Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) (Khmer: អង្គរវត្ត), is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built for King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ or Cambodian, is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia. A temple (from the Latin word Templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities such as prayer and sacrifice or analogous rites Angkor is a name conventionally applied to the region of Cambodia serving as the seat of the Khmer empire that flourished from approximately the 9th century to The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East Suryavarman II ( Khmer:) (posthumous name Paramavishnuloka) was king of the Khmer Empire from 1113 A As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation—first Hindu, dedicated to Vishnu, then Buddhist. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical For other meanings see Vishnu (disambiguation. Vishnu ( IAST viṣṇu Devanagari विष्णु (honorific Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices The temple is the epitome of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. The Khmer Empire was the largest empire of South East Asia based in what is now Cambodia. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, and it is the country's prime attraction for visitors. The national flag of Cambodia was readopted in 1993 after elections returned the monarchy to rule
Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture: the temple mountain and the later galleried temple. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A It is designed to represent Mount Meru, home of the devas in Hindu mythology: within a moat and an outer wall 3. For the Mountain in Tanzania, see Mount Meru (Tanzania. Mount Meru ( Sanskrit: मेरु (also called Hindu mythology is the large body of Mythology related to Hinduism, notably as contained in Sanskrit literature, such as the Sanskrit epics and A moat is deep broad Trench, usually filled with Water, that surrounds a structure installation or town normally to provide it with a preliminary line of 6 km (2. 2 miles) long are three rectangular galleries, each raised above the next. At the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. For Sir Francis Galton 's machine for demonstrating the Normal distribution named "quincunx" see Bean machine. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west; scholars are divided as to the significance of this. The temple is admired for the grandeur and harmony of the architecture, its extensive bas-reliefs and for the numerous devatas (guardian spirits) adorning its walls. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation A bas-relief (baʁəljɛf in French; French for "low relief" derived from the Italian basso rilievo) or low relief is a Sculpture The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A
The modern name, Angkor Wat, in use by the 16th century, means "City Temple": Angkor is a vernacular form of the word nokor which comes from the Sanskrit word nagara (capital), while wat is the Khmer word for temple. Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical WaT ( W entz a nd T eppei is a Japanese pop duo composed of singers/songwriters Eiji Wentz and Teppei Koike Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ or Cambodian, is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia. Prior to this time the temple was known as Preah Pisnulok, after the posthumous title of its founder, Suryavarman II. Suryavarman II ( Khmer:) (posthumous name Paramavishnuloka) was king of the Khmer Empire from 1113 A 
Angkor Wat lies 5. 5 km north of the modern town of Siem Reap, and a short distance south and slightly east of the previous capital, which was centred on the Baphuon. Siem Reap City is the capital of Siem Reap Province, Cambodia. The Baphuon (ប្រាសាទបាពួន is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia. It is in an area of Cambodia where there is an important group of ancient structures. It is the southernmost of Angkor's main sites.
The initial design and construction of the temple took place in the first half of the 12th century, during the reign of Suryavarman II (ruled 1113 – c. Suryavarman II ( Khmer:) (posthumous name Paramavishnuloka) was king of the Khmer Empire from 1113 A 1150), Dedicated to Vishnu, it was built as the king's state temple and capital city. For other meanings see Vishnu (disambiguation. Vishnu ( IAST viṣṇu Devanagari विष्णु (honorific As neither the foundation stela nor any contemporary inscriptions referring to the temple have been found, its original name is unknown, but it may have been known as Vrah Vishnulok after the presiding deity. A stele (from Greek:, stēlē, ˈstiːli plural stelae,, stēlai, ˈstiːlaɪ also found Latinised singular stela Work seems to have ended on the king's death, leaving some of the bas-relief decoration unfinished. A bas-relief (baʁəljɛf in French; French for "low relief" derived from the Italian basso rilievo) or low relief is a Sculpture In 1177 Angkor was sacked by the Chams, the traditional enemies of the Khmer. The kingdom of Champa ( Chăm Pa in Vietnamese or Chiêm Thành in Hán Việt records was an Indianized kingdom and controlled what Thereafter the empire was restored by a new king, Jayavarman VII, who established a new capital and state temple (Angkor Thom and the Bayon respectively) a few kilometres to the north. An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that Jayavarman VII (1125 - 1215 was a king of the Khmer Empire (c Angkor Thom ( Khmer: អង្គរធំ was the last and most enduring capital city of the Khmer empire. The Bayon ( Khmer: ប្រាសាទបាយ័ន is a well-known and richly decorated Khmer temple at Angkor in Cambodia.
In the 14th or 15th century the temple was converted to Theravada Buddhist use, which continues to the present day. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation Angkor Wat is unusual among the Angkor temples in that although it was somewhat neglected after the 16th century it was never completely abandoned, its preservation being due in part to the fact that its moat also provided some protection from encroachment by the jungle. 
One of the first Western visitors to the temple was Antonio da Magdalena, a Portuguese monk who visited in 1586 and said that it "is of such extraordinary construction that it is not possible to describe it with a pen, particularly since it is like no other building in the world. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings António da Madalena (sometimes spelled in English Antonio da Magdalena) was a Portuguese Capuchin friar who was one of the first Western visitors Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. It has towers and decoration and all the refinements which the human genius can conceive of".  However, the temple was popularised in the West only in the mid-19th century on the publication of Henri Mouhot's travel notes. Henri Mouhot ( May 15, 1826 &mdash November 10, 1861) was a French naturalist and explorer of the mid-19th century The French explorer wrote of it:
"One of these temples—a rival to that of Solomon, and erected by some ancient Michelangelo—might take an honourable place beside our most beautiful buildings. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Solomon's Temple (בית המקדש transliterated Beit HaMikdash) also known as the First Temple, was according to Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Two biographies were published of him during his lifetime One of them by Giorgio Vasari, proposed that he was the pinnacle of all It is grander than anything left to us by Greece or Rome, and presents a sad contrast to the state of barbarism in which the nation is now plunged. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC "
Mouhot, like other early Western visitors, was unable to believe that the Khmers could have built the temple, and mistakenly dated it to around the same era as Rome. The true history of Angkor Wat was pieced together only from stylistic and epigraphic evidence accumulated during the subsequent clearing and restoration work carried out across the whole Angkor site. Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφολογία from Greek ἐπιγραφή — "inscription" is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs engraved
Angkor Wat required considerable restoration in the 20th century, mainly the removal of accumulated earth and vegetation.  Work was interrupted by the civil war and Khmer Rouge control of the country during the 1970s and 1980s, but relatively little damage was done during this period other than the theft and destruction of mostly post-Angkorian statues. The Khmer Rouge (ខ្មែរក្រហម Kmae Krɑhɑɑm was the Communist ruling political party of Cambodia &mdashwhich it renamed 
The temple has become a symbol of Cambodia, and is a source of great national pride. A depiction of Angkor Wat has been a part of every Cambodian national flag since the introduction of the first version circa 1863. The national flag of Cambodia was readopted in 1993 after elections returned the monarchy to rule  In January 2003 riots erupted in Phnom Penh when a false rumour circulated that a Thai soap opera actress had claimed that Angkor Wat belonged to Thailand. In January 2003 a Cambodian newspaper article falsely alleged that a Thai actress claimed that Angkor belonged to Thailand. Phnom Penh ( Khmer: ភ្នំពេញ official Romanization Phnum Pénh; pʰnum pɯɲ is the Capital The Kingdom of Thailand (ˈtaɪlænd ราชอาณาจักรไทย, râːtɕʰa-ʔaːnaːtɕɑ̀k-tʰɑj 
Angkor Wat, located at temple mountain, the standard design for the empire's state temples, the later plan of concentric galleries, and influences from Orissa and the Chola of Tamil Nadu, India. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A Orissa (ଓଡ଼ିଶା is a state located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. Tamil Nadu ( Tamil:, Country of the Tamils, t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ is one of the 28 states of India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country The temple is a representation of Mount Meru, the home of the gods: the central quincunx of towers symbolises the five peaks of the mountain, and the walls and moat the surrounding mountain ranges and ocean. For the Mountain in Tanzania, see Mount Meru (Tanzania. Mount Meru ( Sanskrit: मेरु (also called For Sir Francis Galton 's machine for demonstrating the Normal distribution named "quincunx" see Bean machine.  Access to the upper areas of the temple was progressively more exclusive, with the laity being admitted only to the lowest level. , is a unique combination of the
Unlike most Khmer temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west rather than the east. This has led many (including Glaize and George Coedès) to conclude that Suryavarman intended it to serve as his funerary temple. George Cœdès (1886-1969 was a 20th century scholar of Southeast Asian Archaeology and History.  Further evidence for this view is provided by the bas-reliefs, which proceed in a counter-clockwise direction—prasavya in Hindu terminology—as this is the reverse of the normal order. A bas-relief (baʁəljɛf in French; French for "low relief" derived from the Italian basso rilievo) or low relief is a Sculpture A Hindu temple or Mandir ( Sanskrit: मंदिर is a house of worship for Hindus followers of Hinduism. Rituals take place in reverse order during Brahminic funeral services.  The archaeologist Charles Higham also describes a container which may have been a funerary jar which was recovered from the central tower. Charles Higham (b1939 is a British Archaeologist most noted for his work in Southeast Asia.  Freeman and Jacques, however, note that several other temples of Angkor depart from the typical eastern orientation, and suggest that Angkor Wat's alignment was due to its dedication to Vishnu, who was associated with the west. 
