|Birth name||Andrea Pozzo|
|Born||November 30, 1642|
|Died||August 31, 1709|
|Field||architecture, painting, decorator|
|Training||Palma il Giovane, Andrea Sacchi|
Andrea Pozzo (Latinized version: Andreas Puteus; November 30, 1642,Trento, Italy - August 31, 1709, Vienna, Austria) was an Italian Jesuit Brother, Baroque painter and architect, decorator, stage designer, and art theoretician. Events 1700 - Battle of Narva — A Swedish army of 8500 men under Charles XII defeats Trento (traditional English Trent; Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Events 1056 - Byzantine Empress Theodora becomes ill dying suddenly a few days later without children to succeed the Throne Year 1709 ( MDCCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e An architect is a licensed individual who leads a design team in the Planning and Design of buildings and participates in oversight of Building Construction He was best known for his grandiose frescoes using illusionistic technique called quadratura, in which architecture and fancy are intermixed. Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or Illusionistic ceiling painting, which includes the techniques of perspective di sotto in sù and quadratura, is the tradition in Renaissance, His masterpiece is the nave ceiling of the Church of Sant'Ignazio in Rome. Sant'Ignazio di Loyola a Campo Marzio a Baroque church in Rome, was built between 1626 and 1650 and dedicated to Ignatius of Loyola, the Through his techniques, he has become one of the most remarkable figures of the Baroque period.
Born in Trento (then under Austrian rule), he did his Humanities at the local Jesuit High School. Trento (traditional English Trent; Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many The humanities are academic disciplines which study the Human condition, using methods that are primarily Analytic, Critical, or Speculative Showing artistic inclinations he was sent by his father to work with an artist; Pozzo was then 17 years old (in 1659). From aspects of his early style this initial artistic training came probably from Palma il Giovane. Palma il Giovane (1544-1626 was a Mannerist painter. Giovane was obsessed with painting reported his biographer "When his wife was being buried he began to paint and After three years he passed under the guidance of another unidentified painter from the workshop of Andrea Sacchi who appears to have taught him the techniques of Roman High Baroque. Andrea Sacchi ( November 30 1599 - June 21 1661) was an Italian painter of High Baroque Classicism active in He would later travel to Como and Milan. Como is a City in Lombardy, Italy, north of Milan. Situated at the southern tip of the south-west arm of Lake Como, it Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy.
On 25 December 1665, he entered the Jesuit Order as a lay brother. Events 274 - Roman Emperor Aurelian The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order In 1668, he was assigned to the Casa Professa of San Fidele in Milan, where his festival decorations in honour of Francis Borgia recently canonised (1671) met general approval. Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. Saint Francis Borgia (San Francisco de Borja ( October 28 1510, Gandia, Valencia, Kingdom of Spain - September 30 Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints He continued artistic training in Genoa and Venice. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the His early paintings attest the influence of the Lombard School : rich colour, graphic chiaroscuro. Chiaroscuro ( Italian for light-dark) is a term in Art for a contrast between light and dark When he painted in Genoa the Life of Jesus for the Congregazione de' Mercanti, he was undoubtedly inspired by Peter Paul Rubens. Genoa ( Genova, ˈdʒɛːnova in Italian; Zena in Genoese and Ligurian; Genua in Latin and archaically in English
His artistic activity was related to the new (relative to Catholic Church's medieval monastic orders) Order's enormous artistic needs; since many of the Jesuit churches were built in recent decades and were devoid of painted decoration. He was frequently employed by the Jesuits to decorate churches and buildings such as their churches of Modena, Bologna and Arezzo. Modena (ˈmɔːdena Mòdna in Modenese dialect is a city and a Comune ( Municipality) on the south side of the Po valley, in the Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy Arezzo ( Latin Arretium) is a city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in In 1676, he decorated the interior of San Francis Xavier church in Mondovi. Saint Francis Xavier ( Konkani / Konknni: Sam Fransisku Xavier/ Sanv Fransisk Xavier Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa Spanish: San Francisco In this church one can already see his later illusionistic techniques : fake gilding, bronze-coloured statues, marbled columns and a trompe-l'oeil dome on a flat ceiling, peopled with foreshortened figures in architectural settings. Trompe-l'œil, which can also be spelled without the hyphen in English ( French: "trick the eye" tʁɔ̃p lœj is an Art technique involving extremely This was his first large fresco. Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or
In Turin (1678), he painted the ceiling of the Jesuit church of SS. Martiri. The frescoes gradually deteriorated through water infiltration. They were replaced in 1844 by new paintings by Luigi Vacca. Only fragments of the original frescoes survive.
In 1681, Pozzo was called to Rome by Giovanni Paolo Oliva, Superior General of the Jesuits. Giovanni Paolo Oliva ( October 4 1600, Genoa (Italy - 26 November 1681, Rome was an Italian Jesuit priest elected 11th Superior General The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Among others, Pozzo worked for Livio Odescalchi, the powerful nephew of the pope, Innocent XI. Pope Innocent XI ( May 16 1611 &ndash August 12 1689) born Benedetto Odescalchi, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Pope Innocent XI ( May 16 1611 &ndash August 12 1689) born Benedetto Odescalchi, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Initially he was used as a stage designer for biblical pageants, but his illusionistic paintings in perspective for these stages gave him soon a reputation as a virtuoso in wall and ceiling decorations.
His first Roman frescoes were in the corridor linking the Church of the Gesù to the rooms where St.Ignatius had lived. Fresco (plural either frescos or frescoes) is any of several related Painting types done on Plaster on walls or For the school see Gesu School. The Church of the Gesù (dʒeˈzu in Italian, Chiesa del Sacro Nome di Gesù, or Saint Ignatius redirects here for other Saints see Ignatius. Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Íñigo Oñaz López de Loyola His trompe-l'oeil architecture and paintings depicting the Saint's life for the Camere di San Ignazio (1681-1686), blended well with already existing paintings by Giacomo Borgognone. Jacques Courtois (also called ' il Borgognone' or Giacomo Borgognone) ( 1621 - May 20, 1676 ? was a French painter
His masterpiece, the illusory perspectives in frescoes  of the dome, the apse and the ceiling of Rome's Jesuit church of Sant'Ignazio (illustrations right and below) were painted between 1685 - 1694 and are a remarkable and emblematic creation of High Roman Baroque. Sant'Ignazio di Loyola a Campo Marzio a Baroque church in Rome, was built between 1626 and 1650 and dedicated to Ignatius of Loyola, the For several generations, they set the standard for the decoration of Late Baroque ceiling frescos throughhout Catholic Europe. Compare this work to Gaulli's masterpiece in the other major Jesuit church in Rome, Il Gesù. Giovanni Battista Gaulli ( May 8 1639 - April 2 1709) also known as Baciccio, Il Baciccio or Baciccia (all Genoese
The project had not started upon the church's completion; Sant'Ignazio remained unfinished even after its consecration in 1642. Disputes with the original donors, the Ludovisi, had stopped construction of the planned dome. Pozzo expediently proposed to make an illusionistic dome, when viewed from inside, by painting on canvas. It was impressive to viewers, but controversial; some feared the canvas would soon darken.
On the flat ceiling he painted an allegory of the Apotheosis of S. Ignatius, in breathtaking perspective. The painting, 17 m in diameter, is devised to make an observer, looking from a spot marked by a brass disc set into the floor of the nave, seem to see a lofty vaulted roof decorated by statues, while in fact the ceiling is flat. The painting celebrates the missionary spirit of two centuries of adventurous apostolic spirit of Jesuit explorers and missionaries. To modern sensitivities, this would appear to substantiate the imperialistic partnering of European Catholicism with colonial enterprises in other continents. It was also a combative Catholicism. For example, in the pendentives rather than placing the usual evangelists or scholarly pillars of doctrine, he depicted the victorious warriors of the old testament: Judith and Holofernes; David and Goliath; Jael and Sisera; and Samson and the Philistines. It is said that when completed, some said (sic)"Sant'Ignazio was a good place to buy meat, since four new butchers are now there. "
In the nave fresco, Light comes from God the Father to the Son who transmits it to St. Ignatius, whence it breaks into four rays leading to the four continents. Pozzo explained that he illustrated the words of Christ in Luke: I am come to send fire on the earth, and the words of Ignatius: Go and set everything aflame. A further ray illuminates the name of Jesus (2). With its perspective, space-enlarging illusory architecture and with the apparition of the heavenly assembly whirling above, the ensemble offered an example which was copied in several Italian, Austrian and German churches of the Jesuit order.
