(Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees
Andrographis paniculata is a herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae, native to India and Sri Lanka. Nicolaas Laurens Burman (1734-1793 was a Dutch botanist He was the son of Johannes Burman (1707-1780 Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck ( February 14, 1776 - March 16, 1858) was a prolific German Botanist, A herbaceous plant (or in botanical use a Herb) is a Plant that has leaves and stems that die down at the end of The family Acanthaceae (or Acanthus family) is a taxon of Dicotyledonous Flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 2500 species India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island
It is widely cultivated in southern Asia, where it is used to treat infections and some diseases, often being used before antibiotics were created. An infection is the detrimental Colonization of a host Organism by a foreign Species. In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa Mostly the leaves and roots were used for medicinal purposes. In Botany, a leaf is an above-ground Plant organ specialized for Photosynthesis. ROOT is an object-oriented program and library developed by CERN.
Scientists have studied this herb for nearly thirty years.
Andrographis paniculata, the Kalmegh of Ayurveda is an erect annual herb extremely bitter in taste in each and every part of the plant body. Ayurveda ( Devanāgarī: आयुर्वॆद the 'science of life' is a system of Traditional medicine native to India, and practiced in other The plant is known in north-eastern India as ‘Maha-tita’, literally ‘king of bitters’ and known by various vernacular names (Table below). It is also known as ‘Bhui-neem’, since the plant, though much smaller in size, shows similar appearance and has bitter taste as that of Neem (Azadirachta indica). Neem ( Azadirachta indica, syn Melia azadirachta L Antelaea azadirachta (L In Malaysia, it is known as 'Hempedu Bumi' literally means 'bile of earth' since it is one of the most bitter plant that are used in traditional medicine. In Tamil it is called as 'Sirunangai' or 'Siriyanangai'. Incidentally, the genus Andrographis consists of 28 species of small annual shrubs essentially distributed in tropical Asia. Only a few species are medicinal, of which A. paniculata is the most popular.
It grows erect to a height of 30-110 cm in moist shady places with glabrous leaves and white flowers with rose-purple spots on the petals. Assamese (অসমীয়া) (ɔxɔmija is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language, spoken mainly in the state of Assam in North-East Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Marathi (mr मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of what is considered western India. Oriya (ଓଡ଼ିଆ oṛiā) is one of the Indian Languages mainly spoken in the Indian state of Orissa. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī ? Sanskrit (sa संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short sa संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a historical Hindi ( Devanāgarī: hi [[wiktहिन्दी हिन्दी]] or hi [[wiktहिंदी हिंदी]] IAST:, IPA:) is Tamil (ta தமிழ்; t̪əmɨɻ is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. Kannada (kn [[wiktಕನ್ನಡ ಕನ್ನಡ]] Kannaḍa) is one of the major Dravidian languages of India, spoken predominantly in the state Not to be confused with the Malay language. Malayalam (മലയാളം malayāḷaṁ) is a Dravidian language used Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia, based on the Riau version of Malay language, was declared the official language with the declaration of Glabrousness (from Latin glaber = bald hairless is the technical term for an anatomically abnormal lack of Hair or down. Stem dark green, 0. 3 - 1. 0 m in height, 2 - 6 mm in diameter, quadrangular with longitudinal furrows and wings on the angles of the younger parts, slightly enlarged at the nodes; leaves glabrous, up to 8. 0 cm long and 2. 5 cm broad, lanceolate, pinnate; flowers small, in lax spreading axillary and terminal racemes or panicles; capsules linear-oblong, acute at both ends, 1. 9 cm x 0. 3 cm; seeds numerous, sub quadrate, yellowish brown.
A. paniculata is distributed in tropical Asian countries often in isolated patches. It can be found in a variety of habitats i. e. plains, hill slopes, waste lands, farms, dry or wet lands, sea shore and even road sides. Native populations of A. paniculata are spread throughout south India and Sri Lanka which perhaps represent the centre of origin and diversity of the species. The herb is also available in northern stations of India, Java, Malaysia, Indonesia, West Indies and elsewhere in Americas where it is probably introduced. The species is also available in Hong Kong, Penang, Malacca, Pangkor Island (south of Penang), Malaya, Thailand, West Java, Borneo, Celebes, Brunei, West Indies, Jamaica, Barbados, Bahamas etc. However, precise data are lacking on the introduction and naturalization of the species in these countries.
Unlike other species of the genus, A. paniculata is of common occurrence in most of the places in India, including the plains and hilly areas up to 500 m, which accounts for its wide use. Since time immemorial, village and ethnic communities in India have been using this herb for treating a variety of ailments.
It does best in a sunny location. The seeds are sown during May-June. The seedlings are transplanted at a distance of 60 cm x 30 cm.