A further interpretation of Angkor Wat has been proposed by Eleanor Mannikka. Eleanor Mannikka, of the Indiana University of Pennsylvania, is a scholar of Southeast Asian Studies Drawing on the temple's alignment and dimensions, and on the content and arrangement of the bas-reliefs, she argues that these indicate a claimed new era of peace under king Suryavarman II: "as the measurements of solar and lunar time cycles were built into the sacred space of Angkor Wat, this divine mandate to rule was anchored to consecrated chambers and corridors meant to perpetuate the king's power and to honor and placate the deities manifest in the heavens above. Suryavarman II ( Khmer:) (posthumous name Paramavishnuloka) was king of the Khmer Empire from 1113 A " Mannikka's suggestions have been received with a mixture of interest and scepticism in academic circles.  She distances herself from the speculations of others, such as Graham Hancock, that Angkor Wat is part of a representation of the constellation Draco. Graham Hancock (born August 2 1950 is a British Writer and Journalist. Draco (ˈdreɪkoʊ Dragon) is a far northern Constellation that is circumpolar for many Northern hemisphere observers 
Angkor Wat is the prime example of the classical style of Khmer architecture—the Angkor Wat style—to which it has given its name. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A By the 12th century Khmer architects had become skilled and confident in the use of sandstone (rather than brick or laterite) as the main building material. Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. A brick is a block of Ceramic material used in Masonry construction laid using mortar. Laterite (from the Latin word "later" meaning brick or tile is a surface formation in hot and wet tropical areas which is enriched in Iron and Aluminium Most of the visible areas are of sandstone blocks, while laterite was used for the outer wall and for hidden structural parts. The binding agent used to join the blocks is yet to be identified, although natural resins or slaked lime have been suggested. Resin, not to be confused with Rosin, is a Hydrocarbon Secretion of many Plants particularly coniferous trees. Calcium hydroxide, traditionally called slaked lime, hydrated lime, or pickling lime, is a Chemical compound with the chemical formula 
Angkor Wat has drawn praise above all for the harmony of its design, which has been compared to the architecture of ancient Greece or Rome. The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history lasting from the Greek Dark Ages ca Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC According to Maurice Glaize, a mid-20th-century conservator of Angkor, the temple "attains a classic perfection by the restrained monumentality of its finely balanced elements and the precise arrangement of its proportions. Maurice Glaize was the conservator of Angkor from 1937 to 1945. It is a work of power, unity and style. "
Architecturally, the elements characteristic of the style include: the ogival, redented towers shaped like lotus buds; half-galleries to broaden passageways; axial galleries connecting enclosures; and the cruciform terraces which appear along the main axis of the temple. An ogive ("Oh-jive" is a curved shape figure or feature Nelumbo nucifera is known by a number of common names including Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, and sacred water-lily The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A Typical decorative elements are devatas (or apsaras), bas-reliefs, and on pediments extensive garlands and narrative scenes. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A A bas-relief (baʁəljɛf in French; French for "low relief" derived from the Italian basso rilievo) or low relief is a Sculpture A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of the triangular section found above the horizontal structure ( Entablature) typically supported by The statuary of Angkor Wat is considered conservative, being more static and less graceful than earlier work.  Other elements of the design have been destroyed by looting and the passage of time, including gilded stucco on the towers, gilding on some figures on the bas-reliefs, and wooden ceiling panels and doors. Gilding is the art of applying a thin layer of gold simulated gold or other metal to a surface Stucco or render is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water 
The Angkor Wat style was followed by that of the Bayon period, in which quality was often sacrificed to quantity. The Bayon ( Khmer: ប្រាសាទបាយ័ន is a well-known and richly decorated Khmer temple at Angkor in Cambodia.  Other temples in the style are Banteay Samré, Thommanon, Chao Say Tevoda and the early temples of Preah Pithu at Angkor; outside Angkor, Beng Mealea and parts of Phanom Rung and Phimai. Banteay Samré ( Khmer: ប្រាសាទបន្ទាយសំរ៉ែ is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia located east of the East Baray Thommanon at Angkor, Cambodia, is one of a pair of Hindu temples built in the end of the 11th century completed during the reign of Suryavarman II (from Chau Say Tevoda ( Khmer: ប្រាសាទចៅសាយទេវតាis a temple at Angkor, Cambodia. Preah Pithu is a group of five temples at Angkor, Cambodia, located in Angkor Thom east of the Terrace of the Elephants. Angkor is a name conventionally applied to the region of Cambodia serving as the seat of the Khmer empire that flourished from approximately the 9th century to Beng Mealea ( Khmer: ប្រាសាទបឹងមាលា is a temple in the Angkor Wat style located 40 km east of the main group of temples at Angkor Phanom Rung (ปราสาทพนมรุ้ง or with its full name Prasat Hin Phanom Rung (Phanom Rung Stone Castle is a Khmer temple complex set The Phimai historical park protects one of the most important Khmer temples of Thailand.
The outer wall, 1024 by 802 m and 4. 5 m high, is surrounded by a 30 m apron of open ground and a moat 190 m wide. Access to the temple is by an earth bank to the east and a sandstone causeway to the west; the latter, the main entrance, is a later addition, possibly replacing a wooden bridge.  There are gopuras at each of the cardinal points; the western is much the largest and has three ruined towers. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A Glaize notes that this gopura both hides and echoes the form of the temple proper.  Under the southern tower is a statue of Vishnu, known as Ta Reach, which may originally have occupied the temple's central shrine. For other meanings see Vishnu (disambiguation. Vishnu ( IAST viṣṇu Devanagari विष्णु (honorific  Galleries run between the towers and as far as two further entrances on either side of the gopura often referred to as "elephant gates", as they are large enough to admit those animals. These galleries have square pillars on the outer (west) side and a closed wall on the inner (east) side. The ceiling between the pillars is decorated with lotus rosettes; the west face of the wall with dancing figures; and the east face of the wall with balustered windows, dancing male figures on prancing animals, and devatas, including (south of the entrance) the only one in the temple to be showing her teeth. Nelumbo nucifera is known by a number of common names including Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, and sacred water-lily The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A
The outer wall encloses a space of 820,000 square metres (203 acres), which besides the temple proper was originally occupied by the city and, to the north of the temple, the royal palace. Like all secular buildings of Angkor, these were built of perishable materials rather than of stone, so nothing remains of them except the outlines of some of the streets.  Most of the area is now covered by forest. A 350 m causeway connects the western gopura to the temple proper, with naga balustrades and six sets of steps leading down to the city on either side. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A Each side also features a library with entrances at each cardinal point, in front of the third set of stairs from the entrance, and a pond between the library and the temple itself. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A The ponds are later additions to the design, as is the cruciform terrace guarded by lions connecting the causeway to the central structure. 
The temple stands on a terrace raised higher than the city. It is made of three rectangular galleries rising to a central tower, each level higher than the last. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A Mannikka interprets these galleries as being dedicated to the king, Brahma, the moon, and Vishnu. Brahma is the Hindu god ( deva) of creation and one of the Trimurti, the others being Vishnu and Shiva. For other meanings see Vishnu (disambiguation. Vishnu ( IAST viṣṇu Devanagari विष्णु (honorific  Each gallery has a gopura at each of the points, and the two inner galleries each have towers at their corners, forming a quincunx with the central tower. A Gopuram or gopura (also known as a vimanam) is a monumental tower usually ornate at the entrance of a temple especially in Southern India. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A Because the temple faces west, the features are all set back towards the east, leaving more space to be filled in each enclosure and gallery on the west side; for the same reason the west-facing steps are shallower than those on the other sides.