The architecture of the trompe-l'oeil dome (illustration, left) seems to erase and raise the ceiling with such a realistic impression that it is difficult to distinguish what is real or not. Andrea Pozzo painted this ceiling and trompe-l'oeil dome on a canvas, 17 m wide. The paintings in the apse depict scenes from the life of St. Ignatius, St Francis Xavier and St Francis Borgia.
In 1695 he was given the prestigious commission, after winning a competition against Sebastiano Cipriani and Giovanni Battista Origone, for an altar in the St. Ignatius chapel in the left transept of the Church of the Gesù. For the school see Gesu School. The Church of the Gesù (dʒeˈzu in Italian, Chiesa del Sacro Nome di Gesù, or This grandiose altar above the tomb of the saint, built with rare marbles and precious metals, shows the Trinity, while four lapis lazuli columns (these are now copies) enclose the colossal statue of the saint by Pierre Legros. SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных Pierre Le Gros ( Paris, 12 April 1666 - Rome, 3 May 1719) was a French sculptor active almost exclusively in Baroque It was the coordinated work of more than 100 sculptors and craftsmen, among them Pierre Legros, Bernardino Ludovisi, Il Lorenzone and Jean-Baptiste Théodon. Bernardino Ludovisi (c 1693 – 11 December 1749 also called Bernardo was an Italian sculptor. Andrea Pozzo also designed the altar in the Chapel of St Francesco Borgia in the same church.
In 1697 he was asked to build similar Baroque altars with scenes from the life of St Ignatius in the apse of the Sant'Ignazio church in Rome. Sant'Ignazio di Loyola a Campo Marzio a Baroque church in Rome, was built between 1626 and 1650 and dedicated to Ignatius of Loyola, the These altars house the relics of St. Aloysius Gonzaga and of St. Saint Aloysius Gonzaga ( Italian: Luigi Gonzaga, Portuguese and Spanish: Luís de Gonzaga, March 9, 1568 &ndash John Berchmans. Saint John Berchmans ( March 13, 1599, Diest, Belgium - August 13, 1621, Rome, Italy) was a Jesuit
Meanwhile he continued painting frescoes and illusory domes in Turin, Mondovi, Modena, Montepulciano and Arezzo. Modena (ˈmɔːdena Mòdna in Modenese dialect is a city and a Comune ( Municipality) on the south side of the Po valley, in the Montepulciano, a town and commune in the Province of Siena in southern Tuscany, ( Italy) is a medieval and renaissance hill town of exceptional beauty Arezzo ( Latin Arretium) is a city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in In 1681 he was asked by Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany to paint his self-portrait for the ducal collection (now in the Uffizi in Florence). Cosimo III de' Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany (14 August 1642 &ndash 31 October 1723 was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1670 to 1723 and husband of Marguerite Louise d'Orléans The Uffizi Gallery (Galleria degli Uffizi one of the oldest and most famous Art Museums in the world is housed in the Palazzo degli Uffizi, a This oil on canvas has become a most original self-portrait. It shows the painter in a diagonal pose, showing with his right index finger his illusionist easel painting (a trompe-l'oeil dome, perhaps of the Badia church in Arezzo) while his left hand rests on three books (probably alluding to his not-yet published treatises on perspective). Arezzo ( Latin Arretium) is a city in central Italy, capital of the province of the same name, located in The painting was sent to the duke in 1688. He also painted scenes from the life of St Stanislaus Kostka in the saint's rooms of the Jesuit noviciate of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale in Rome. Stanisław Kostka, SJ ( 28 October 1550 – 15 August 1568) was a Polish Novice of the Society of Jesus Sant'Andrea al Quirinale is the church of the Jesuit seminary on the Quirinal Hill in Rome.
