldungar). Zealand (also Sealand Danish: Sjælland;) is the largest Island (7031 km² of Denmark (excluding Greenland Scyld Scefing is a fictional character in the Epic poem Beowulf. Skjöldr (Latinized as Skioldus, sometimes Anglicized as Skjold or Skiold) was among the first Legendary Danish kings. Old English Scylding (plural Scyldingas) and Old Norse Skjöldung (plural Skjöldungar) meaning in both languages Shielding In English tradition this person is connected with "Scedeland" (pl. ), i. e. Scandinavia, while in Scandinavian tradition he is associated with the ancient royal residence at Lejre in Sjælland. Terminology and usage As a cultural term "Scandinavia" has no official definition and is subject to usage by those who identify with the culture in question as well Lejre is a town and municipality ( Danish, kommune) on the island of Zealand in east Denmark.
The account in Germania is contradictory to that of Strabo and Pliny in at least one major point. Tacitus viewed the Baltic as the Suebian Sea and lists the seven tribes as being in Suebian territory. The Suebi were among the Herminones of central Germany. The Irminones, also referred to as Herminones or Hermiones, were a group of early Germanic tribes settling in the Elbe watershed and by the And yet Pliny accounts for the Teutones as being Inguaeones, the Ingaevones of Tacitus. In Strabo, the Suebi are to the south of the coast. The Suebian language went on to become Old High German, while the Angles and Jutes were among the speakers of Old Saxon. Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German ( ISO 639 -3 code osx) is the earliest recorded form of Low German, documented from the 9th century
Ptolemy in his Geography (2. Claudius Ptolemaeus ( Greek: Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; after 83 &ndash ca 10), half a century later, presents a somewhat more complex view. The Saxons are placed around the lower Elbe, which area they could have reached merely by an extension of the Saxon alliance. The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. The Elbe ( die Elbe Low German: de Ilv) is one of the major Rivers of Central Europe. East of them are the Teutones and also a dissimilation of them, the Teutonoari, which denotes "men" (wer); i. e. , "the Teuton men. " These Teutons or Teuton men appear to have been in Angeln and the land around it.
The Angles, as such, are not listed at all. Instead there are Syeboi Angeilloi , Latinized to Suevi Angili, located south of the middle Elbe. Owing to the uncertainty of this passage, there has been much speculation regarding the original home of the Angli. One theory is that they dwelt in the basin of the Saale (in the neighbourhood of the canton Engilin), from which region the Lex Angliorum et Werinorum hoc est Thuringorum is believed by many to have come. The Saale, also known as the Saxon Saale (Sächsische Saale and Thuringian Saale (Thüringische Saale is a River in Germany and a left-bank
A second possible solution is that these Angles of Ptolemy are not those of Schleswig at all. According to Julius Pokorny the Angri- in Angrivarii, the -angr in Hardanger and the Angl- in Anglii all come from the same root meaning "bend", but in different senses. Julius Pokorny ( 12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was a scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter The Angrivarii were a Germanic tribe of the early Roman Empire mentioned briefly in Ptolemy as the Angriouarroi (Ptolemy's Greek given in Roman Hardanger is a traditional district in the western part of Norway, dominated by the Hardangerfjord. In other words, the similarity of the names is strictly coincidental and does not reflect any ethnic unity beyond Germanic. The Suevi Angeli would have been in Lower Saxony or near it and, like Ptolemy's Suevi Semnones, were among the Suebi at the time. Lower Saxony ( German: Niedersachsen ch is pronounced before an s --> lies in north-western Germany and is second Semnoni (Semnonen or Semnones were a Germanic tribe which was settled between the Elbe and the Oder in the 1st century when they
Bede states that the Angli, before they came to Great Britain, dwelt in a land called Angulus, and similar evidence is given by the Historia Brittonum. Bede (ˈbiːd (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin Beda (beda (c The Historia Brittonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 833 and exists in several King Alfred the Great and the chronicler Æthelweard identified this place with the district that is now called Angeln, in the province of Schleswig (Slesvig), though it may then have been of greater extent, and this identification agrees with the indications given by Bede. Alfred the Great (also Ælfred from the Old English Ælfrēd ˈælfreːd (c Æthelweard (also spelled Ethelward) Anglo-Saxon Historian, was the great-great-grandson of Æthelred of Wessex (who was the brother of Modern Angeln, also known as Anglia ( German: Angeln, Danish: Angel, Latin: Anglia, English: may follow Confirmation is afforded by English and Danish traditions relating to two kings named Wermund and Offa, from whom the Mercian royal family were descended and whose exploits are connected with Angeln, Schleswig and Rendsburg. Wermund or Garmund is an ancestor of the Mercian royal family a son of Wihtlaeg and father of Offa. Offa ( fl c 450 also Uffo or Uffe, was the (possibly mythical 4th-great-grandfather of Creoda of Mercia, and was reputed to be a great-grandson Mercia (ˈmɝsiə was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. Rendsburg (Rendsborg is a town on the Kiel Canal in the northeastern part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Danish tradition has preserved record of two governors of Schleswig, father and son, in their service, Frowinus (Freawine) and Wigo (Wig), from whom the royal family of Wessex claimed descent. Freawine, Frowin or Frowinus figures as a governor of Schleswig in Gesta Danorum and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Freawine, Frowin or Frowinus figures as a governor of Schleswig in Gesta Danorum and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Ket and Wig appear in the Gesta Danorum (book 4 as the sons of Frowin, the governor of Schleswig. West Saxon redirects here For other meanings of Wessex or West Saxon see Wessex (disambiguation. During the 5th century the Angli invaded Great Britain, after which time their name does not recur on the continent except in the title of Suevi Angili.