The outer gallery measures 187 by 215 m, with pavilions rather than towers at the corners. The gallery is open to the outside of the temple, with columned half-galleries extending and buttressing the structure. Connecting the outer gallery to the second enclosure on the west side is a cruciform cloister called Preah Poan (the "Hall of a Thousand Buddhas"). Buddha images were left in the cloister by pilgrims over the centuries, although most have now been removed. Siddhārtha Gautama ( Sanskrit; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual Teacher from Ancient India and the founder This area has many inscriptions relating the good deeds of pilgrims, most written in Khmer but others in Burmese and Japanese. Khmer (ភាសាខ្មែរ or Cambodian, is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia. The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ myà̃mà bàθà MLCTS: myanma bhasa) is the official Language of Burma. is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities The four small courtyards marked out by the cloister may originally have been filled with water.  North and south of the cloister are libraries. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A
Beyond, the second and inner galleries are connected to each other and to two flanking libraries by another cruciform terrace, again a later addition. From the second level upwards, devatas abound on the walls, singly or in groups of up to four. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A The second-level enclosure is 100 by 115 m, and may originally have been flooded to represent the ocean around Mount Meru. For the Mountain in Tanzania, see Mount Meru (Tanzania. Mount Meru ( Sanskrit: मेरु (also called  Three sets of steps on each side lead up to the corner towers and gopuras of the inner gallery. The very steep stairways represent the difficulty of ascending to the kingdom of the gods.  This inner gallery, called the Bakan, is a 60 m square with axial galleries connecting each gopura with the central shrine, and subsidiary shrines located below the corner towers. The roofings of the galleries are decorated with the motif of the body of a snake ending in the heads of lions or garudas. The lion ( Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four Big cats in the Genus Panthera. GARUDA is India's Grid Computing initiative connecting 17 cities across the country Carved lintels and pediments decorate the entrances to the galleries and to the shrines. The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A The tower above the central shrine rises 43 m to a height of 65 m above the ground; unlike those of previous temple mountains, the central tower is raised above the surrounding four.  The shrine itself, originally occupied by a statue of Vishnu and open on each side, was walled in when the temple was converted to Theravada Buddhism, the new walls featuring standing Buddhas. History Origin of the school The Theravāda school is ultimately derived from the Vibhajjavāda (or 'doctrine of analysis' grouping which was a continuation In 1934, the conservator George Trouvé excavated the pit beneath the central shrine: filled with sand and water it had already been robbed of its treasure, but he did find a sacred foundation deposit of gold leaf two metres above ground level. Metal leaf is a thin foil used for decoration It is also called composition leaf or schlagmetal. 
Integrated with the architecture of the building, and one of the causes for its fame is Angkor Wat's extensive decoration, which predominantly takes the form of bas-relief friezes. A bas-relief (baʁəljɛf in French; French for "low relief" derived from the Italian basso rilievo) or low relief is a Sculpture The inner walls of the outer gallery bear a series of large-scale scenes mainly depicting episodes from the Hindu epics the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The Rāmāyaṇa ( Devanāgarī: sa रामायण is an ancient Sanskrit epic attributed to the Hindu sage ( Maharishi) Valmiki Higham has called these, "the greatest known linear arrangement of stone carving".  From the north-west corner anti-clockwise, the western gallery shows the Battle of Lanka (from the Ramayana, in which Rama defeats Ravana) and the Battle of Kurukshetra (from the Mahabharata, showing the mutual annihilation of the Kaurava and Pandava clans). Rama ( IAST: rāma Devanāgarī: राम Khmer: Phreah Ream Thai: Phra Ram Lao: Phra Lam Tagalog: For the South Indian film see Ravana (film. Ravanaa, also transliterated as Raavana, Ravan or The Kurukshetra War ( Devangari: कुरुक्षेत्र युद्ध forms an essential component of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata The term Kaurava ( Sanskrit:कौरव is a Sanskrit term that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters In the Hindu epic Mahābhārata, the Pandava (or Pandawa brothers ( Sanskrit: पाण्डव pāṇḍavaḥ are the five acknowledged sons of On the southern gallery follow the only historical scene, a procession of Suryavarman II, then the 32 hells and 37 heavens of Hindu mythology. Suryavarman II ( Khmer:) (posthumous name Paramavishnuloka) was king of the Khmer Empire from 1113 A Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering Heaven may refer to the physical heavens the sky or the seemingly endless expanse of the Universe beyond Glaize writes of;