In 1694 Andrea Pozzo had explained his illusory techniques in a letter to Anton Florian, Prince of Liechtenstein and ambassador of Emperor Leopold I to the Papal Court in Rome. The Liechtenstein dynasty from which the Principality takes its name (rather than vice-versa is the princely family of Liechtenstein. Early life He was a younger brother of Ferdinand IV of Hungary and Mariana of Austria. Recommended by Prince Liechtenstein to the emperor, Andrea Pozzo, on the invitation of Leopold I, moved in 1702 (1703?) to Vienna. Year 1702 ( MDCCII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Vienna ( in Wien; see also other names) is the Capital of Austria, and is also one of the nine States of Austria. There he worked for the sovereign, the court, Prince Johann Adam von Liechtenstein, and various religious orders and churches, such as the frescoes and the trompe-l'oeil dome in the Jesuit Church. The Jesuitenkirche (Jesuit Church also known as the Universitätskirche (University Church is a two-floor double-tower church influenced by early Baroque Some of his tasks were of a decorative, occasional character (church and theatre scenery), and these were soon destroyed.
His most significant surviving work in Vienna is the monumental ceiling fresco of the Hercules Hall of the Liechtenstein garden palace (1707), an Admittance of Hercules to Olympus, which, according to the sources, was very admired by contemporaries. Through illusionistic effects, the architectural painting starts unfolding at the border of the ceiling, while the ceiling seems to open up into a heavenly realm filled with olympian gods. The Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon ( Greek: Δωδεκάθεον
Some of his Viennese altarpieces have also survived (Vienna's Jesuit church). The Jesuitenkirche (Jesuit Church also known as the Universitätskirche (University Church is a two-floor double-tower church influenced by early Baroque His compositions of altarpieces and illusory ceiling frescoes had a strong influence on the Baroque art in Vienna. He also had many followers in Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, and even in Poland. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Bohemia (Čechy; Bohemia Czechy is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland His canvases show him to be a far less compelling a painter at close inspection.
Pozzo published his artistic ideas in a noted theoretical work, entitled Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum (2 volumes, 1693, 1698) illustrated with 118 engravings, dedicated to emperor Leopold I. Early life He was a younger brother of Ferdinand IV of Hungary and Mariana of Austria. In it he offered instruction in painting architectural perspectives and stage-sets. The work was one of the earliest manuals on perspective for artists and architects and went into many editions, even into the nineteenth century, and has been translated from the original Latin and Italian into numerous languages such as French, German, English and, Chinese thanks to Pozzo's Jesuit connection.
There are a few architectural designs in his book Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum, indicating that he didn't make any designs before 1690. The Jesuitenkirche (Jesuit Church also known as the Universitätskirche (University Church is a two-floor double-tower church influenced by early Baroque These designs were not realized, but the design for the S. Apollinare church in Rome was used for the Jesuit church of S Francesco Saverio (1700-1702) in Trento. Trento (traditional English Trent; Italian: Trento; German: Trient; Latin: Tridentum; Note that many The interior of this church was equally designed by Pozzo.
At about the same time, between 1701 and 1702, he designed the Jesuit churches of San Bernardo and Chiesa del Gesù in Montepulciano. Montepulciano, a town and commune in the Province of Siena in southern Tuscany, ( Italy) is a medieval and renaissance hill town of exceptional beauty But his plans for the last church were only partly realized. He is also noted for the construction of the cathedral of St. Nicholas in Ljubljana (1708), inspired by the designs of the Jesuit churches Il Gesù and S. Ljubljana ( is the largest and Capital city of Slovenia. It is located in the center of the country and is a mid-sized city of some 270000 inhabitants Ignazio in Rome.
He died in Vienna in 1709 at a moment when he intended to return to Italy to design a new Jesuit church in Venice. Year 1709 ( MDCCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the He was buried with great honours in one of his best realisations, the Jesuit church in Vienna.
His brother, Giuseppe Pozzo, became a barefooted and Carmelite monk of Venice, and was also a painter. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the He decorated the high altar of the church of the Scalzi in that city during the last years of the 17th century.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Pozzo, Andrea|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||architecture, painting, decorator|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 30, 1642|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Trento, Italy|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 31, 1709|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Vienna, Austria|