The province of Schleswig has proved rich in prehistoric antiquities that date apparently from the 4th and 5th centuries A. D. A large cremation cemetery has been found at Borgstedterfeld, between Rendsburg and Eckernförde, which has yielded many urns and brooches closely resembling those found in heathen graves in England. Eckernförde ( Danish: Egernførde, sometimes also Egernfjord, Low German: Eckernför, sometimes also Eckernföör is a Of still greater importance are the great deposits at Thorsberg moor (in Angeln) and Nydam, which contained large quantities of arms, ornaments, articles of clothing, agricultural implements, etc. The Thorsberg moor ( Thorsberger Moor, Tosbarch, Tåsbjerre " Thor 's hill" near Süderbrarup in Anglia, Schleswig-Holstein , and in the latter case even ships. By the help of these discoveries, Angle civilization in the age preceding the invasion of Great Britain can be pieced together.
According to sources such as the Bede, after the invasion of England, the Angles split up and founded the kingdoms of the Nord Angelnen (Northumbria), Ost Angelnen (East Anglia), and the Mittlere Angelnen (Mercia). The Kingdom of the East Angles or Kingdom of East Anglia was one of the ancient Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Mercia (ˈmɝsiə was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. Thanks to the major influence of the Saxons, the tribes were collectively called Anglo-Saxons by the Normans. For their language see Anglo-Saxon language. Anglo-Saxon is the term usually used to describe the invading Tribes in the south The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. The regions of East Anglia and Northumbria are still known by their original titles to this day. Northumbria once stretched as far north as south east Scotland. Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The rest of that people stayed at the centre of the Angle homeland in the northeastern portion of the modern German bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein, on the Jutland Peninsula. is the northernmost of the 16 ''Bundesländer'' in Germany. The former English name was Sleswick-Holsatia the Danish name is This article is about the region of Denmark. For the World War I naval battle see Battle of Jutland. There a small peninsular form is still called "Angeln" today and is formed as a triangle drawn roughly from modern Flensburg on the Flensburger Fjord to the City of Schleswig and then to Maasholm, on the Schlei inlet. Modern Angeln, also known as Anglia ( German: Angeln, Danish: Angel, Latin: Anglia, English: may follow Flensburg ( Danish: Flensborg, Low Saxon: Flensborg, North Frisian: Flansborj) is an independent town in Schleswig (Slesvig South Jutlandic: Sljasvig, archaic Sleswick Low German: Sleswig) is a Town in the northeastern part of The Schlei (Slien is a narrow Inlet of the Baltic Sea in Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany.
The Angles are the subject of a legend about Pope Gregory I which apparently has roots in history. Gregory happened to see a group of Angle children from Deira for sale as slaves in the Roman market. Deira was a kingdom in Northern England during the 6th century AD Struck by the beauty of their fair-skinned complexions and bright blue eyes, Gregory inquired about their background. When told they were called "Angli" (Angles), he replied with a Latin pun that translates well into English: “Bene, nam et angelicam habent faciem, et tales angelorum in caelis decet esse coheredes” ("It is well, for they have an angelic face, and such people ought to be co-heirs of the Angels in heaven"). An angel is a Spiritual Supernatural being found in many Religions Although the nature of angels and the tasks given to them vary from tradition to tradition Supposedly, he thereafter resolved to convert their pagan homeland to Christianity.