". . . those unfortunate souls who are to be thrown down to hell to suffer a refined cruelty which, at times, seems to be a little disproportionate to the severity of the crimes committed. So it is that people who have damaged others' property have their bones broken, that the glutton is cleaved in two, that rice thieves are afflicted with enormous bellies of hot iron, that those who picked the flowers in the garden of Shiva have their heads pierced with nails, and thieves are exposed to cold discomfort. Shiva:(pronunciation; Sanskrit: शिव Śiva, lit "Auspicious one" One of the Trimurtis Shiva is the supreme God in the Shaiva "
On the eastern gallery is one of the most celebrated scenes, the Churning of the Sea of Milk, showing 92 asuras and 88 devas using the serpent Vasuki to churn the sea under Vishnu's direction (Mannikka counts only 91 asuras, and explains the asymmetrical numbers as representing the number of days from the winter solstice to the spring equinox, and from the equinox to the summer solstice). "Kurma" is also an alternative transliteration of Korma. In Hinduism In Hinduism, the Asura ( Sanskrit: असुर are a group of power-seeking deities sometimes referred to as Demons or sinful Deva (देव in Devanagari script pronounced as /'d̪evə/ is the Sanskrit word for "god Deity " Vasuki is a Sanskrit name for a naga, one of the serpents of Buddhist and Hindu mythology The winter solstice occurs at the instant when the Sun 's position in the sky is at its greatest angular distance on the other side of the equatorial plane from the An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle Solstices occur twice a year when the tilt of the Earth's axis is most oriented toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes  It is followed by Vishnu defeating asuras (a 16th-century addition). In Hinduism In Hinduism, the Asura ( Sanskrit: असुर are a group of power-seeking deities sometimes referred to as Demons or sinful The northern gallery shows Krishna's victory over Bana (where according to Glaize, "The workmanship is at its worst") and a battle between the Hindu gods and asuras. Bana (also called Banasura (बाणासुर in Hindu mythology, was a thousand-armed Asura and son of Bali. The north-west and south-west corner pavilions both feature much smaller-scale scenes, some unidentified but most from the Ramayana or the life of Krishna. Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari kṛṣṇa in IAST, ˈkr̩ʂɳə in classical Sanskrit is a deity worshiped across many traditions of Hinduism
Since the 1990s, Angkor Wat has seen a resumption of conservation efforts and a massive increase in tourism. The temple is part of the Angkor World Heritage Site, established in 1992, which has provided some funding and has encouraged the Cambodian government to protect the site. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a site (such as a Forest, Mountain, Lake, Desert, Monument, Building, complex  The German Apsara Conservation Project (GACP) is working to protect the devatas and other bas-reliefs which decorate the temple from damage. The German Apsara Conservation Project (GACP is a Non-profit organisation based at the University of Applied Sciences, Cologne dedicated to preserving The period of Angkor is the period from approximately the latter half of the 8th century A The organisation's survey found that around 20% of the devatas were in very poor condition, mainly because of natural erosion and deterioration of the stone but in part also due to earlier restoration efforts.  Other work involves the repair of collapsed sections of the structure, and prevention of further collapse: the west facade of the upper level, for example, has been buttressed by scaffolding since 2002, while a Japanese team completed restoration of the north library of the outer enclosure in 2005.  World Monuments Fund began work on the Churning of the Sea of Milk Gallery in 2008. The World Monuments Fund (WMF is a New York -based private Non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic Architecture and
Angkor Wat has become a major tourist destination. In 2004 and 2005, government figures suggest that, respectively, 561,000 and 677,000 foreign visitors arrived in Siem Reap province, approximately 50% of all foreign tourists in Cambodia for both years.  The influx of tourists has so far caused relatively little damage, other than some graffiti; ropes and wooden steps have been introduced to protect the bas-reliefs and floors, respectively. Graffiti (singular graffito; the plural is used as a Mass noun) is the name for images or lettering scratched scrawled painted or marked in any manner on property Tourism has also provided some additional funds for maintenance—as of 2000 approximately 28% of ticket revenues across the whole Angkor site was spent on the temples—although most work is carried out by foreign government-sponsored teams rather than by the Cambodian authorities. Angkor is a name conventionally applied to the region of Cambodia serving as the seat of the Khmer empire that flourished from approximately the 9th century to