Since ancient times, A. paniculata is used as a wonderdrug in traditional Siddha and Ayurvedic systems of medicine as well as in tribal medicine in India and some other countries for multiple clinical applications. The therapeutic value of Kalmegh is due to its mechanism of action which is perhaps by enzyme induction. Enzyme inhibitors are Molecules that bind to Enzymes and decrease their activity. The plant extract exhibits antityphoid and antifungal activities. Kalmegh is also reported to possess antihepatotoxic, antibiotic, antimalarial, antihepatitic, antithrombogenic, antiinflammatory, antisnakevenom, and antipyretic properties to mention a few, besides its general use as an immunostimulant agent. Hepatoprotection or antihepatotoxicity is the ability to prevent damage to the Liver. A recent study conducted at Bastyr University, confirms anti-HIV activity of andrographolide. Bastyr University was established as the John Bastyr College of Naturopathic Medicine in 1978 in Seattle Washington ( USA) by
Andrographolide, chief constituent extracted from the leaves of the plant, is a bitter water-soluble lactone exhibiting protective effects in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatopathy in rats. lactone is a cyclic Ester in Organic chemistry. It is the condensation product of an Alcohol group and a Carboxylic acid Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (see Table is the Organic compound with the formula CCl4 Its LD50 in male mice was 11. In Toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for “Lethal Dose 50%” or LCt50 (Lethal Concentration & Time of a 46gm/kg, ip. This bitter principle was isolated in pure form by Gorter (1911). Andrographolide is also attributed with such other activities like liver protection under various experimental conditions of treatment with galactosamine, paracetamol etc. The hepatoprotective action of andrographolide is related to activity of certain metabolic enzymes. Hepatoprotection or antihepatotoxicity is the ability to prevent damage to the Liver.
Andrographis paniculata plant extract is known to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. Andrographolide, the major constituent of the extract is implicated towards its pharmacological activity. Andrographolide is a Labdane Diterpenoid that is the main bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata. A study has been conducted on the cellular processes and targets modulated by andrographolide treatment in human cancer and immune cells. Andrographolide treatment inhibited the in vitro proliferation of different tumor cell lines, representing various types of cancers. In vitro ( Latin: within the glass refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a controlled environment outside of a living Organism The compound exerts direct anticancer activity on cancer cells by cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through induction of cell cycle inhibitory protein p27 and decreased expression of cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Cyclins are a family of Proteins involved in the progression of cells through the Cell cycle. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is part of the Cyclin-dependent kinase family Immunostimulatory activity of andrographolide is evidenced by increased proliferation of lymphocytes and production of interleukin 2. A lymphocyte is a type of White blood cell in the Vertebrate Immune system. Interleukin-2 ( IL-2) is an Interleukin, a type of Cytokine Immune system signaling molecule that is instrumental in the body's natural response Andrographolide also enhanced the tumor necrosis factor α production and CD marker expression, resulting in increased cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes against cancer cells, which may contribute for its indirect anticancer activity. The in vivo anticancer activity of the compound is further substantiated against B16F0 melanoma syngenic and HT 29 xenograft models. In vivo ( Latin: within the living means that which takes place inside an organism. Melanoma is a Malignant Tumor of Melanocytes which are found predominantly in skin but also in the Bowel and the Eye (see Xenotransplantation ( xeno- from the Greek meaning "foreign" is the transplantation of living cells tissues or organs These results suggest that andrographolide is an interesting pharmacophore with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and hence has the potential for being developed as a cancer therapeutic agent. A pharmacophore was first defined by Paul Ehrlich in 1909 as "a molecular framework that carries ( phoros) the essential features responsible for a An immunomodulator is a drug used for its effect on the Immune system.
The herb is the well-known drug Kalmegh 'green chiretta', and forms the principal ingredient of a reputed household medicine ('alui'), used as a bitter tonic and febrifuge. Antipyretics are Drugs that reduce body temperature in situations such as Fever.
Andrographolide is the major constituent extracted from the leaves of the plant which is a bicyclic diterpenoid lactone. Andrographolide is a Labdane Diterpenoid that is the main bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata. lactone is a cyclic Ester in Organic chemistry. It is the condensation product of an Alcohol group and a Carboxylic acid This bitter principle was isolated in pure form by Gorter (1911). Andrographolide is also attributed with such other activities like liver protection under various experimental conditions of treatment with galactosamine (Saraswat et al, 1995), paracetamol (Visen et al, 1993) etc. Galactosamine is a Hexosamine derived from Galactose with the molecular formula C6H13NO5 Paracetamol ( INN) (ˌpærəˈsiːtəmɒl -ˈsɛtə- or acetaminophen ( USAN) is a widely-used Analgesic and Antipyretic Medication The hepatoprotective action of andrographolide is related to activity of certain metabolic enzymes (Choudhury and Poddar, 1984, 1985; Choudhury et al, 1987). Metabolism is the set of Chemical reactions that occur in living Organisms in order to maintain Life. Enzymes are Biomolecules that catalyze ( ie increase the rates of Chemical reactions Almost all enzymes are Proteins Systematic studies on chemistry of A. paniculata had been carried out by various researchers during various times.
Some known constituents are: